2017 Group Project 1

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2017 Student Projects 
Student Projects: 1 Cerebral Cortex | 2 Kidney | 3 Heart | 4 Eye | 5 Lung | 6 Cerebellum
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Cerebral Cortex

Stage 22 image 217.jpg

Mark Hill (talk) 15:59, 14 September 2017 (AEST) Feedback

  • lots of sub-headings, but no actual text.
  • no defined structure to the sequence of sub-headings.
  • no research images related to what is an extensively researched topic.
  • historic background of key research findings, put our understanding today in perspective.
  • Lon list of abnormalities, with no description.


( Susannah )

What is it?

For concept: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dNngOlsLuGI

You might find this helpful (although you need to request copyright permission):

"Difference Between Cerebrum and Cerebral Cortex." DifferenceBetween.Com. August 7, 2012. < http://www.differencebetween.com/difference-between-cerebrum-and-vs-cerebral-cortex/ >

Histology of Cerebral Cortex

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMHT0024757/ Z5177691 (talk) 22:37, 23 August 2017 (AEST)

Early Development of the Brain (and Nervous System)

( Eden )

For concept:



https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2989000/ https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Neural_System_Development

Development of Cerebral Cortex

( Anna )


  • Corticogenesis:
  • Zones:
    • Ventricular zone
    • Subventricular zone
    • Cortical Plate
    • Preplate: neural progenitor cells split into 2 regions
      • Marginal zone:
      • Subplate:


Nature article: https://www.nature.com/nrn/journal/v9/n2/full/nrn2252.html

  • E10.5-- VZ (ventricular zone) single layer of cells- have feet that attach to cerebral wall and start dividing. Slightly polarized.
  • E11.5--cells begin to differentiate (PP/preplate) into “pioneer” neurons and move upward, laying molecular trail for subsequent differentiating neurons
  • E13.5--VZ cells form secondary progenitor population in SVZ, PP (preplate pioneer) cells split into 2 zones (MZ and SP)
    • MZ and SP cells tell newly differentiated and migrating cells where they are
  • E14.5-17.5-- deep layers populated first and then superficial layers later
    • The neuron senses the layer it is in and stops- condense in CP (cortical plate)

6 Layers

Layers I, II, III, IV, V, VI (see "Cortical Layer Review" Z5177691 (talk) 22:57, 23 August 2017 (AEST)

Cell Types


  • Radial Glial cells--in developing cerebellum, hippocampus, cortex
    • Migrating neurons glump onto radial glial to migrate- move up these RG cells
    • RG Cells for migrating neurons that extend from VZ to get to the outer part of the cortex.
    • Fibers that neurons use to migrate from VZ to their final destination
    • Allows dividing cells (projector neurons)- to migrate not randomly but radially.
    • Radial Glial Cells can divide as well→ overall process requires a lot of membrane

Cell Signaling

Anatomy of the Cerebral Cortex

( Jess)

You might find this helpful (although you need to request copyright permission): "Difference Between Cerebrum and Cerebral Cortex." DifferenceBetween.Com. August 7, 2012. < http://www.differencebetween.com/difference-between-cerebrum-and-vs-cerebral-cortex/ >

-layer grey matter outer surface of cerebrum

-2-4mm thickness

-most anterior (rostral) brain region

-outer zone of neuronal tissue (grey matter) containing neuronal cell bodies

-densely packed in humans with over 10 billion nerve cells (about 10% of all the neurons in the brain)

-where much of the neural activities of the cerebrum takes place

-divided left and right hemispheres by longitudinal fissure

-two hemispheres joined by corpus callosum at midline

-divided into functional areas that serve various sensory, motor and cognitive functions

-subdivisions of layers organizing input and output connectivity of resident neurons

-is folded in larger mammals to increase surface area, important allows addition and evolution of a greater diversity functional areas

-gyrus (gyri)= folds/ ridges

-sulcus (sulci)= groove



Blood Supply

Functions of the Cerebral Cortex

( Jess)

For concept:



Functional Areas

-Motor area (primary motor cortex)

-premotor area (motor association cortex)

-sensory area (pimary somatosensory cortex)

-auditory (acoustic) area

-olfactory area

-visual areas

-occipital eye field

-prefrontal areas (prefrontal cortex)

Abnormalities associated with Cerebral Cortex Development

( Zainab )





http://www.cell.com/neuron/fulltext/S0896-6273(00)80749-7?_returnURL=http%3A%2F%2Flinkinghub.elsevier.com%2Fretrieve%2Fpii%2FS0896627300807497%3Fshowall%3Dtrue [3]

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l_nTggR7LTE [4]

A- Disorders due to abnormal proliferation, growth or differentiation of neuroblasts

1-Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD)



4-Tuberous Sclerosis

B- Disorders due to abnormal neuronal migration


Subcortical band heterotopia Periventricular heterotopia


•undermigration; Classical (Type I) Lisssencephaly

•overmigration;Cobblestone (Type II) lissencephaly

Fragile X-Syndrome


7-Kallmann Syndrome

C- Disorders due to abnormal cortical maturation and organization/folding



•destructive lesions.

D- Disorders due to abnormal Integrity of the Pial Surface

10-Muscle-Eye-Brain Disease


12-Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)

13-Rett Syndrome

14-Corpus Callosum Agenesis


Group Discussion Area (temporary heading)

We are supposed to discuss the project here:


INFO teachers gave (temporary heading)

PubMed Searches: Cerebral Cortex Development | Cerebrum Development

BMC Dev Biol Search: Cerebral Cortex Development

Recent papers

Ayman Alzu'bi, Susan J Lindsay, Lauren F Harkin, Jack McIntyre, Steven N Lisgo, Gavin J Clowry
The Transcription Factors COUP-TFI and COUP-TFII have Distinct Roles in Arealisation and GABAergic Interneuron Specification in the Early Human Fetal Telencephalon.
Cereb. Cortex: 2017, 27(10);4971-4987

Ashley L Lennox, Hanqian Mao, Debra L Silver
RNA on the brain: emerging layers of post-transcriptional regulation in cerebral cortex development.
Wiley Interdiscip Rev Dev Biol: 2017;

Bruna Soares Landeira, Jéssica Alves de Medeiros Araújo, Timm Schroeder, Ulrich Müller, Marcos R Costa
Live Imaging of Primary Cerebral Cortex Cells Using a 2D Culture System.
J Vis Exp: 2017, (126);

Eiki Kimura, Ken-Ichiro Kubo, Toshihiro Endo, Wenting Ling, Kazunori Nakajima, Masaki Kakeyama, Chiharu Tohyama
Impaired dendritic growth and positioning of cortical pyramidal neurons by activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling in the developing mouse.
PLoS ONE: 2017, 12(8);e0183497

Pengcheng Shu, Hongye Fu, Xiangyu Zhao, Chao Wu, Xiangbin Ruan, Yi Zeng, Wei Liu, Ming Wang, Lin Hou, Pan Chen, Bin Yin, Jiangang Yuan, Boqin Qiang, Xiaozhong Peng
MicroRNA-214 modulates neural progenitor cell differentiation by targeting Quaking during cerebral cortex development.
Sci Rep: 2017, 7(1);8014


[Harvard Style]
  1. Squier, W. and Jansen, A. (2010). Abnormal development of the human cerebral cortex. Journal of Anatomy, [online] 217(4), pp.312-323. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2992410/ [Accessed 23 Sep. 2017].
  2. Pang, T., Atefy, R. and Sheen, V. (2008). Malformations of Cortical Development. The Neurologist, [online] 14(3), pp.181-191. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3547618/ [Accessed 23 Sep. 2017].
  3. Christopher A, C. (2017). Genetic Malformations of the Human Cerebral Cortex. Neuron, [online] 23(1), pp.19 - 29. Available at: http://www.cell.com/neuron/fulltext/S0896-6273(00)80749-7?_returnURL=http%3A%2F%2Flinkinghub.elsevier.com%2Fretrieve%2Fpii%2FS0896627300807497%3Fshowall%3Dtrue [Accessed 23 Sep. 2017].
  4. Mahfouz, M. (2015). Imaging of cortical formation disorders - DRE 4 - Prof. Dr Mamdouh Mahfouz. [video] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l_nTggR7LTE [Accessed 23 Sep. 2017].
  5. Ezzo - Izzo, D. (2007). How the Body Works : The Corpus Callosum. [video] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7zOa3LLrHKc [Accessed 23 Sep. 2017].