Histology Glossary - G

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A Glossary of Histological and Micro-Anatomical Terms

 Histology Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
Including historical origins and eponyms compiled by Dr Brian Freeman, Department of Anatomy, School of Medical Sciences, revised 2000.
ANAT2241 Support | Histology | Histology Stains | Historic Terminology | Embryology Glossary

Abbreviations: ( ) plural form in brackets, A. Arabic, abb. abbreviation, c. circa =about, F. French adj. adjective, G. Greek, Ge. German, cf. compare, L. Latin, dim. diminutive, NA. Nomina anatomica, q.v. which see, OF. Old French

Galen, Claudius? Clarissmus. ?129,130-200,201 AD Rome physician to Marcus Aurelius; famous early anatomist (however many statements based on animal dissections); great cerebral vein of Galen; collected medical works of Galen.

Gallocyanin a purple synthetic basic dye used to staining nuclei acids.

gamete G. = a wife, from gamein = to marry; a mature male germ cell (spermatozoon) or female germ cell (ovum); their union produces a zygote, q.v.

ganglion (-a, -ions) G. = knot, swelling; an accumulation of nerve cell somas outside the central nervous system; also applied to cells forming optic nerve axons within the central nervous system; also small synovial swelling under skin.

gap junction intercellular junction for communication between cells (see nexus).

Gärtner, Hermann Treschow. 1785-1827 Copenhagen physician & anatomist; G.'s duct = longitudinal duct of epoöphoron (q.v) = remains of mesonephric duct.

Gasser, Johann Ludwig. 1757-1765 Vienna anatomist; Gasserian ganglion = semilunar ganglion of trigeminal nerve (actually described by a student of Gasser, Raimund Hirsch, 1765).

gastric adj. L. gastricus , from G. gaster = stomach, belly; relating to the stomach.

gastric pit foveola gastrica, q.v.

gelatine L. = protein derived by hydrolysis (boiling) of collagen present in skin, bone and joints.

gemmules L. gemmula = a little bud; minute processes on dendrites of a neuron.

genital adj. L. genitalis = of birth.

Gennari, Francesco 1750-? Parma anatomist; stria of G. = the distinct outer stria of Baillarger (q.v.) in the visual part of the cerebral cortex (1782); hence striate cortex, q.v.

Gerlach, Joseph von. 1820-1896 Erlangen anatomist; invented method of injecting cadavers with carmine & gelatine; G.'s tonsil = tubal tonsil; G.'s valve = a fold of mucosa sometimes seen at entrance to vermiform appendix; G.'s valvulae = trabecular meshwork of pectinate ligament.

germinal L. germen = an offshoot; germinal epithelium of ovary (but not a source of germ cells!).

germinativum L. germinare = to sprout; deepest layer or stratum of epidermis = Malpighian layer.

Gerota, Dumitru. 1867-1939 Roumanian anatomist; G.'s fascia = perirenal fascia.

gingiva (-ae) L. = the gum.

Giraldès, Joachim Albin Cardozo Cazado. 1808-1875 Paris surgeon from Portugal; died of a wound acquired during an autopsy; organ of G. (1859) = paradidymis, q.v.

glabella L. glaber = smooth; space between eyebrows, often devoid of hair.

glabrous adj. L. glaber = smooth; of non-hairy skin.

gland L. glandula , dim of L. glans = an acorn, a pellet; term used to describe mesenteric lymph nodes (Herophilus, c. 300 BC).

glia G. gloia = glue; neuroglia is the non-nervous supporting tissue of central nervous system; gliosis = hyperplasia of astrocytes, q.v.

Glisson, Francis. 1597-1677 Cambridge classicist & physician; described bile duct and its sphincter (cf. Oddi); G.'s capsule = fibrous capsule of liver.

glomerulosa adj. L. = like a little ball; e.g., zona glomerulosa = superficial zone in adrenal cortex where cells are arranged in small clusters.

glomerulus (-i) L. = a little ball, dim. of L. glomus (from L. glomerare = to roll up, as in conglomerate); renal glomerulus = a cluster of capillaries in kidney cortex = Malpighian corpuscles; olfactory glomerulus = a ball of nerve cells and fibres in the olfactory bulb, where primary olfactory fibres synapse with mitral cells, q.v.

glomus (-mera) L. = a ball; cluster or conglomeration of small arteries or arterioles and nerve fibres, e.g., carotid glomus, at bifurcation of common carotid; choroidal glomus, at site where choroid plexus enters inferior horn of lateral ventricle; coccygeal glomus (or body) = glomus coccyxgeum, associated with median sacral artery at coccyx, cf. glands of Luschka.

glottis G. = larynx; now the space between the vocal cords.

glycan G. glykos = sweet.

glycocalyx G. " + kalyx = cup; layer like a husk rich in carbohydrates outside cell plasma membrane.

glycogen G. " + gennan = to produce; a polysaccharide ("animal starch") in liver, muscle, etc. yielding glucose on .hydrolysis.

glycosaminoglycan (abb. GAG) chemical constituent of glycocalyx.

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von. 1749-1832 German poet & scientist; G.'s bone = premaxilla; G.'s theory of vertebral origin of skull; G.'s theory of colour.

Golgi, Camillo. 1844-1926. Italian histologist; shared Nobel prize in 1906 with Cajal, q.v.; Golgi apparatus (or G. complex) = an organelle consisting of a system of cytoplasmic membranes; G. technique = a histological staining technique for impregnation of single neurons (cf. Cajal); G. cells of nervous system; G. corpuscle = a sensory receptor in tendon, tendon; axon collaterals of G; Golgi-Mazzoni corpuscles = corpuscular nerve endings.

Goll, Friedrich. 1829-1903 Zurich pharmacologist; column of G. = funiculus gracilis of spinal cord (1860).

Gomori, George. American histochemist 1904- ; trichrome and histochemical stains.

gomphosis G. gomphos = wedge-shaped nail or bolt used in ship-building; a peg-in-socket joint (Galen, c. 180 AD); junction of tooth in alveolar socket.

gonad G. gone = seed; organs containing germ cells, i.e., ovary and testis.

Gowers, William Richard (Sir). 1845-1915 London physician & neurologist; tract of G. = superficial anterolateral fasciculus of spinal cord = anterolateral spinocerebellar tract.

Graaf, Regnier de. 1641-1673 Delft physician, anatomist; contemporary of Swammerdam & Leewenhoek; described corpus luteum; Graafian follicle = a mature ovarian follicle (1672).

granulosa L. granulum = little grain; cells around ovarian oocyte.

granulosum L. " ; referring to granule-containing cells in epidermis.

gray matter parts of central nervous system where there are relatively fewer myelinated fibres; central part of spinal cord; cortex of cerebrum and cerebellum; cf. white matter.

ground substance colloidal material, with variable viscosity, of the intercellular spaces of connective tissue; usually homogeneous and scarcely stainable.

Guérin, Alphonase F.M. 1816-1895 French surgeon; G.'s valve = fold of mucous membrane in navicular fossa of urethra.

gyrus G. gyros = circle, arc; one of the coils or convolutions of cerebral cortex, separated by sulci or fissures.

Histology Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | ANAT2241 Support | Histology | Histology Stains | Embryology Glossary

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2024, June 19) Embryology Histology Glossary - G. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Histology_Glossary_-_G

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