Category:Carnegie Stage 10

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The Embryology pages and media listed below relate to human embryonic development during week 4, Carnegie Stage 10.

Links: Carnegie stage 10 | Week 4

Facts: Week 4, 22 - 23 days, 2 - 3.5 mm, Somite number 4 - 12

Features: Somite Number 4 - 12, rostral neuropore, neural folds in region of developing brain, neural tube, somites, caudal neuropore, neural fold fuses, remnant of amniotic sac

Ectoderm: Neural fold deeepens, edges approach midline, neural fold fuses, neural plate folds ventrally in brain region

Mesoderm: Somitogenesis, continued segmentation of paraxial mesoderm (4 - 12 somite pairs)

Carnegie Collection - Stage 10 
Serial No. Pairs of somites Size (mm) Grade Fixative Embedding Medium Thinness (µm) Stain Year Notes
391 8 E, 2 Ch., 14 Good Formalin P 10 Al. coch. 1907 Monograph by Dandy (1910)[1]
1201 7 E,2 Ch.. 144 Good Formalin P 8 H. & or. G. 1915 Univ. Chicago No. H 87
2795 4-5 E,2 Poor Alc. P 6 Al coch,or.G. 1919
3707 12 E, 1 5 Good Formalin P 12.5 I. H. 1921 Univ. Calif. No. H 197
3709 4 E. 1.4 Ch.. 14.8 Poor Formalin P 10 Erythrosin 1921 Univ. Chicago No H 279
3710 12 E., 3.6 Ch., 19.0 Good Formalin C-P 10 H. & or. G. 1921 Univ. Chicago No. H 392
4216 8 E, 2 Ch, 9.8 Good Formalin P 15 ? 1923 Monograph by Payne (1925)[2]
5074 10 E., 3.3 Ch., 10.8 Exc. Bouin P 10 Al. coch. 1925 Univ. Rochester No. H 10. Monograph by Corner (1929)[3]
6330 7 E, 2.83 Good P 5 Ehr. H. 1931 Univ. Chicago No. H 1404
6740 12 E., 2.2 Good p C-P 8 ? 1933 Litzenberg embryo. Studied by Boyden (1940)
7251 8 E., 1.27 Good Formalin C-P 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1941 "Singapore embryo." Univ. Cambridge No. H 98.
Studied by Wilson (1914)[4]
8244 6 E., 1.55 Ch, 8,5 Good Alc. C-P 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) phlox. 1944
9870 12 Ch, ca. 8 Good Zenker P 5 Various, chiefly carmine 1952 Univ. Chicago. No. H 637. Dicephaly
  • Grade - total grade of the specimen and includes both its original quality and the condition of the mounted sections.
  • Embedding medium - paraffin (P) or a combination of celloidin and paraffin (C-P).
  • Fixative - formalin (Formol), alcohol and formalin (Alc, formol), Bouin (Bouin solution)
  • ? - unknown or not determined.
  • All Carnegie stage 10 embryos are cut in Transverse plane.

Embryo Examples

  • 4 somites, Carnegie No. 3709 (University of Chicago H 279). Characterized with outline sketches, by Bartelmez and Evans (1926).
  • 4 somites, Histologisch-Embryologisches Institut, Embryo A, Vienna. Fully described by Sternberg (1927).
  • 4 somites, Histologisch-Embryologisches Institut, Embryo Ca, Vienna. Fully described by Orts Llorca (1934).
  • 4–5 somites, Florian's Embryo Bi II. The whereabouts of this, the following embryo, and the 10-somite Bi XI (see below) are not known; Florian's collection has not been found since his untimely death during World War II. The embryo Bi II was briefly characterized by Studnicka (1929), cited and partly illustrated by Florian (1928, 1930a).
  • 4–5 somites, Florian's Embryo Bi III. (See note on previous embryo.) Briefly characterized by Studnicka (1929) and cited by Florian (1928).
  • 4–5 somites, Carnegie No. 2795. Cited and briefly characterized by Bartelmez and Evans (1926). The specimen is distorted and somewhat macerated.
  • 5 somites, Anatomisches Institut, Zürich, GM 1954. Described and illustrated by Schenck (1954).
  • 5 somites, No. 103, Department of Anatomy, Tohoku University, Sendai. Distribution of alkaline phosphatase studied by Mori (1959a) in this and in another (No. 101), possibly 8-somite, embryo.
  • 5–6 somites, Pfannenstiel “Klb” (originally at Giessen; was in Keibel's Institute at Freiburg i. Br. about 1911, may now be in Berlin). This well known embryo is No. 3 in the Keibel and Elze Normentafel (1908). Models by Kroemer (1903). A partial set of tracings made by H. M. Evans is in the Carnegie Collection, No. 5463.
  • 6 somites, Carnegie No. 8244. Somewhat distorted; histologically fair.
  • 6 somites, University of Michigan No. 71, Ann Arbor. Briefly described by Arey and Henderson (1943). A full description in an unpublished doctoral dissertation is in the files of L. B. Arey at Northwestern University, Chicago.
  • 6 somites, Carnegie No 8818 (University of Chicago H 338) Pathological, not used in present study. Listed here because cited by Bartelmez and Evans (1926).
  • 6–7 somites. His’s Embryo “SR.” Cited by His (1880) and by Bartelmez and Evans (1926). Has been studied only in the gross.
  • 6–7 somites, Embryo LM (present location unknown). Cited here from manuscript notes at Carnegie laboratory, made from Russian text of Burow (1928). Condition said to be poor.
  • 7 (?) somites, Embryo “Ludwig,” Berlin. Described by Streiter (1951). This specimen, which is somewhat macerated, is in certain characteristics considerably in advance of others of similar somitic number.
  • 7 somites, Carnegie No. 6330 (University of Chicago H 1404). Extensive manuscript notes on this specimen, made under the supervision of G. W. Bartelmez, are in the files of the Carnegie laboratory.
  • 8 somites, Carnegie No. 4216. Described by Payne (1925), and very frequently cited.
  • 8 somites, Dublin. Described by West (1930); see also Arey (1938). Photographs and models are in the Carnegie Collection, No. 4923. Bartelmez (personal communication) thinks that this distorted embryo had only 5–6 somites.
  • 8 somites, Carnegie No. 391. Described by Dandy (1910) and frequently cited (cf. Bartelmez and Evans, 1926, with additional illustrations). There were neither camera drawings nor photographs of the intact specimen, and therefore the reconstructions are not entirely satisfactory. The plaster models now at the Carnegie laboratory were made by O. O. Heard under the supervision of Bartelmez for the paper by Bartelmez and Evans (1926). The apparent lack of fusion of the neural folds described by Dandy is an artifact produced by a crack.
  • 8 somites, Carnegie No. 1201 (University of Chicago H 87). Described briefly by Evans and Bartelmez (1917); cited, with illustrations, by Bartelmez and Evans (1926).
  • 8 somites, Embryologisches Institut, Embryo Ct, Vienna. Fully described by Politzer (1930). Arey (1938) counts 8 paired somites in this embryo instead of 7 as stated by Politzer.
  • 8 somites, University of Cambridge, Department of Anatomy H 98. Photographs and models in Carnegie Collection, No. 7251. Described by J. T. Wilson (1914). Cited by Bartelmez and Evans (1926), who consider it slightly abnormal in form although good histologically.
  • 9 somites, Embryo “Esch I,” Marburg. Elaborately described by Veit and Esch (1922), and cited, with illustrations, by Bartelmez and Evans (1926), who count 9 somites instead of 8 as stated by the original authors. Chorionic villi studied in detail by Ortmann (1938). Photographs and models are in the Carnegie Collection, No. 4251.
  • 9 somites, Embryo “Du Ga,” Geneva. Described by Eternod (1896); models by Ziegler were distributed commercially. Cited by Bartelmez (1922) and Bartelmez and Evans (1926), with illustrations. Tracings made by H. M. Evans at Geneva and models are in the Carnegie Collection, No. 4439.
  • About 9 somites. Embryo Unger, Keibel Collection, Freiburg i. Br., No. 4 of Keibel and Elze (1908). Listed by Bartelmez and Evans (1926).
  • 9 somites, Embryo “Jacobsen,” formerly at Kiel (Graf Spee's collection was destroyed in World War II). Described by von Spee (1887). Listed by Bartelmez and Evans (1926) as having “at least” 9 somites.
  • 9 somites, Embryo Ca of Orts Llorca, Madrid. Various details described by Mari Martinez (1950) and Martinez Rovira (1953).
  • 9–10 somites, Embryo R. Meyer 335. (Robert Meyer's collection was purchased by the late Hedwig Frey and bequeathed by him to the Anatomisches Institut, University of Zurich.) Listed by Bartelmez and Evans (1926), and cited by Felix (1912).
  • 10 somites, Da2, Anatomical Institute, Basel. Described by Ludwig (1929). Plastic reconstructions. Neural groove closure extends rostral to otic discs.
  • 10 somites, Carnegie No. 5074 (University of Rochester H 10). Fully described by Corner (1929), and subjected to volumetric analysis by Boyden (1940). Excellent specimen.
  • 10 somites, Grosser's Embryo Schwz (present location unknown). Briefly described, without illustrations, by Treutler (1931). Preservation said to be not altogether satisfactory.
  • 10 somites, Florian’s Embryo Bi XI. (See note on Bi II above.) Briefly described, with illustrations, by Politzer and Sternberg (1930); cited and partly illustrated by Florian (1930a).
  • 10 somites, Anatomy Department, University of South Wales, Cardiff. Partly described and illustrated by Baxter and Boyd (1939).[5]
  • 11 somites, Embryo T 152, University of Toronto, Department of Anatomy. Cited by Arey (1938).
  • 11 somites, Embryo G-dt, Uppsala. Described by Holmdahl (1943) as having 11 well-differentiated pairs of somites, with beginning delimitation of 4 more.
  • 11–12 somites, Carnegie No. 8970 (University of Chicago H 637). Somewhat damaged. Cited, with illustrations, by Bartelmez (1922) and Bartelmez and Evans (1926).
  • 12 somites, Carnegie No. 3710 (University of Chicago H 392). Cited by Bartelmez (1922) and Bartelmez and Evans (1926).
  • 12 somites, Carnegie No. 3707 (University of California H 197). “Legge embryo.” Cited, with illustrations, by Bartelmez and Evans (1926). The coital history accompanying this specimen, which was declared to be reliable, would give it a postovulatory age of either 18 or 39 days; the former seems rather brief but the latter is much too long.
  • 12 somites, Litzenberg embryo, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Briefly described by J. C. Litzenberg (1933); characterized and subjected to volumetric analysis by Boyden (1940), who counts 12 somites instead of 13–14 as in the original description. Photographs and model in Carnegie Collection, No. 6740.
  • 12 somites, M. 24, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Cited by Arey (1938).

  1. Dandy WE. A human embryo with seven pairs of somites measuring about 2 mm in length. (1910) Amer. J Anat. 10: 85-109.
  2. Payne, F. 1925. General description of a 7-somite human embryo. Carnegie Instn. Wash. Publ. 361, Contrib. Embryol., 16,115-124.
  3. Corner GW. A well-preserved human embryo of 10 somites. (1929) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 394, 20:81-102.
  4. Wilson JT. Observations upon young human embryos. (1914) J Anat Physiol., 48(3): 315-51 PMID 17233002 PMC1288949
  5. Baxter JS. and Boyd JD. Observations on The Neural Crest of a Ten-Somite Human Embryo (1939) J Anat. 73:318–326. PMID 17104759

Pages in category ‘Carnegie Stage 10’

The following 62 pages are in this category, out of 62 total.

Media in category ‘Carnegie Stage 10’

The following 84 files are in this category, out of 84 total.