ANAT2341 Student 2015 Quiz Questions

From Embryology

Introduction

Student designed quiz questions. These have been added here in an unedited form and may not be accurate or correct.

This gives you the opportunity to see what a well-designed question and answer looks like compared to those that do not test knowledge or, when the answer is revealed, explain the concept and point them to useful resources.


Gamatogenesis

1

Which is the most correct statement about male Gamatogenesis :

the entire proces is driven by the secretions of the sertoli cells
it does not occur before puberty
meiosis is initiated by meitoically dividing stem cells
it takes a males spermatozoa 38 hours from commencing meiosis until it reaches a mature spermtozoa.
sperm does does not reach full maturity until fertilization.

2

The most correct sequence of spermatogenesis ( male gamatogenesis ) is:

spermatozoa, spermatodytes, spermatid, spermatagonia
sertoli cells, spermatocytes, spermatagonia, spermatozoa
spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids, spermatozoa
spermatocytes, spermatids, spermatogonia, spermatozoa

3

Which of the following statements about gamatogenesis are True:

  • A) Oogenesis enter arrest at the 1st meiotic stage and spermatogenesis does not enter arrest
  • B) Meiosis is initiated twice in a finite population of cells
  • C) Spermatogenesis produces 4 gametes/meiosis whereas oogenesis produces 1 gamete/meiosis
  • D) In Oogenesis gamate differentiation occurs at the diploid phase and spermatogenesis it occurs in the haploid phase.

- neither gamate has reached its full maturity when it leaves the gonad - spermatogenesis can not occur untill puberty and oogenesis is reactivated at puberty due to hormual stimulation from the endocrine system

none of the above
A and C
A,B,D
A,C,D
all of the above


Fertilisation Quiz

1

Which of the following statements is incorrect in regards to the acrosome:

The acrosome reaction allows for the exposure of the inner-acrosomal membrane
Only acrosome reacted spermatozoa fuse with the oocyte
The acrosome within the spermatozoa is derived from the golgi apparatus
Zona Pellucida Binding Protein 1 is synthesised by the oocyte
The enzymatic contents of the acrosome degrade the zona pellucida

2

Which of the following statements about the zona pellucida is incorrect:

It is an insoluble extracellular matrix
It expresses several glycoproteins
It surrounds the blastocyst
It surrounds the developing oocyte
It prevents sperm binding

3

Fertilisation does not:

result in the formation of the first polar body after the second meiotic division
often occurs in the first 1/3 of the oviduct
involve spermatozoa and oocyte fusion
require the exocytosis of cortical granules in the cortical reaction
require the exocytosis of acrosomal enzymes during the acrosome reaction


Fertilization Quiz

1

Which of the following statements about female and male gametogenesis is incorrect:

While male meiosis is completed in days or weeks, female meiosis is delayed for months or years.
Male meiosis produces four gametes, whereas female meiosis produces only two.
In oogenesis meiosis is initiated once in a finite cell population, while in spermatogenesis meiosis is continuously initiated in a stem cell population.
Male gamete differentiation occurs after meiosis ends, whereas in oogenesis this occurs earlier during the first meiotic prophase.

2

Where does fertilization usually occur:

Ovaries
Upper uterine cavity
First 1/3 of uterine tube
Last 1/3 of uterine tube
Lower uterine cavity

3

The acrosome reaction...:

Helps spermatozoa to penetrate the zona pellucida
Initiates ovulation
Allows spermatozoa movement by stimulating the mitochondria
Is responsible for ZP2 expression in the zona pellucida
all of the above


Week 1 and 2 Development

1

Which of the following is not an abnormality that occurs during week 1 and 2 development?

Tubal pregnancy
Hydatidiform mole
Dizygotic Twinning
Endometriosis
Tornwaldt’s cysts

2

Which of the following is incorrect regarding a zygote?

Cleavage of a zygote forms 2 blastomeres
The zona pellucida remains intact during division
Cell division is initially synchronous
Sperm contribute the centriole for mitotic division
During zygote cleavage, the cell cycle consists of G1, S, G2, M phases.

3

Implantation:

Leads to the formation of a coagulation plug around day 12
Always occurs in the uterine wall
Usually occurs during days 3-4
Always begins with adplantation where the morula adheres to the uterine epithelium
Leads to the blastocyst becoming immotile as soon as it adheres to the epithelium


Week 1

1

Which ONE of the following is true with regard to the male reproductive system?

The midpiece of spermatozoa is responsible for motility
The male sex hormone, testosterone is produced by spermatozoa
Only one spermatozoa has to reach the oocyte for fertilisation to occur
Spermatozoa primarily use their chemotaxic response to oestrogen to locate the oocyte

2

Which statement is INCORRECT with regard to the female menstrual cycle:

Gonadotropin releasing hormone is only responsible for signalling the release of luteinising hormone (LH)
The peak of oestrogen occurs during ovulation
The female body experiences a rise in temperature during the luteal phase and is an indication of menstruation
Rising levels of progesterone occur in the luteal phase

3

Select the CORRECT statement:

Fertilisation usually occurs two thirds down the fallopian tube
Upon entering the vagina, spermatozoa have up to four days to fertilise the oocyte
Spermatozoa contributes to only 10% of seminal fluid upon ejaculation.
Capacitation is the inactivation of spermatozoa motility


Week 1 and Week 2 Development

1

The characterization of the first week of human development is the formation of the:

embryoblast
blastocoel
blastocyst
trophoblast
all of the above

2

Implantation of human embryos typically occurs:

about 1 day after fertilization
about 6-7 days after fertilization
about 9 days after fertilization
about 12 days after fertilization
NONE of the above

3

The normal implantation site is:

ovary
external surface of uterus
uterine wall
uterine tube
all of the above


Implantation, Amniocentesis and Placenta

1

In which layer of the uterus does implantation occur?

Myometrium
Perimetrium
Compact Endometrium
Spongy Endometrium

2

An amniocentesis is generally done in the 18th – 22nd week of pregnancy?

False
True

3

What factors would indicate a villi cell was tertiary and in its third stage of development?

Week 3 of pregnancy
The mesenchyme has differentiated into blood vessels and cells forming a network
Villi cover the whole chorionic surface
Villi is made up from simple cytotrophoblast cells inside a cord of syncitiotrophoblast cells


Placenta Development

1

Which of these is NOT a part of Tertiary Chorionic Villi formation?

Mesenchyme differentiating into blood vessels and cells.
Fusing with placental vessels.
Extra-embryonic mesoderm grows into the villi.
All of the above

2

Which of these structures make up part of the maternal surface of the placenta?

Amniotic membrane.
Cotyledons
Chorionic plate.
Syncytiotrophoblasts


Placental Development

1

Which one of the following is most correct? Primary villi are:

developed in week 2 and are the first development stage of chorionic villi, composed of trophoblastic shell cells.
the first stage of chorionic villi development and cover the entire surface of the chorionic sac.
composed of only syncitiotrophoblasts.
developed in week 3 and form finger like extensions that are primarily located at the chorion frondosum.
composed of only cytotrophoblasts.

2

Which of the following is the type of placenta found in humans?

Diffuse
Zonary
Discoid
Cotyledenary
None of the above

3

Which one of the following is the most common placental abnormality?

Chronic Intervillostis; the inflammation of placental lesions.
Vasa Previa; fetal vessels lie within the membranes close to or crossing the inner cervical os.
Placenta Previa; villi penetrate the myometrium and cross through to the uterine serosa.
Placenta Increta; placenta attaches deep into the uterine wall, penetrating into the uterine muscle
Hydatidiform mole; a placental tumour develops with no embryo development


Mesoderm Development

1

Select the INCORRECT statement regarding the mesoderm.

It is formed by epiblast cells migrating through the primitive streak
It divides into 3 different components
It forms a layer between the ectoderm and endoderm
It spreads over the entire disc

2

Which of the following statements about somites is CORRECT?

They are formed by the intermediate mesoderm
Early somites do not contain a somitocoel
They form in sequence in a rostro-caudal direction
The dorsolateral portion of the somite becomes the sclerotome
Each somite differentiates differently

3

The intermediate mesoderm is responsible for:

Somite formation
Creating the 3 major body cavities
Blood vessel formation
Generating the urogenital system
Epidermis of the skin


Mesoderm Development & Placenta Development

1

Somites:

A. differentiate into myotomes which give rise to skeletal muscle in trunk and limbs
B. differentiate into sclerotomes which give rise to vertebrae
C. arise from segmentation of the paraxial mesoderm
D. differentiate into myotomes which give rise to skeletal muscle of the limbs
E. all of the above are correct

2

The most distinctive characteristic of a primary chorionic villus is its:

A. outer syncytiotrophoblastic layer
B. cytotrophoblastic shell
C. extraembryonic somatic mesodermal core
D. bushy appearance
E. cytotrophoblastic core

3

The portion of the decidua which does not survive until the end of pregnancy is the:

A. capsularis
B. basalis
C. laeve
D. parietalis
E. frondosum


Early Vascular Development

1

Which of the following statement is correct about angiogenesis:

Begins week in extra embryonic mesoderm and then embryonic splanchnic mesoderm
Begins as the formation of blood islands
Blood islands extend and fuse together to form a primordial vascular network
VEGF and PGF stimulates growth and development
All of the above

2

Which of the following statement is NOT correct about blood vessel remodelling:

The branches from main arteries may arise as new outgrowths from the enlarged stem
VEGF is required later for endothelial cell maintenance in tissues
Extensive remodelling during embryo development leads to an asymmetrical adult system in the body
Early vascular development is asymmetrical

3

What cells are not contained in blood islands?

Blastocyst
Harmoangioblasts
Angioblasts
Haemocytoblasts


Implantation and Mesoderm

1

From Implantation onward, Which of the following are not right:

Cytotrophoblast cells fuse and form a multinucleated cytoplasmic mass called syncitiotrophoblasts.
Cytotrophoblast cells lay around the blastocyst, proliferates and extends behind syncitiotrophoblasts.
Syncitiotrophoblasts invade the decidua.
Cytotrophoblast secrets hCG and support Corpus Luteum.

2

Implantation of human embryos typically occurs:

1 day after fertilization.
about one week after fertilization.
about two weeks after fertilization.
During fertilization.

3

Which of the following are not derived from mesoderm:

Neural crest
Sclerotome
Dermatome
Myotome



Villi, Mesoderm and Spermatogenesis

1

Primary villi are produced during which stage of development?:

Week 2
Week 1
Week 3
None of the above

2

Mesoderm is a precursor for all of the following EXCEPT:

Skeletal Muscle Cells
Cardiac Muscle Cells
Erythrocytes
Epidermal Skin Cells
Smooth Muscle

3

Which of the following shows the correct developmental pathway of the male gamete:

Spermatid > Primary Spermatocyte > Secondary Spermatocyte > Spermatogonia > Spermatozoa
Primary Spermatocyte > Secondary Spermatocyte > Leydig Cell > Spermatozoa > Spermatid
Sertoli Cell > Spermatid > Primary Spermatocyte > Secondary Spermatocyte > Spermatozoa
Spermatid > Spermatozoa > Primary Spermatocyte > Secondary Spermatocyte > Leydig Cell
Spermatogonia > Primary Spermatocyte > Secondary Spermatocyte > Spermatid > Spermatozoa


Mesoderm Development

1

Which of the following components is responsible for somatogenesis:

Intermediate Mesoderm
Extraembryonic Mesoderm
Paraxial Mesoderm
Lateral Plate Mesoderm

2

Which of the following statements regarding somites is incorrect:

Somites occur in a rostrocaudal direction on either side of the notochord
Compartmentalisation of the somites is mediated by the pattern of expression of the Pax gene
The first pair of somites can be seen in day 20
Somite initially forms the sclerotome and myotome
The paraxial mesoderm only segments into somites at the level of the body

3

Which of the following statements regarding lateral plate mesoderm is most correct:

The somatic mesoderm is closest to the endoderm
The intraembryonic coelom divides the lateral plate into 2 parts in day 18-19 of development
The splanchnic mesoderm gives rise to the connective tissue of body wall
The lateral plate mesoderm contributes to somatogenesis
The somatic mesoderm differentiates into the smooth muscles of the GIT



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