Birth - Macrosomia
|Embryology - 19 Mar 2018 Expand to Translate|
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Macrosomia (large gestational age, LGA) is a term used to describe a newborn with an excessive birth weight due to a range of known and unknown causes. There are many different definitions that have been used for to this term, generally a birth weight of 4000 to 4500 g (8 lb 13 oz to 9 lb 15 oz) or greater than 90% for gestational age after correcting for neonatal sex and ethnicity.
A recent study of USA data suggests adverse perinatal outcomes of birthweight exceeded the 97th percentile. Their definition was a "birthweight greater than 4500 g in Whites, or 4300 g in Blacks and Hispanics regardless of gestational age is the optimal threshold to define macrosomia. A birthweight greater than the 97th percentile for a given gestational age, irrespective of race is also reasonable to define macrosomia."
- Duration of gestation - growth past the due date.
- Maternal diabetes - presence of gestational diabetes; and class A, B, and C diabetes mellitus.
- Genetic Syndromes and Tumours - a range of overgrowth syndromes associated with developmental delay, tumors, and other anomalies with genetic causes and syndromes (Pallister-Killian, Beckwith-Wiedemann, Sotos, Perlman, and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel) rarely diagnosed prenatally.
Currently there is clinical research looking into the best mathematical formula, based upon ultrasound measurements, to estimate the possibility of macrosomia occurring.
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Jin Yang, Yang Liu, Hongjie Liu, Heming Zheng, Xiaofeng Li, Lin Zhu, Zhe Wang Associations of maternal iodine status and thyroid function with adverse pregnancy outcomes in Henan Province of China. J Trace Elem Med Biol: 2018, 47;104-110 PubMed 29544795
Zhiguo Wang, Hai-Bo Fan, Wan-Wei Yang, Xiao-Dong Mao, Shu-Hang Xu, Xiao-Ping Ma, Gui-Ping Wan, Xiao-Ming Yao, Keyang Chen The Correlation between Plasma Ferritin Level and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and its Impact on Fetal Macrosomia. J Diabetes Investig: 2018; PubMed 29542249
K A Sudharshana Murthy, Ambarisha Bhandiwada, Shivani L Chandan, Surakshith L Gowda, G Sindhusree Evaluation of Oxidative Stress and Proinflammatory Cytokines in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Their Correlation with Pregnancy Outcome. Indian J Endocrinol Metab: 2018, 22(1);79-84 PubMed 29535942
Ruben Barakat, Evelia Franco, María Perales, Carmina López, Michelle F Mottola Exercise during pregnancy is associated with a shorter duration of labor. A randomized clinical trial. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.: 2018, 224;33-40 PubMed 29529475
Joshua I Rosenbloom, Methodius G Tuuli, Molly J Stout, Omar M Young, Candice L Woolfolk, Julia D López, George A Macones, Alison G Cahill A Prediction Model for Severe Maternal Morbidity in Laboring Patients at Term. Am J Perinatol: 2018; PubMed 29528468
Birth Weight Classification
|Birth weight (grams)||less 500||500 – 999||1,000 – 1,499||1,500 – 1,999||2,000 – 2,499||2,500 – 2,999||3,000 – 3,499||3,500 – 3,999||4,000 – 4,499||4,500 – 4,999||5,000 or more|
Birth statistics of high birth weight infants (macrosomia) in Korea.
We used 2 data sources, namely, the hospital units (1960's to 1990's) and Statistics Korea (1993 to 2010). The analyses include the incidence of high birth weight infants (HBWIs), birth weight distribution, sex ratio, and the relationship of HBWI to maternal age. The incidence of HBWIs for the past 50 years has been dropping in Korea. The older the mother, the higher was the risk of a HBWI and LBWI. We hope that these findings would be utilized as basic data that will aid those managing HBWIs.
- Jiangfeng Ye, Lin Zhang, Yan Chen, Fang Fang, ZhongCheng Luo, Jun Zhang Searching for the definition of macrosomia through an outcome-based approach. PLoS ONE: 2014, 9(6);e100192 PubMed 24941024 | PLoS One.
- Surabhi Nanda, Ranjit Akolekar, Rita Sarquis, Ana Paula Mosconi, Kypros H Nicolaides Maternal serum adiponectin at 11 to 13 weeks of gestation in the prediction of macrosomia. Prenat. Diagn.: 2011, 31(5);479-83 PubMed 21394735
- J R Bennini, E F Marussi, R Barini, C Faro, C F A Peralta Birth-weight prediction by two- and three-dimensional ultrasound imaging. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol: 2010, 35(4);426-33 PubMed 20069666
- Neeta Vora, Diana W Bianchi Genetic considerations in the prenatal diagnosis of overgrowth syndromes. Prenat. Diagn.: 2009, 29(10);923-9 PubMed 19609940
- Byung-Ho Kang, Joo-Young Moon, Sung-Hoon Chung, Yong-Sung Choi, Kyung-Suk Lee, Ji-Young Chang, Chong-Woo Bae Birth statistics of high birth weight infants (macrosomia) in Korea. Korean J Pediatr: 2012, 55(8);280-5 PubMed 22977440
Jennifer M Walsh, Fionnuala M McAuliffe Prediction and prevention of the macrosomic fetus. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.: 2012, 162(2);125-30 PubMed 22459652
Paul A O M De Reu, L J M Smits, H P Oosterbaan, J G Nijhuis Value of a single early third trimester fetal biometry for the prediction of birth weight deviations in a low risk population. J Perinat Med: 2008, 36(4);324-9 PubMed 18598122
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- American Academy of Family Physicians Management of Suspected Fetal Macrosomia (2001)
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, March 19) Embryology Birth - Macrosomia. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Birth_-_Macrosomia
- © Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G