User:Z3329495

From Embryology

Lab 4 Online Assessment

  1. The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?
  2. Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.
  3. Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching. (Add to project page and your individual assessment page)



Group Project notes

Cardiomyopathy is caused by build up of iron overload in mitochondria producing excessive amounts of free radicals and anti-oxidants which damages cells. As Frataxin is most expressed in the heart, skeletal muscles, (as well as liver and pancreas)[1], it impacts most significantly on musculature and cardiac muscles.

Prior to 1996, FA could not be genetically confirmed and many older individuals with FA were not diagnosed with FA as their presenting age went over the norm of FA onset. Now with genetic testing available, the mean age of onset for symptoms of FA has increased[2].

Availability of genetic testing Diagnostic symptoms
Prior to genetic testing availability Only physical complaints, age of onset and typical FA progression could identify it as FA.
After genetic testing is available Physical complaints are used in conjunction with genetic testing to confirm FA. Due to genetic testing, [2]it has been discovered that FA can occur in individuals older than the typical diagnostic age (first two decades of life[3]).
  1. <pubmed>10633128 </pubmed>
  2. 2.0 2.1 <pubmed>21315377</pubmed>
  3. <pubmed>19283344</pubmed>
Diagnostic tool What it does How it diagnoses FRDA Image if available
Electromyogram (EMG) Measures the electrical activity of muscle cells by inserting needles into muscle fibers that is to be tested and asking the patient to tense the muscle[1]. EMG can detect denervation[1] such as present in motor neuron diseases or muscle denervation as present in FRDA.
Electrocardiogram (ECG) Provides graphic presentation of the electrical activity or beat pattern of the heart If T wave inversion is present, it may be an indication myocardial hypertrophy[2] which is a hallmark of cardiac involvment in FRDA. T wave inversions are also common findings in patients with FRDA[3].
File:Schematic ECG.jpg
Schematic drawing of ECG waves
Echocardiogram (ECHO) Records the position and motion of the heart muscle Identifies abnormalities in heart muscle such as hypertrophy of ventricles(useful for determining cardiac involvement)[4].
Blood tests Checks for elevated glucose levels (in the event of diabetes developing) and vitamin E levels as individuals with FRDA often have low Vitamin E serum levels [5] Blood tests work to identify any possible complication of FRDA (ie: diabetes) and identifies patients who require vitamin E supplements to increase the body's antioxidant capabilities[5].
Blood test results for glucose and iron
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Provide brain and spinal cord images that are useful for ruling out other neurological conditions and confirming dorsal root degeneration. Changes in the dorsal root or related neural structures involved in motor coordination can be monitored and identified with MRI. In a recent pilot study, the globus pallidus (involved in motor coordination) was found to improve with iron-chelation treatment using MRI technology[6]. Another paper found that MRI may be a useful tool in diagnosing FRDA and allows researchers to track neural atrophy[7].
Computed tomography scans (CT scan) CT scans work similarly to the MRI in that it is used as an imaging tool to identify neurodegeneration. While CT scans can be used in a similar fashion to MRIs, it has been noted that CT scans only identified mild cerebellar atrophy in advanced patients perhaps due to low CT resolution in the neck[7].
Nerve conduction studies (NCS) Measures the speed with which nerves transmit impulses by using two electrodes (one to send the impulse and the other to measure the response)[1]. Nerve conduction studies determines how far and if neurodegeneration has occurred by analysing amplitude, latency, duration, and conduction. Each item assessed will inform the clinician of the number of nerve fibers activated, integrity of myelin sheaths or axonal loss[1]. FRDA diagnosis may be considered if nerve conduction studies indicates nerve degeneration.
Genetic Testing
Prenatal Testing


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 <pubmed>21894276</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>19486532</pubmed>
  3. <pubmed>3593615</pubmed>
  4. <pubmed>2940284</pubmed>
  5. 5.0 5.1 <pubmed>11554913</pubmed>
  6. <pubmed>21791473</pubmed>
  7. 7.0 7.1 <pubmed>2759158</pubmed>

Lab 1

Questions

  1. Identify the origin of In Vitro Fertilization and the 2010 nobel prize winner associated with this technique.
  2. Identify a recent paper on fertilisation and describe its key findings.
  3. Identify 2 congenital anomalies.

Answers

  1. Robert G. Edwards won the 2010 Nobel Prize for his IVF work which led to the birth of the first IVF baby Louise Brown, born at the Royal Oldham Hospital Manchester, England.
  2. A recent paper on predicting how sucessful IVF treatment would be for specific individuals has come out with its finding that predetermined factors (such as maternal age, how long infertility has persisted for and if the maternal oocyte was used) can indicate the sucess of fertility treatment as opposed to a simple probability for a sucessful treatment. PLoS Medicine: Predicting Live Birth Preterm Delivery, and Low Birth Weight in Infants Born from In Vitro Fertilisation: A Prospective Study of 144,018 Treatment Cycles
  3. Downs Syndrome and hemophilia

--Z3329495 14:14, 28 July 2011 (EST)

--Z3329495 12:55, 28 July 2011 (EST)

--Mark Hill 10:07, 3 August 2011 (EST)These answers are fine.

Lab 2

--Z3329495 13:00, 4 August 2011 (EST)

Questions

  1. Identify the ZP protein that spermatozoa binds and how is this changed (altered) after fertilisation.
  2. Identify a review and a research article related to your group topic. (Paste on both group discussion page with signature and on your own page)

Answers

  1. the ZP protein that spermatozoa binds to is ZP3. After fertilisation, enzymes in the cortical reaction alters ZP3 so that it no longer binds to sperm.
  2. Angelman's Syndrome:

Review article: http://jmg.bmj.com/content/40/2/87.short Research article: http://jmg.bmj.com/content/38/12/834.abstract --Z3329495 12:07, 9 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 3

--Amanda Tan 11:07, 11 August 2011 (EST)

Differentially expressed RefSeq genes in human trisomy 21

Differentially expressed RefSeq genes in human trisomy 21.jpg


Differentially expressed RefSeq genes in human trisomy 21

Questions

  1. What is the maternal dietary requirement for late neural development?
  2. Upload a picture relating to you group project.

Answers

  1. Folate has been found to reduce the incidence of neural tube defects and many countries have fotified food staples (flour etc) with folic acid. A recent study found that more cases of neural tube defects can be avoided if more countries implemented policies to fortify foods with folic acid. Update on prevention of folic acid-preventable spina bifida and anencephaly.

Iodine also prevents Cretin from developing and has been recommended that pregnant women consume supplemented iodine. http://www.thyroid.org/professionals/publications/statements/documents/ATAIodineRec.pdf

  1. Pathogenesis of Friedreich Ataxia

Pathogenesis of Friedreich Ataxia.jpg


A model of Pathogenesis of Friedreich Ataxia

--z3329495 20:58, 13 August 2011 (EST)

--Mark Hill 12:22, 16 August 2011 (EST) Not bad and the image contains all the correct citation information. The file would more correctly be named "A Model of....."


Lab 4

--Z3329495 11:07, 18 August 2011 (EST)

Questions

  1. The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?
  2. Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.
  3. Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching. (Add to project page and your individual assessment page)

Answers

  1. It is an invagination of the developing hindgut and is connected to the yolk sac via the connecting stalk.
  2. Foramen Ovale (between right and left atrium), Ductus arteriosus (connects pulmonary artery to aortic arch) and Ductus venosus (allow portal and umbilical veins to connect to inferior vena cava - lets oxygenated blood bypass liver)
  3. pahology of cardiomyopathy and musculature sections of Friedreich's Ataxia and parts of pathogenesis.

Lab 5

--z3329495 12:27, 25 August 2011 (EST)

Questions

  1. Which side (L/R) is most common for diaphragmatic hernia and why?

Answers

  1. left side is more common because during embryonic development the left pericardioperitoneal canal is much larger than the right side and it takes longer than the right side to close up.

Lab 6

--z3329495 11:08, 1 September 2011 (EST)

Questions

  1. What week of development do the palatal shelves fuse?
  2. What animal model helped elucidate the neural crest origin and migration of cells?
  3. What abnormality results from neural crest not migrating into the cardiac outflow tract?

Answers

  1. week 10 is when the palatal shelves fuse.
  2. Chicken-quail model - a genetic mix of chicken and quail allowed researchers to identify origin and migration of neural crest cells before fluorescent marking of genes were available.
  3. Shortening or truncation of cardiac outflow tract.

Lab 7

--z3329495 11:21, 15 September 2011 (EST)

Questions

  1. Are satellite cells (a) necessary for muscle hypertrophy and (b) generally involved in hypertrophy?
  2. Why does chronic low frequency stimulation cause a fast to slow fibre type shift?
  3. Evaluation of Trisomy 21

Answers

  1. a) No satellite cells are not necessary for muscle hypertrophy b)yes, it is generally involved in hypertrophy
  2. Chronic low frequency stimulation is found in slow fiber type shifts such as in tonically active muscles of the back and stimulating fast fibers with chronic low frequency stimulation can cause the type of fiber to respond to the stimulus by its change from a fast to slow fiber type. However, the change will only be in small increments and total change of fast to slow fibers will more likely happen as a mix of fast and slow fibers with slow fibers dominating.
  3. Group Assessment Criteria

* The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described.

Key points are poorly described, some information is out of place (Eg: explaination of aneuploidy in the introduction with nothing linking it to information in context). Links to other pages on the wiki barrages the reader with too much information too quickly. Explanation and summary of each linked section should be made on the page to provide adequate basic information before directing the reader to deeper information. Quotes in recent findings are not explained. Congenital defects are not explained well with only listing and no link to further information (how and why the main defects forms would be good). Novel screening technology only lists things, does not explain why the screening is done and how it determines trisomy 21. Termination information should be provided even if it is a short summary in the screening section. Tandem Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms describes the process well but does not explain how it determines trisomy 21 (does it determine trisomy 21 by some kind of genetic or molecular marker in maternal DNA?), terminology is also poorly explained. Terms in Tandem Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms should be put into glossary. Short section titled 'screening by country' should be expanded or removed. Terms in aneuploidy section should be put into glossary - and information on why aneuploidy causes trisomy 21 should be put there instead and moved into same sub-heading as karyotypes, and meiosis I and meiosis II as they relate to each other. Trisomy Growth charts do not demonstrate relevance and quoted text has no meaning without further explaination (Ie: Why is the reader looking at the trisomy growth chart).

* The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area.

The headings and subheadings are all over the place. Heart and Limb defects should appear as subheadings to Associated Congenital Abnormalities, recent findings should be at the bottom of the page titled 'current research'. Introduction can include the prevalence, more historical information would be good as well. Karyotypes, Meiosis I and Meiosis II, and Aneuploidy should be put in the same heading with each of them as a sub-heading. Recommendations should be put at the end of of the article before current research. Screening should be put after introduction. Text extract in recommendations show poor understanding - summary or paraphrasing would show more understanding. See above for more problems relating to content.

* Content is correctly cited and referenced.

Poor citation through out. Citation not given after any sentence in the Tandem Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms section (how does the reader confirm the techniques with no references). Referencing section is poor - many references are not directly referenced to a particular section or sentence in the article. References not referenced in article should instead go into 'external links' or 'further reading'.

* The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations.

Diagrams used, table in screening strategies is informative and well set out. No individual diagrams used. Poor element of peer teaching as information is poorly set out with little explanation for lists.

* Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities.

There is significant research provided but information on page is limited with any technical information poorly summarised/explained and use of large quotations does not explain technical information well.

* Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of embryology.

Relates well as it is a congenital defect and demonstrates abnormalities arising from abnormal embryological development. However, normal development without trisomy 21 should also be briefly explored to show the reader the differences in development.

* Clearly reflects on editing/feedback from group peers and articulates how the Wiki could be improved (or not) based on peer comments/feedback. Demonstrates an ability to review own work when criticised in an open edited wiki format. Reflects on what was learned from the process of editing a peer's wiki.

Comments cannot be made at this time as no comments on the page has been made.

* Evaluates own performance and that of group peers to give a rounded summary of this wiki process in terms of group effort and achievement.

Comments cannot be made at this time.

* The content of the wiki should demonstrate to the reader that your group has researched adequately on this topic and covered the key areas necessary to inform your peers in their learning.

Research is broad but depth of knowledge can be further demonstrated with more explanations and less quotation. Poor connection to other aspects of trisomy 21 makes it difficult to inform peers.

* Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with the above guidelines.

Did not develop and edit the wiki well based on the above guidelines. See above comments for improvements.

Lab 8

--z3329495 11:07, 22 September 2011 (EST)

Group 1 *The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described. All main points are there and are relevant. Content on pathogenesis might be useful when used together with clinical manifestations so it allows the reader to understand why some things happen.

*The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area. More information on history would be good other wise everything else looks ok. Well researched but perhaps a bit more information about clinical manifestations would be good.

*Content is correctly cited and referenced. Fix up duplications on reference list. reference for Nonisjunction.jpg and Karyotype.jpg should be fixed up.

*The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations. Student drawn image provided - explanations on images are relevant to content.

*Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities. Explanation on how some of the main symptoms manifest would be better to demonstrate significant research done.

*Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of embryology. Good content on how it occurs during faulty division.

*Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with the above guidelines. The page has been developed more or less in accordance with the above guidelines.


Group 2 *The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described. Well described, but very hard to follow at points due to volume of text. *The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area. Tables include too much information. it should summarise the main points, for large chunks of text put it in the body of the wiki. *Content is correctly cited and referenced. Fix up some references - there is duplication and links provided in place of a reference as well as missing references. reference for Chest PA 1.jpeg, DiGeorge-Intra Operative XRay.jpg and FISH for DiGeorge Syndrome.jpg should be fixed. also include ----

Note - This image was originally uploaded as part of a student project and may contain inaccuracies in either description or acknowledgements. Students have been advised in writing concerning the reuse of content and may accidentally have misunderstood the original terms of use. If image reuse on this non-commercial educational site infringes your existing copyright, please contact the site editor for immediate removal.




Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, December 11) Embryology Z3329495. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/User:Z3329495

What Links Here?
© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G in all images.

*The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations. Good diagram explaining pathophysiology but it can be neaten up by doing the text on a program (paint would suffice). *Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities. Very high research volume put into the page but there is too much text going on. Try using some sub-headings to break up the information into easily digestible sections. It also allows for easy location of specific sections. *Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of embryology. Good information on genetics but if possible say how the deletion occurs? *Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with the above guidelines. Apart from small things, the wiki has been edited well.

Group 3 *The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described. All main sections are present.

*The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area. Under aetiology, it might be good to add a sentence or two about the cause of Klinefelter's Syndrome rather than just jump right into aneuploidy. I understand that it is the aetoilogical agent in Klinfelter's but indicating it as a cause would be good to kinda give the reader a 'flag'. It is not necessary to add the information about aneuploidy in the introduction as i think you could move that section down to a more appropriate part. If need be, just mention aneuploidy as a cause in the introduction rather than dedicate the first paragraph to it in the intro.

*Content is correctly cited and referenced. Maternal Non-Disjunction.PNG needs some references, Comparing age and intellect of a Klinefelter group a non-clinical control group.PNG, Pubertal gynecomastia.jpg, Immunoglobulin levels in 15 girls with Turner Syndrome.png and Karyogram of male with 47, XYY Syndrome.png needs to be correctly referenced. duplication of references need to be fixed. More references need to be included when there is a huge chunk of text or it looks very much like you got everything from one source only.

*The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations. Good drawings - explanations are understandable.

*Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities. There is a significant reference list but not enough in-text referencing.

*Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of embryology. A lot of content on genetic problems, maybe put something in about development of embryo (if applicable)?

*Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with the above guidelines. Has shown development and editing to be based on the above guidelines although some smaller details could be fixed.

Group 4

*The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described. Main sections are there, Not sure if 'video of huntington's patient' should be a big heading - maybe put it in an 'external links' section?

*The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area. Content is well done and headings/sub-headings are organised well.

*Content is correctly cited and referenced. Fix up doubling of references. File:Mutant Huntingtin gene and its effects on transcription.jpg is missing. No references in therapies?

*The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations. Student image well done and explanation works well.

*Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities. Comprehensive research, but maybe more information in glossary as the wiki uses quite a lot of technical language.

*Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of embryology. Any thing else on diagnosis? As mentioned by Mark, since this is a disease that presents complications after birth, more information should be added. Perhaps include some information on diagnostic tests? The imaging section in neuropathy could be added to diagnostic tests if diagnosis is possible by examining neurological changes?

*Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with the above guidelines. Development of wiki page has followed above guidelines, but some minor adjustments can be made.

Group 5

*The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described. All main sections are there and well described.

*The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area. Future research is well researched, but is there any other research possibilities that are on going to show breath of research? Glossary needs to be expanded - FXS as an acronym needs to be put there. Table in treatment has too much text. Put the text outside the table and use the table to summarise the content. The information in diagnosis is too brief and could go into a table. Consider expanding that section and provide more information on how and why the techniques diagnoses FXS.

*Content is correctly cited and referenced. File:Fragile site appearance and distribution.jpg needs to be correctly referenced. Duplication of references need to be fixed. Emotional characteristics, Language and Speech, Physical phenotype and Physical phenotype section needs references.

*The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations. no explanation given for File:Fragile x chromosome..jpg. more images would be good (Eg: in Fetal Development section maybe include an image of what a fetus looks like who has FXS?)

*Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities. Decent reference list and good in-text citation but is missing referencing in some areas.

*Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of embryology. Fetal development detailed.

*Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with the above guidelines. Has followed the guidelines but some changes would be good.

Group 6

  1. The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described.

All main sections are there. History is well done, perhaps a time-line could be used?

  1. The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area.

Good use of headings, subheadings in history was well used.

  1. Content is correctly cited and referenced.

File:Finger-Clubbing.jpg, File:TBX1.jpeg, File:NKX2-5.jpeg, File:JAG1.jpeg and File:Normal fetal blood flow and Tetralogy of Fallot.jpg should be referenced properly.

  1. The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations.

Well done student image with good explanation. More images would be good. Include more terms in glossary. Table in diagnostic tests has too much text. Table should be used to summarise, put main block of text outside of the table.

  1. Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities.

Prognosis needs more referencing.

  1. Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of embryology.

Good information in genetics, but maybe relate the symptoms to problems? (eg: what does Conotruncal anomaly face syndrome mean for the person/fetus?)

  1. Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with the above guidelines.

Has developed wiki according to guidelines but some changes could be good.

Group 7 *The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described. Main sections are there. Epidemiology needs more content.

*The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area. Alot of content but not broken up enough. Use subheadings if possible - allows easy searching for specific content.

*Content is correctly cited and referenced. File:UBE3A Ubiquitylation Pathway.png, File:Extent of microcephaly in 20 AS patients with deletion and without deletion.png, File:Normal and AS mice performance on the Rotarod apparatus.jpg, File:Fluorescence in situ Hybridisation (FISH) study showing the critical region of Angelman Syndrome on chromosome 15.jpg and File:Role of UBE3A in dendritic spine neuronal synapses.png needs to be referenced correctly.

*The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations. Good student drawn image - adequate explaination.

*Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities. Decent research has gone into this.

*Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of embryology. Alot of information on genes, but maybe relate it back to development of individual? (eg: what does 'UBE3A ubiquitylation' mean for the individual?)

*Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with the above guidelines. development follows guidelines, can be improved by making some changes.

Group 9

*The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described. main points are there but may not be very well structured. Management and treatment are the same (even with repeated text) and i think it can be made into one section. It should also be on its own (big heading) and not under epidemiology. Also, epidemiology by itself is very limited. Treatment section is poorly structured with different sentences talking about different things.

*The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area. In Endocrine section, include information such as why individuals with william's symdrome is prone to such disorders. What does it relate to? Key information is there but perhaps not well structured.

*Content is correctly cited and referenced. Structural Differences in the Brain should have more references. Cognitive, Behavioural and Neurological Phenotype needs more references for that amount of text. where did you base File:House drawings Williams.jpg off?

*The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations. Image showing typical phenotype is good with adequate explanation.

*Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities. extensive use of research papers evident in the references but more in-text referencing would be good.

*Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of embryology. Genitourinary Conditions could be related to embryological development as most of these conditions are traced back to fetal development.

  1. Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with the above guidelines.

Mostly developed by the guidelines but some changes would be beneficial.

Group 10 *The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described. All main points are there. Content is decent in some places and lacking in others. Fixing up problematic areas would be good.

*The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area. Maybe include a time-line in history? General Signs and Symptoms of Duchenne’s Muscular Dystrophy section is very poor. Getting information from an insurance website is not actual research. please consider re-doing this section with sources cited from a peer-reviewed paper. Signs and symptoms should go with diagnosis as it is part of making a diagnosis. why are there ampersands in Smooth muscle section?

*Content is correctly cited and referenced. Fix up references, some are simply links and they repeat.

*The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations. Student image is drawn well, explanation could do with a bit more work though. File:Normal control muscle (a) vs. Duchennes muscular dystrophy muscle (b).jpg needs proper citation, also there isn't many images. Try including more images.

*Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities. Not as much information as i was expecting and references is not as extensive as other pages - but good in-text citation (with the exception of some places such as diagnosis and Respiratory problems), it shows that the information has come from somewhere. Information from an insurance website is not evidence of extensive research so try to fix it.

*Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of embryology. No connection to embryology - try linking genetic defects to problems in the neonate, or even if there is a prenatal test.

*Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with the above guidelines. Some evidence of developing the wiki page with the guidelines. Will benefit from changing some things.

Group 11

*The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described. Key points are there, but content is lacking especially in the introduction.

*The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area. Timeline should be included under 'history' Glossary is limited. in Genetic Configuration, the part about 4 sections, number 1 and 2 are together - are they meant to be presented like this? it looks out of place when 3 and 4 have their own paragraph each. It would be nice to have a subheading for pathology of cleft lip and cleft palate to separate the two for easy location.

*Content is correctly cited and referenced. References are duplicated. no references in treatment or Problems associated with Cleft Palate. fix up reference for File:Variations of Cleft Lip or Palate.jpg, File:Bilateral Cleft Lip Variations.jpg and File:Furlow Z-plasty technique.jpg.

*The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations. File:NeuromericOrganization.jpg and File:Veau-Wardill-Kilner technique of palate repair in a unilateral cleft lip and palate.jpg needs a description.

*Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities. Current and future research is very limited, does not show any research that extends beyond formal teaching.

*Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of embryology. Link to embryology present in identifying risks in cleft plate and lip development. Developmental staging also covers it.

*Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with the above guidelines. Some evidence of developing wiki page with guidelines. will help if changes are made.

Lab 9

--z3329495 12:27, 29 September 2011 (EST)

Comments: A description of the image "Cross section of the spiral cord" would be good This section is good, however if possible it could be further elaborated. Image in this section is very nice, although is lacking a student template. Could you add more images into the relevant sections of the table? pathophysiology of the syndrome Pathogenesis image could use a more informative legend

Lab 10

--z3329495 11:19, 6 October 2011 (EST)

Musculoskeletal System - Abnormalities

Cardiac Embryology

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Questions

  1. Besides fetal alcohol syndrome, identify another environmental teratogen that can lead to hearing loss.
  2. Identify 3 factors that contribute to poor neonatal drainage of the middle ear.
  3. Identify 1 genetic abnormality that affects hearing development and link to the OMIM record. (Your individual abnormality should be different from all other students)

Answers

  1. Infectious agents (eg: Rubella) transmitted by the mother to the infant are another environmental teratogen that can lead to hearing loss in infants.
  2. Angle of Eustachian tube (10 degrees) in infant results in easy access to middle ear by fluids and bacteria present in oral cavity, lumen of Eustachian tube is narrower (resulting in easier blockage impeding drainage) and only one muscle actively controls and opens the Eustachian tube in infants (as opposed to two in adults) which could lead to difficulties in opening up the tube to drain it of fluids and possible bacteria growing.
  3. Drosophila diaphanous gene (DIAPH1; 602121) on chromosome 5q31 causes hereditary hearing loss DEAFNESS, AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT 1; DFNA1

Lab 11

--z3329495 11:06, 13 October 2011 (EST)

Questions

  1. Name the components that give rise to the interatrial septum and the passages that connect the right and left atria.
  2. Identify the cardiac defects that arise through abnormal development of the outflow tract

Answers

  1. septum primum (membranous septum) and septum secundum (muscular septum) give rise to the ineratrial septum. Foramen secundum (in septum promum) and foramen ovale (in septum secundum) forms the final passages that connect the right and left atria.
  2. Double Outlet Right Ventricle, Partial/Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection, Transposition of the Great Vessels, Hypoplastic Left Heart

Lab 12

--z3329495 11:06, 20 October 2011 (EST)

Questions

  1. Give examples of 3 systems that continue to develop postnatally.
  2. Identify the abnormalities detected by the Guthrie Test and link to one abnormality listed in OMIM.

Answers

  1. Respiratory, endocrine (eg: adrenal glands), neural (CNS continutes to make connections and trim inappropriately formed connections)
  2. phenylketonuria (PKU), hypothyroidism and cystic fibrosis (I'm assuming the question for the link to OMIM requires a link to a page on OMIM that identifies a gene implicated in the development of the abnormality?) Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator; CFTR