Neural Crest - Peripheral Nervous System
|Embryology - 26 Aug 2016 Expand to Translate|
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The neural crest are bilaterally paired strips of cells arising in the ectoderm at the margins of the neural tube. These cells migrate to many different locations and differentiate into many cell types within the embryo. This means that many different systems (neural, skin, teeth, head, face, heart, adrenal glands, gastrointestinal tract) will also have a contribution fron the neural crest cells.
In the body region, neural crest cells also contribute the peripheral nervous system (both neurons and glia) consisting of sensory ganglia (dorsal root ganglia), sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia and neural plexuses within specific tissues/organs.
In the head region, neural crest cells migrate into the pharyngeal arches (as shown in movie below) forming ectomesenchyme contributing tissues which in the body region are typically derived from mesoderm (cartilage, bone, and connective tissue).General neural development is also covered in Neural Notes.
- Neural Crest Links: Introduction | Lecture - Early Neural | Lecture - Neural Crest Development | Schwann | Adrenal Gland | Melanocyte | Peripheral Nervous System | Enteric Nervous System | Cornea | Cranial Nerves | Cardiac | Nicole Le Douarin | Neural Crest Movies | Abnormalities | Category:Neural Crest
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Matthias Weider, Michael Wegner SoxE factors: Transcriptional regulators of neural differentiation and nervous system development. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol.: 2016; PubMed 27552919
Pezhman Salehi, Anthony Myint, Young J Kim, Marshall X Ge, Joel Lavinsky, Maria K Ho, Amanda L Crow, Charlene Cruz, Maya Monges-Hernadez, Juemei Wang, Jaana Hartiala, Li I Zhang, Hooman Allayee, Aldons J Lusis, Takahiro Ohyama, Rick A Friedman Genome-Wide Association Analysis Identifies Dcc as an Essential Factor in the Innervation of the Peripheral Vestibular System in Inbred Mice. J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol.: 2016; PubMed 27539716
Chung-Ping Liao, Sanjay Pradhan, Zhiguo Chen, Amish J Patel, Reid C Booker, Lu Q Le The role of nerve microenvironment for neurofibroma development. Oncotarget: 2016; PubMed 27517146
Kai Zhang, Yawei Guo, Zhenzhen Ge, Zhihui Zhang, Yurong Da, Wen Li, Zimu Zhang, Zhenyi Xue, Yan Li, Yinghui Ren, Long Jia, Koon-Ho Chan, Fengrui Yang, Jun Yan, Zhi Yao, Aimin Xu, Rongxin Zhang Adiponectin Suppresses T Helper 17 Cell Differentiation and Limits Autoimmune CNS Inflammation via the SIRT1/PPARγ/RORγt Pathway. Mol. Neurobiol.: 2016; PubMed 27514756
Neural Crest Migration
Movie Source: Original Neural Crest movies kindly provided by Paul Kulesa.
The following cranial and trunk data is based upon 185 serially sectioned staged (Carnegie) human embryos.
Cranial Neural Crest
- stage 9 - an indication of mesencephalic neural crest
- stage 10 - trigeminal, facial, and postotic components
- stage 11 - crest-free zones are soon observable in rhombomere 1, 3, and 5
- stage 12 - rhombomeres 6 and 7 neural crest migrate to pharyngeal arch 3 and then rostrad to the truncus arteriosus
- stage 13 - nasal crest and the terminalis-vomeronasal complex are last of the cranial crest to appear
stages 9-14 - otic vesicle primordium descends
Trunk Neural Crest
Spinal ganglia increase in number over time and are in phase with the somites, though not their centre. There are 3 migratory pathways: ventrolateral between dermatomyotome and sclerotome, ventromedial between neural tube and sclerotomes, and lateral between surface ectoderm and dermatomyotome.
- stage 13 - about 19 present
- stage 14 - about 33 present
- stage 15-23 - 30–35 ganglia
- Katarina Vukojevic, Natalija Filipovic, Ivana Tica Sedlar, Ivana Restovic, Ivana Bocina, Irena Pintaric, Mirna Saraga-Babic Neuronal differentiation in the developing human spinal ganglia. Anat Rec (Hoboken): 2016; PubMed 27225905
- Ze-Lan Hu, Ming Shi, Ying Huang, Min-Hua Zheng, Zhe Pei, Jia-Yin Chen, Hua Han, Yu-Qiang Ding The role of the transcription factor Rbpj in the development of dorsal root ganglia. Neural Dev: 2011, 6;14 PubMed 21510873
- Paul M Kulesa, Caleb M Bailey, Jennifer C Kasemeier-Kulesa, Rebecca McLennan Cranial neural crest migration: new rules for an old road. Dev. Biol.: 2010, 344(2);543-54 PubMed 20399765
- P M Kulesa, S E Fraser In ovo time-lapse analysis of chick hindbrain neural crest cell migration shows cell interactions during migration to the branchial arches. Development: 2000, 127(6);1161-72 PubMed 10683170
- Ronan O'Rahilly, Fabiola Müller The development of the neural crest in the human. J. Anat.: 2007, 211(3);335-51 PubMed 17848161 | PMC2375817 | J Anat.
Shlomo Krispin, Erez Nitzan, Chaya Kalcheim The dorsal neural tube: a dynamic setting for cell fate decisions. Dev Neurobiol: 2010, 70(12);796-812 PubMed 20683859
Uwe Ernsberger Role of neurotrophin signalling in the differentiation of neurons from dorsal root ganglia and sympathetic ganglia. Cell Tissue Res.: 2009, 336(3);349-84 PubMed 19387688
Harvey B Sarnat, Laura Flores-Sarnat Embryology of the neural crest: its inductive role in the neurocutaneous syndromes. J. Child Neurol.: 2005, 20(8);637-43 PubMed 16225807
Hsiao-Huei Chen, Simon Hippenmeyer, Silvia Arber, Eric Frank Development of the monosynaptic stretch reflex circuit. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol.: 2003, 13(1);96-102 PubMed 12593987
A Schober, K Unsicker Growth and neurotrophic factors regulating development and maintenance of sympathetic preganglionic neurons. Int. Rev. Cytol.: 2001, 205;37-76 PubMed 11336393
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2016) Embryology Neural Crest - Peripheral Nervous System. Retrieved August 26, 2016, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Neural_Crest_-_Peripheral_Nervous_System
- © Dr Mark Hill 2016, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G