Neural Crest - Peripheral Nervous System

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Introduction

Human embryo neural crest cells (stage 11)

The neural crest are bilaterally paired strips of cells arising in the ectoderm at the margins of the neural tube. These cells migrate to many different locations and differentiate into many cell types within the embryo. This means that many different systems (neural, skin, teeth, head, face, heart, adrenal glands, gastrointestinal tract) will also have a contribution fron the neural crest cells.


In the body region, neural crest cells also contribute the peripheral nervous system (both neurons and glia) consisting of sensory ganglia (dorsal root ganglia), sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia and neural plexuses within specific tissues/organs.


In the head region, neural crest cells migrate into the pharyngeal arches (as shown in movie below) forming ectomesenchyme contributing tissues which in the body region are typically derived from mesoderm (cartilage, bone, and connective tissue).General neural development is also covered in Neural Notes.


Neural Crest Links: Introduction | Lecture - Early Neural | Lecture - Neural Crest Development | Lecture Movie | Schwann | Adrenal Gland | Melanocyte | Peripheral Nervous System | Enteric Nervous System | Cornea | Cranial Nerves | Cardiac | Nicole Le Douarin | Neural Crest Movies | Abnormalities | Category:Neural Crest
Historic Embryology - Neural Crest  
1879 Olfactory Organ | 1905 Cranial and Spinal Nerves | 1908 10 mm Peripheral | 1910 Mammal Sympathetic | 1920 Human Sympathetic | 1939 10 Somite Embryo | 1942 Origin | 1957 Adrenal

Some Recent Findings

  • Neuronal differentiation in the developing human spinal ganglia[1] "The spatiotemporal developmental pattern of the neural crest cells differentiation towards the first appearance of the neuronal subtypes was investigated in developing human spinal ganglia between the 5th -10th developmental week using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence methods. First NF200 (neurofilament-200, likely-myelinated mechanoreceptors) and isolectin-B4 positive neurons (likely-unmyelinated nociceptors) appeared already in the 5/6th developmental week and their number subsequently increased during progression of development. Proportion of NF200 positive cells was higher in the ventral parts of the spinal ganglia than in the dorsal parts, particularly during the 5/6th and 9/10th developmental weeks (Mann-Whitney, p=0.040 and p=0.003). NF200 and IB4 co-localized during the whole investigated period. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, nociceptive responses), vanilloid-receptor-1 (VR1, polymodal nociceptors) and calretinin (calcium signalling) cell immunoreactivity first appeared in the 6th and 8th week, respectively, especially in the dorsal parts of the spinal ganglia. VR1 and CGRP co-localized with NF00 during the whole investigated period. Our results indicate the high potential of early differentiated neuronal cells, which slightly decreased with progression of spinal ganglia differentiation. On the contrary, the number of neuronal subtypes displayed increasing differentiation at later developmental stage."
  • The role of the transcription factor Rbpj in the development of dorsal root ganglia[2] "The dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is composed of well-characterized populations of sensory neurons and glia derived from a common pool of neural crest stem cells (NCCs), and is a good system to study the mechanisms of neurogenesis and gliogenesis. Notch signaling is known to play important roles in DRG development, but the full scope of Notch functions in mammalian DRG development remains poorly understood."
  • Cranial neural crest migration: new rules for an old road.[3] "In this review, we discuss recent cellular and molecular discoveries of the CNCC migratory pattern. We focus on events from the time when CNCCs encounter the tissue adjacent to the neural tube and their travel through different microenvironments and into the branchial arches. We describe the patterning of discrete cell migratory streams that emerge from the hindbrain, rhombomere (r) segments r1-r7, and the signals that coordinate directed migration."
More recent papers  
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This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.

  • Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.

References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

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Search term: Peripheral Nervous System Development

M C Guerrera, F Abbate, G Di Caro, G P Germanà, M Levanti, V Micale, G Montalbano, R Laurà, A Germanà, U Muglia Localization of cholecystokinin in the zebrafish retina from larval to adult stage. Ann. Anat.: 2018; PubMed 29679719

Hanane Touil, Antonia Kobert, Nathalie Lebeurrier, Aja Rieger, Philippe Saikali, Caroline Lambert, Lama Fawaz, Craig S Moore, Alexandre Prat, Jennifer Gommerman, Jack P Antel, Yasuto Itoyama, Ichiro Nakashima, Amit Bar-Or, Canadian B Cell Team in MS Human central nervous system astrocytes support survival and activation of B cells: implications for MS pathogenesis. J Neuroinflammation: 2018, 15(1);114 PubMed 29673365

Tatsuya Ishikawa, Kei Eto, Sun Kwang Kim, Hiroaki Wake, Ikuko Takeda, Hiroshi Horiuchi, Andrew J Moorhouse, Hitoshi Ishibashi, Junichi Nabekura Cortical astrocytes prime the induction of spine plasticity and mirror image pain. Pain: 2018; PubMed 29672449

Tyler A Vahedi-Hunter, Jason A Estep, Kylee A Rosette, Michael L Rutlin, Kevin M Wright, Martin M Riccomagno Cas Adaptor Proteins Coordinate Sensory Axon Fasciculation. Sci Rep: 2018, 8(1);5996 PubMed 29662228

H-G Schaible, H-D Chang, S Grässel, H Haibel, A Hess, T Kamradt, A Radbruch, G Schett, C Stein, R H Straub [Research consortium Neuroimmunology and pain in the research network musculoskeletal diseases]. [Forschungsverbund Neuroimmunologie und Schmerz (Neuroimpa) im Forschungsnetz Muskuloskelettale Erkrankungen.] Z Rheumatol: 2018; PubMed 29654392


Search term: Dorsal Root Ganglia Development

Ramazan Üstün, Elif Kaval Oğuz Degenerative effect of Ankaferd Blood Stopper® on mice peripheral sensory neurons in vitro. Folia Neuropathol: 2018, 56(1);67-74 PubMed 29663742

Mahtab Mojtahed Zadeh, Amir Ashraf-Ganjouei, Farzaneh Ghazi Sherbaf, Maryam Haghshomar, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi White Matter Tract Alterations in Drug-Naïve Parkinson's Disease Patients With Impulse Control Disorders. Front Neurol: 2018, 9;163 PubMed 29662464

Agnieszka M Jurga, Ewelina Rojewska, Wioletta Makuch, Joanna Mika Lipopolysaccharide from Rhodobacter sphaeroides (TLR4 antagonist) attenuates hypersensitivity and modulates nociceptive factors. Pharm Biol: 2018, 56(1);275-286 PubMed 29656686

Hui Chen, Jianping Xiang, Junxia Wu, Bo He, Tao Lin, Qingtang Zhu, Xiaolin Liu, Canbin Zheng Expression patterns and role of PTEN in rat peripheral nerve development and injury. Neurosci. Lett.: 2018; PubMed 29649487

Caleb W Grote, Natalie M Wilson, Natalie K Katz, Brianne L Guilford, Janelle M Ryals, Lesya Novikova, Lisa Stehno-Bittel, Douglas E Wright Deletion of the insulin receptor in sensory neurons increases pancreatic insulin levels. Exp. Neurol.: 2018; PubMed 29649429


Search term: Sympathetic Development

Xinping Yue, Tyler M Basting, Thomas W Flanagan, Jiaxi Xu, Thomas D Lobell, Nicholas W Gilpin, Jason D Gardner, Eric Lazartigues Nicotine Downregulates the Compensatory Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/Angiotensin Type 2 Receptor of the Renin-Angiotensin System. Ann Am Thorac Soc: 2018, 15(Supplement_2);S126-S127 PubMed 29676623

Quin E Denfeld, Beth A Habecker, William R Woodward Measurement of plasma norepinephrine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol: method development for a translational research study. BMC Res Notes: 2018, 11(1);248 PubMed 29673396

David Macias, Andrew S Cowburn, Hortensia Torres-Torrelo, Patricia Ortega-Sáenz, José López-Barneo, Randall Johnson HIF-2α is essential for carotid body development and function. Elife: 2018, 7; PubMed 29671738

Jessica W Y Yuen, David D Kim, Ric M Procyshyn, Randall F White, William G Honer, Alasdair M Barr Clozapine-Induced Cardiovascular Side Effects and Autonomic Dysfunction: A Systematic Review. Front Neurosci: 2018, 12;203 PubMed 29670504

Hui Zhou, Baojun Shi, Yitao Jia, Gang Qiu, Weiguang Yang, Jiali Li, Zhaolong Zhao, Jian Lv, Yanni Zhang, Zhongxin Li Expression and significance of autonomic nerves and α9 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in colorectal cancer. Mol Med Rep: 2018; PubMed 29658602

Neural Crest Migration


Movie Source: Original Neural Crest movies kindly provided by Paul Kulesa.[4]

Related Movies: Migration 01 | Migration 02 | Migration 03 | Migration 04 | Migration 05 | Migration 06 | Migration 07

Development Overview

The following cranial and trunk data is based upon 185 serially sectioned staged (Carnegie) human embryos.[5]

Cranial Neural Crest

  • stage 9 - an indication of mesencephalic neural crest
  • stage 10 - trigeminal, facial, and postotic components
  • stage 11 - crest-free zones are soon observable in rhombomere 1, 3, and 5
  • stage 12 - rhombomeres 6 and 7 neural crest migrate to pharyngeal arch 3 and then rostrad to the truncus arteriosus
  • stage 13 - nasal crest and the terminalis-vomeronasal complex are last of the cranial crest to appear

stages 9-14 - otic vesicle primordium descends

Trunk Neural Crest

Spinal ganglia increase in number over time and are in phase with the somites, though not their centre. There are 3 migratory pathways: ventrolateral between dermatomyotome and sclerotome, ventromedial between neural tube and sclerotomes, and lateral between surface ectoderm and dermatomyotome.

  • stage 13 - about 19 present
  • stage 14 - about 33 present
  • stage 15-23 - 30–35 ganglia

References

  1. Vukojevic K, Filipovic N, Tica Sedlar I, Restovic I, Bocina I, Pintaric I & Saraga-Babic M. (2016). Neuronal differentiation in the developing human spinal ganglia. Anat Rec (Hoboken) , 299, 1060-72. PMID: 27225905 DOI.
  2. Hu ZL, Shi M, Huang Y, Zheng MH, Pei Z, Chen JY, Han H & Ding YQ. (2011). The role of the transcription factor Rbpj in the development of dorsal root ganglia. Neural Dev , 6, 14. PMID: 21510873 DOI.
  3. Kulesa PM, Bailey CM, Kasemeier-Kulesa JC & McLennan R. (2010). Cranial neural crest migration: new rules for an old road. Dev. Biol. , 344, 543-54. PMID: 20399765 DOI.
  4. Kulesa PM & Fraser SE. (2000). In ovo time-lapse analysis of chick hindbrain neural crest cell migration shows cell interactions during migration to the branchial arches. Development , 127, 1161-72. PMID: 10683170
  5. O'Rahilly R & Müller F. (2007). The development of the neural crest in the human. J. Anat. , 211, 335-51. PMID: 17848161 DOI.


Reviews

Krispin S, Nitzan E & Kalcheim C. (2010). The dorsal neural tube: a dynamic setting for cell fate decisions. Dev Neurobiol , 70, 796-812. PMID: 20683859 DOI.

Ernsberger U. (2009). Role of neurotrophin signalling in the differentiation of neurons from dorsal root ganglia and sympathetic ganglia. Cell Tissue Res. , 336, 349-84. PMID: 19387688 DOI.

Sarnat HB & Flores-Sarnat L. (2005). Embryology of the neural crest: its inductive role in the neurocutaneous syndromes. J. Child Neurol. , 20, 637-43. PMID: 16225807 DOI.

Chen HH, Hippenmeyer S, Arber S & Frank E. (2003). Development of the monosynaptic stretch reflex circuit. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. , 13, 96-102. PMID: 12593987

Schober A & Unsicker K. (2001). Growth and neurotrophic factors regulating development and maintenance of sympathetic preganglionic neurons. Int. Rev. Cytol. , 205, 37-76. PMID: 11336393

Articles

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Search Pubmed: Peripheral Neural Development | Dorsal Root Ganglia Development | Sympathetic Neural Development | Parasympathetic Neural Development | Neural Crest Development

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, April 25) Embryology Neural Crest - Peripheral Nervous System. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Neural_Crest_-_Peripheral_Nervous_System

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