The Eggs of Mammals (1936) 10

From Embryology

Chapter X Summary and Recapitulation

The Eggs of Mammals (1936): Introduction | The Origin of the Definitive Ova | The Growth of the Ovum | The Development and Atresia of Full-Grown Ova and the Problem of Ovarian Parthenogenesis | Methods Employed in the Experimental Manipulation of Mammalian Ova | The Tubal History of Unfertilized Eggs | Fertilization and Cleavage | The Activation of Unfertilized Eggs | The Growth and Implantation of the Blastodermic Vesicle | Summary and Recapitulation | Bibliography | Figures | Historic Disclaimer
Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
Mark Hill.jpg
Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)


For the purposes of this monograph an ovum is considered as such from the moment of its functional differentiation in the ovary until its implantation in the uterine endometrium. An examination has been made of the experimental investigations of the growth and development of the mammahan ovum during the various stages of its life history in the ovary and oviducts.


The problem of the origin of the definitive ova has received much attention, but it cannot be said to have been completely resolved. If we are to judge by evidence from non-mammalian forms the large amoeboid primordial germ cells must enter the embryonic gonad if it is to differentiate as a functional organ. A functional ovary develops only from embryonic gonads in which the secondary sex cords proliferate to form a true ovarian cortex associated with the germinal epithelium.


The ovaries of young mammals contain large numbers of primitive oocytes. The conception that these oocytes are the only precursors of the definitive ova is controverted by a large body of recent evidence which indicates that new ova are .proliferated from the germinal epithelium and that the rate of this proliferation varies with the various stages of the oestrus and pregnancy cycles. Ovogenesis in the adult seems to be partially inhibited by certain secretions of the anterior pituitary, the gonad-stimulating hormones affecting follicle growth primarily. The exact relation of the gonad-stimulating hormones to the ovogenetic processes is not at all obvious. It seems certain that the prophase stages of the oocyte nuclei occur independent of pituitary hormone activity.


Pituitary hormones are definitely concerned in the final stage of ovum maturation, the first polar division which normally occurs in the ovary of most mammals. The pituitary secretions do not affect the eggs directly but initiate changes in the follicles which make for maturation in the ova. Similar changes occur in atretic follicles with a resulting "pseudomaturation" in the ova of such follicles. The initiation of ovum activation represented by the first maturation division occurs in vitro simply upon the explantation of ovarian eggs. Maturation in vivo and in vitro can be explained as the result of a functional isolation of the ovum from the follicular epithelium. It is held probable therefore that the parthenogenetic development of ova observed in mammalian ovaries occurs as the result of the establishment in the follicle of special activating conditions.


Parthenogenetic development of unfertilized tubal ova rarely if ever occurs in vivo. In most eutherian mammals the eggs are shed surrounded by follicle cells. If sperm are not present the surrounding cells slowly fall away, and the naked ova descend into the lower portion of the tubes where they degenerate and are eventually either resorbed or washed out into the uterus. When sperm are present there is a rapid dissolution of the surrounding follicle cells due to the action of a heat labile substance carried by the sperm. It has been claimed that this same substance activates the ova into forming the second polar body, but the available evidence is contradictory. Tubal eggs remain fertilizable for a few hours in the rabbit, and for thirty hours in the ferret.


Manamalian ova may be fertilized in vitro and normal cleavage ensues. This is most readily demonstrated with rabbit ova, for the ova of most of the other forms examined do not cleave or develop appreciably under the ordinary conditions of tissue culture. Segmentation in vivo occurs at fairly characteristic rates in the various species of mammals. The cleavage rate in rabbits is definitely correlated with the adult size of the strain employed. The cleavage process itself is under the control of a cyanide-labile system. The process of cleavage is apparently independent of the activity of the primary sex hormones, oestrin and progestin.


Tubal rabbit ova readily exhibit parthenogenetic cleavages under certain conditions of explantation in vitro. Parthenogenetic activation can be initiated experimentally by treatment with cytolytic agents, by exposure to hypertonic solutions, and by heat treatment.


The development of the blastodermic vesicle in vivo is conditioned by the activity of corpus luteum secretions. In the absence of the corpus luteum development does not occur beyond that stage in which ova just entering the uterus are found. The evidence indicates that the corpus luteum secretions either stimulate the eggs directly or provide through stimulation of the uterine endometrium a suitable environment for the developing blastocysts. Oestrin and allied compounds prevent blastocyst growth by inhibiting the corpus luteum effect, the ova being most sensitive to this inhibition during the early blastocyst stages.


The implantation process itself is also under hormonal control. In the rat and mouse ovum implantation is delayed during lactation. This delay appears to be due to excessive corpus luteum secretion.


The development of various techniques for the explantation of ova both in vivo and in vitro makes available a variety of experimental investigations of the manmaalian ovum. The ova of certain forms are particularly adapted to experimental manipulation. Mammalian ova normally develop in a homeostatic environment. Certain components of this homeostasis sharply limit the extent and nature of ovum development at certain stages. During other phases of its growth the ovum appears to be a relatively independent organism. Careful investigation of the physiological processes occurring in the ovum itself and in its homeostatic environment is made possible by the various explantation and transplantation techniques.



Bibliography

Addison, W. H. F. 1917. Fragmentation of the ovum within the Graafian follicle. Proc. Path. Soc. Phila. 37, 1. Allen, B. M. 1904. Embryonic development of the ovary and testis of the mammals. Am. J. Anat. 3, 89.

Allen, E. 1923. Ovogenesis during sexual maturity. Am. J. Anat. 31,4:39.

. 1932. The ovarian follicular hormone, theelin; animal reactions.

In: Sex and internal secretions. Williams and Wilkins. Baltimore. Allen, E., Francis, B. F., Robertson, L. L., Colgate, C. E., Johnston,

C. G., DoisY, E. A., KouNTz, W. B. and Gibson, H. V. 1924. The hormone of the ovarian follicle; its localization and action in test animals and additional points bearing upon the internal secretion of the ovary. Am. J. Anat. 34, 133.

Allen, E., Kountz, W. B. and Francis, B. F. 1925. Selective elimination of ova in the adult ovary. Am. J. Anat. 34, 445. Allen, E., Pratt, J. P., Newell, Q. U. and Bland, L. J. 1930a. Human tubal ova; related early corpora lutea and uterine tubes. Carnegie

Inst. Wash. Contrib. Emhryol. 22, 45.

. 19306. Human ova from large follicles; including a search for mat-.

uration divisions and observations on atresia. Am. J. Anat. 46, 1.

Allen, W. M. 1930. Physiology of the corpus luteum; preparation and some chemical properties of progestin, hormone of corpus luteum which produces progestational proliferation. Am. J. Physiol. 92, 174.

Allen, W. M. and Corner, G. W. 1929. Physiology of the corpus luteum III. Normal growth and implantation of embryos after very early ablation of the ovaries, under the influence of extracts of the corpus luteum. Am. J. Physiol. 88, 340.

Amann, J. A. 1899. Ueber Bildung von Ureiern und primarfollikelahnlichen Gebilden in senilen Ovarium. Festschr. zum siebzigsten Geburtstag C. Kupfer.

Anderson, D. H. 1927. The rate of passage of the mammalian ovum through various portions of the Fallopian tube. Am. J. Physiol. 82, 557.

Arai, H. 1920a. Post natal development of the ovary in the white rat. Am. J. Anat. 27, 405.

. 19206. On the cause of the hypertrophy of the surviving ovary after semi-spaying and the number of ova in it. Am. J. Anat.

28, 59. AsAMi, G. 1920. Observations on follicular atresia in the rabbit ovary.

Anat. Rec. 18, 323. Aschner, B. 1914. Ueber den Kampf der Teile im Ovarium. Arch. Ent. Mech. 40, 565.

AsDELL, S. A. 1924. Some effects of unilateral ovariectomy in rabbits. Brit. J. Exp. Biol. 1, 473.


AssHETON, R. 1894. A re-investigation into the early stages of the development of the rabbit. Quar. J. Micr. Sc. 37, 113.

Athias, M. 1909. Les phenomenes de division de I'ovule dans les follicules de De Graaf en voie d'atresie chez le Lerot. Anat. Anz. 34, 1.

. 1920. Invagination de I'epithelium superficiel et neoformation ovulaire dans I'ovaire transplante chez le cobaye. Compt. rend. Soc. biol. 83, 1647.


VON Baer, K. E. 1827. De ovi mammalium et hominis genesi. Epistola. Leopoldi Vossi. Leipzig.

Balfour, F. M. 1878. On the structure and development of the vertebrate ovary. Quar. J. Micr. Sc. 18, 383.

. 1882. Handbuch der vergleichenden Embryologie. Trans, of Vetter. Jena. Barry, M. 1838. Researches in embryology, first series. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, p. 301.

. 1839. Researches in embryology, second series. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, p. 307.

Bellerby, C. W. 1929. The relation of the anterior lobe of the pituitary to ovulation. /. Physiol. 67, xxxiii.


Benoit, J. 1930. Contribution a I'etude de la lignee germinale chez le poulet. Destruction precoce des gonocytes primaires par les rayons ultraviolets. Compt. rend. Soc. biol. 104, 1329.

BiEDL, A., Peters, H. and Hofstatler, R. 1922. Transplantation befruchteter Eier bei Kaninchen. Z. Geburtsh. 84, 60.

BiscHOFF, T. L. W. 1842. Entwicklungsgeschichte der Saugethiere und des Menschen. Voss. Leipzig.

. 1845. Entwicklungsgeschichte des Hundeeies. Freidrich Vie wag und Sohn. Braunschweig.

. 1852. Entwicklungsgeschichte des Meerschweinchens. J. Rickersche Buchhandlung. Giessen.

. 1854. Entwicklungsgeschichte des Rehes. J. Rickersche Buchhandlung. Giessen.


Bond, C. S. 1906. Some points in uterine and ovarian physiology and pathology in rabbits. Brit. Med. J. 2, 121.

Bonnet, R. 1884. Beitrage zur Embryologie der Wiederkauer, gewonnen am Schafei. Arch. Anal. u. Physiol. 170.

. 1891. Grundriss der Entwickelungsgeschichte der Haussaugethiere. Verlag von Paul Parey. Berlin.

. 1899. Gibt es bei Wirbeltieren Parthenogenesis? Ergeb. Anat. Entwcklngsgesch. 9, 820.

. 1903. Uber Syncytien, Plasmodien und Symplasma in der Placenta der Saugetiere und des Menschen. Monats. Geburtsh. u. Gynak. 18, I.

BosAEUs, W. 1926. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Genese der Ovariale bryoma. Almquist und Wiksells. Upsala.

Bracket, A. 1912. Developpement in vitro de blastodermes et de jeunes embryons de mammiferes. Compt. rend. Soc. biol. 155, 1191.

. 1913. Recherches sur le determinisme hereditaire de Toeuf des Mammiferes. Developpement "in vitro" de jeunes vesicules blastodermiques du lapin. Arch. Biol. 28, 447.

Brambell, F. W. R. 1927. The development and morphology of the gonads of the mouse. Part I. The morphogenesis of the indifferent gonad and of the ovary. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 101, 391.

. 1927. The development and morphology of the gonads of the mouse. Part II. The development of the Wolffian body and ducts. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 102, 206.

. 1928. The development and morphology of the gonads of the mouse. Part III. The growth of the follicles. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 103, 258.

. 1930. The development of sex in vertebrates. Macmillan Co. New York.

Brambell, F. W. R., Parkes, A. S. and Fielding, V. 1927a. Changes in the ovary of the mouse following exposures to x-rays. I. Irradiation at three weeks old. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 101, 29. . 1927b. Changes in the ovary of the mouse following exposures to

x-rays. II. Irradiation at or before birth. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 101, 95. Branca, A. 1925. L'ovocyte atresique et son involution. Arch. Biol. 35,

325. Buhler, a. 1894. Beitrage zur Kentniss der Eibildung beim Kaninchen

und der Markstrange des Eierstockes beim Fuchs und Menschen.

Z. wissensch. Zool. 58, 314. BuRDicK, H. 0. and Pincus, G. 1935. The effect of oestrin injections upon the developing ova of mice and rabbits. Am. J. Physiol. 111,201.


Butcher, Earl 0. 1927. The origin of the definitive ova in the white rat (Mus norvegicus albinus). Anat. Rec. 37, 13.

. 1932. Regeneration in hgated ovaries and transpla^.ted ovarian fragments of the white rat (Mus norvegicus albinus). Anat. Rec. 54, 87.

BuYSE, Adrian. 1935. The differentiation of transplanted mammalian

gonad primordia. J. Exp. Zool. 70, 1. Caldwell, W. H. 1887. The embryology of the Monotremata and Mar supalia. Part I. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. B 178, 463. Campbell, J. A. 1924. Changes in the tensions of CO2 and O2 in gases

injected under the skin and into the abdominal cavity. J. Physiol. 59,

1. Carmichael, E. S. and Marshall, F. H. A. 1908. On the occurrence of compensatory hypertrophy in the ovary. J. Physiol. 36, 431.

Carrel, A. 1924. Leucocytic trephones. /. Am. Med. Assoc. 82, 255.

Casida, L. E. 1935. Prepuberal development of the pig ovary and its relation to stimulation with gonadotropic hormones. Anat. Rec. 61, 389.

Castle, W. E. and Gregory, P. W. 1929. The embryological basis of size inheritance in the rabbit. J. Morph. and Physiol. 48, 81.

Champy, C. 1927. Parthenogenese experimentale chez le Lapin. Compt. rend. Soc. hiol. 96, 1108.

Chapin, Catherine L. 1917. A microscopic study of the reproductive system of foetal free-martins. /. Exp. Zool. 23, 453.

Charlton, H. H. 1917. The fate of the unfertilized egg in the white mouse. Biol. Bull. 33, 321.

Clark, E. B. 1923. Observations on the ova and ovaries of the guineapig, Cavia cobaya. Anat. Rec. 25, 313.

Clark, R. T. 1934. Studies on the physiology of reproduction in the sheep. II. The cleavage stages of the ovum. Anat, Rec. 60, 135.

Coert, H. J. 1898. Over de ontwikeling en den bouw van den geslacht sklier bijde zoogdiern meer in het bijzonder van den eierstock. Akad. Proefschrift. Leiden.

Corey, E. L. 1928. Effect of prenatal and postnatal injections of the pituitary gland in the white rat. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. & Med. 25, 498.

Corner, G. W. 1928. Physiology of the corpus luteum. I. The effect of very early ablation of the corpus luteum upon embryos and uterus. Am. J. Physiol. 86, 74.

Courrier, R. 1923. Vesicule blastodermique parthenogenetique dans un ovaire de cobaye impubere. Arch. Anat., Histol. et Embryol. 2, 455.


CouRRiER, R. et Oberling, C. 1923. Parthenogenese spontanee dans I'ovaire du cobaye. Bull. Soc. Anat. Paris 93, 724.

CouRRiER, R. et Raynaud, R. 1933. Experiences d'antagonisme humoral ovarien realisees avec I'etalon international de folliculine cristallisee. Compt. rend. Soc. biol. 115, 299.

. 1934. Etude quantitative de Tavortement folliculinique provoque

chez la lapine, par Thormone cristallisee. Realisation d'un avortement partiel. Compt. rend. Soc. biol. 116, 1078.

CowPERTHWAiTE, Marian M. 1925. Observations on pre- and postpubertal oogenesis in the white rat (Mus norvegicus albinus). Am. J. Anat. 36, 69.

Crew, F. A. E. 1927. On the effects of unilateral ovariotomy and salpingectomy in the rat. Biol. Generalis 3, 207.

Cruikshank, W. 1797. Experiments in which, on the third day after impregnation the ova of rabbits were found in the fallopian tubes and on the fourth day after impregnation in the uterus itself; with the first appearance of the foetus. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 18, 197.

Dalq, a. et Simon, S. 1931. Contribution a I'analyse des fonctions nucleaires dans I'ontogenese de la Grenouille. III. Etude statistique et cytologique des effets de I'irradiation d'un des gametes sur la gastrulation chez Rana Fusca. Arch. Biol. 1^2, 107.

Davenport, C. B. 1925. Regeneration of ovaries in mice. J . Exp. Zool.

Deansley, R., Fee, A. R. and Parkes, A. S. 1930. Studies on ovulation. II. The effect of hypophysectomy on the formation of the corpus luteum. /. Physiol. 70, 38.

Defrise, a. 1933. Some observations on living eggs and blastulae of the albino rat. Anat. Rec. 57, 239.

DoiSY, E. A., Curtis, J. and Collier, W. D. 1931. Effect of theelin upon the developing ovary of the rat. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. & Med. 28, 885.

DoMM, L. V. 1929. Spermatogenesis' following early ovariotomy in the brown leghorn fowl. Arch. Eritwcklngsmech. Org. 119, 171.

DoRAN, M. A. 1902. Pregnancy after removal of both ovaries for cystic tumor. /. Ohst. a7id Gynec. Brit. Emp. 2, 1. Emery, F. E. 1931. Changes in the ovary and oestrus cycle following the removal of one ovary in albino rats. Physiol. Zool. 4, 101Engle, E. T. 1927a. Polyovular follicles and polynuclear ova in the mouse. Anat. Rec. 35, 341.


Engle, E. T. 19276. A quantitative study of follicular atresia in the mouse. Am. J. Anat. 39, 187. . 1928. The role of the anterior pituitary in compensatory ovarian hypertrophy. Anat. Rec. 37, 275. . 1929. Ovarian responses: differences elicited by treatment with urine from pregnant women and by freshly implanted anterior lobe. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 93, 276. .

1931a. Prepubertal growth of the ovarian follicle in the albino mouse. Anat. Rec. 4-8, 341.
1931b. The pituitary-gonadal relationship and the problem of precocious sexual maturity. Endocrinology 15, 405.

Enzmann, E. V. 1935. Intrauterine growth of albino mice in normal and in delayed pregnancy. Anat. Rec. 62, 31.

Enzmann, E. V., Saphir, N. R. and Pincus, G. 1932. Delayed pregnancy in mice. Anat. Rec. 5^, 325.

Evans, H. M. and Cole, H. H. 1931. An introduction to the study of the oestrus cycle in the dog. Mem. Univ. Calif. 9, 65.

Evans, H. M., Meyer, K. and Simpson, M. E. 1932. Relation of prolan to the anterior hypophyseal hormones. Am. J. Physiol. 100, 141.

Evans, H. M., Meyer, K., Simpson, M. E., Szarka, A., Pencharz, R. I., Cornish, R. W. and Reichert, F. L. 1933. The growth and gonadstimulating hormones of the anterior hypophysis. Mem. Univ. Calif. 11,1.

Evans, H. M. and Simpson, M. E. 1928. Antagonism of growth and sex hormones of the anterior hypophysis. /. Am. Med. Assoc. 91, 1337.

. 1929a. A comparison of the ovarian changes produced in immature animals by implants of hypophyseal tissue and hormone from the urine of pregnant women. Am. J. Physiol. 89, 381. '

. 1929b. Impairment of the birth mechanism due to hormones from the anterior hypophysis. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. & Med. 26, 595.

Evans, H. M. and Swezy, 0. 1931. Ovogenesis and the normal follicular cycle in adult mammalia. Mem. Univ. Calif. 9, 119. Feltx, W. 1912. Development of the urogenital organs, in: Manual of human embryology, 2, 752. Keibel and Mall. Philadelphia. Fellner, 0. 0. 1909. Histologie des Ovariums in der Schwangerschaft. Arch. mikr. Anat. 73, 288.

Fevold, H. L. and Hisaw, F. L. 1934. Interactions of gonad stimulating hormones in ovarian development. Am. J. Physiol. 109, 655.

Fevold, H. L., Hisaw, F. L. and Greep, O. 1934. Factors which govern ovarian development. Anat. Rec. 60 Supp., 51.


Fevold, H. L., Hisaw, F. L. and Leonard, S. L. 193 L The gonadstimulating and the luteinizing hormones of the anterior lobe of the hypophysis. A??i. J. Physiol 97, 291.

FiRKET, J. 1920. On the origin of germ cells in higher vertebrates. Anat. Rec. IS, 309.

Fischer, Albert. 1925. Tissue culture. Levin and Munksgaard. Copenhagen.

Flemming, W. 1885. Tiber die Bildung von Richtungsfiguren in Saugetiereiern beim Untergang Graafscher Follikel. Arch. Anat. u. Eniwickl. 221.

FouLis, J. 1876. The ova and ovary in man and other mammalia. Quar. J. Micr. Sc. 16, 190.

Friedgood, H. and Pincus, G. 1935. Studies on the conditions of activity in endocrine organs. XXX. The nervous control of the anterior pituitary as indicated by maturation of ova and ovulation after stimulation of cervical sympathetics. Endocrinology 19, 710.

Friedman, M. H. 1929. Mechanism of ovulation in the rabbit. II. Ovulation produced by the injection of urine from pregnant women. Am. J. Phijsiol. 90, 617.

Fuss, A. 1911. Uber extraregioniaire Geschlechtzellen bei einem Menschhchen Embryo von vier wochen. Anat. Am. 39, 407.

. 1913. Uber die Geschlechtzellen des Menschen und der Saugetiere. Arch. mikr. Anat. 81, 1.

Genther, I. 1931. Irradiation of the ovaries of guinea pigs and its effect on the oestrus cycle. Am. J. Anat. 48, 99.

. 1934. X-irradiation of the ovaries of guinea pigs and its effect on subsequent pregnancies. Am. J. Anat. 55, 1.

Gerard, P. 1920. Contribution a I'etude de Fovaire des mammiferes. L'ovaire de Galago mossambicus (Young). Arch. Biol. 30, 357.

Gilchrist, F. and Pincus, G. 1932. Living rat eggs. Anat. Rec. 54, 275.

Gordon, C. S. 1896. Two pregnancies following removal of both ovaries and ligation of tubes. Trans. Am. Gynec. Soc. 21, 104. Gregory, P. W. 1930. The early embryology of the rabbit. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Contrib. to Embryol. 21, 141.

Gregory, P. W. and Castle, W. E. 1931. Further studies on the embryological basis of size inheritance in the rabbit. /. Exp. Zool. 59, 199.

Grosser, 0. 1909. Vergl. Anat. u. Entwicklung der Eihaute und der Placenta. Wilh. Braumiiller. Wien u. Leipzig.

Grusdew, W. S. 1896. Versuche liber die kiinstliche Befruchtung von Kanincheneiern. Arch. Anat. u. Physiol., Anat. Abt. 269.

GuRWiTSCH, A. 1900. Idiozom und Centralkorper im Ovarialei der Saugetiere. Arch. mikr. Anat. 66, 377.

GuTHERZ, S. 1925". Tiber vorzeitige Chromatinreifung an physiologisch degenerierenden Saugeoozyten des friihen Wachstumsperiode. Z. mikr. Anat. Forsch. 2, 1.

Haberlandt, G. 1922. Uber Zellteilungshormone und ihre Beziehungen zur Wimdheilung, Befruchtung, Parthenogenesis und Adventivembryone. Biol. Zentr. Jf2, 145.

Haggstrom, p. 1922. Uber degenerative parthenogenetische Teilungen von Eizellen in normalen Ovarien des Menschen. Acta Gynecol. Scandinav. 1, 137.

Hall, B. V. 1935. The reactions of rat and mouse eggs to hydrogen ions. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. & Med. 32, 747.

Hamlett, G. W. D. 1932. The reproductive cycle in the armadillo. Z. wissensch. Zool. 1^1, 143.

. 1935. Delayed implantation and discontinuous development in the mammals. Quar. Rev. Biol. 10, 432.

Hammond, J. 1928. Die Kontrolle der Fruchtbarkeit bei Tieren. Zilchtungskunde 3, 523.

. 1934. The fertilization of rabbit ova in relation to time. A method of controlling the litter size, the duration of pregnancy, and the weight of the young at birth. J. Exp. Biol. 11, 140.

Hammond, J. and Asdell, S. A. 1926. The vitahty of spermatozoa in the male and female reproductive tract. Brit. J. Exp. Biol. 4, 155.

Hammond, J. and Marshall, F. H. A. 1925. Reproduction in the rabbit.

Oliver and Boyd. London. Hammond, J. and Walton, A. 1934. Notes on ovulation and fertilization in the ferret. /. Exp. Biol. 11, 307.

Hanson, F. B. and Boone, C. 1926. On the migration of ova from one uterine horn to the other in the albino rat. Am. Nat. 60, 257.

Hargitt, G. T. 1925. The formation of the sex glands and germ cells of mammals. 1. The origin of the germ cells in the albino rat. J. Morphol. and Physiol. Jfi, 517.

. 1930. The formation of the sex glands and germ cells of mammals. V. Germ cells in the ovaries of adult pregnant and senile albino rats. J. Morphol. and Physiol. 50, 453.

Harms, J. W. 1926. Korper und Keimzellen. J. Springer. Berlin.

Hartman, C. G. 1916. Studies in the development of the opossum, Didelphys virginiana L. I. History of early cleavage. 11. Formation of the blastocyst. J. Morphol. 27, 1.

Hartman, C. G. 1919. Studies in the development of the opossum, Didelphys virginiana L. HI. Description of new material on maturation, cleavage, and endoderm formation. IV. The bilaminar blastocyst. /. Morphol. 32, 1.

. 1924. Observations on the viability of the mammalian ovum. A7n. J. Obst. and Gij.iec. 7, 1.

. 1925. Observations on the functional compensatory hypertrophy of the opossum ovary. Am. J. Anat. 35, 1.

. 1929. How large is the mammalian egg? A review. Quar. Rev. Biol. 4, 373.

. 1932a. Studies in the reproduction of the monkey, Macacus (Pithecus) rhesus, with special reference to menstruation and pregnancy. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Contrib. Embryol. 23, 1.

. 19326. Ovulation and the transport and viabihty of ova and sperm in the female genital tract. In Allen: Sex and internal secretions. Williams and Wilkins. Baltimore.

Harz, W. 1883. Beitrage zur Histologie des Ovariums der Siiugetiere. Arch. mikr. Anat. 22, 374.

Hatai, S. 1913. The effect of castration, spaying, or semi-spaying on the weight of the central nervous system and of the hypophysis of the albino rat; also the effect of semi-spaying on the remaining ovary. J. Exp. Zool. 15, 297.

. 1915. The growth of organs in the albino rat as affected by gonadectomy. J. Exp. Zool. 18,1.

Haterius, H. 0. 1928. An experimental study of ovarian regeneration in mice. Physiol. Zool. 1, 45.

Heape, W. 1883. The development of the mole, Talpa Europea. The formation of the germ layers and early development of the medullary groove and notochord. Qttar. J. Micr. Sc. 23, 412.

. 1886. The development of the mole (Talpa Europea) ; the ovarian ovum and segmentation of the ovum. Quar. J. Micr. Sc. 26, 157.

. 1905. Ovulation and degeneration of ova in the rabbit. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 76, 260.

Hegner, R. W. 1914. The germ-cell cycle in animals. Macmillan Co. New York.

Henneguy, F. 1893. Sur la fragmentation parthenogenesique des ovules des vertebres pendant I'atresie des follicules de Graaf. Compt. rend. Soc. biol. 45, 500.


Hensen, V. 1869. Uber die Ziiclitunfi; unhernichteter Eier. Centr. med. Wissemch. 7, 403.

. 1870. Beobachtung fiber die Befruchtung iind Entvvicklung des Kaninchens und Meerschweinchens. Z. Anal. Eniwckimjs. 1, 213; 851. Hertz, R. and IIisaw, F. L. 1934. l*]ffects of follicle-stinuilating and luteinizing pituitary extracts on the ovaries of the infantile and juvenile rabbit, jlm. J. Physiol. lOS, 1.

Heuser, C. H. and Streeter, G. L. 1929. Early stages in the development of pig embryos. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Conirih. Embryol. 20, 1. IIeys, Florence. 1929. Does regeneration follow complete ovariotomy in the albino rat? Science 70, 289. . 1931. The problem of the origin of the germ cells. Quar. Rev. Biol. 6, 1.

Hill, J. P. 1910. The early development of the Marsupalia with especial reference to the native cat (Dasyurus viverrinus). Quar. J. Micr. Sc. 56, 1.

. 1918. Some observations on the early development of Didelphys aurita. Quar. J. Micr. Sc. OS, 91.

Hill, J. P. and Tuihe, M. 1924. The early development of the cat (Felis domestica). Quar. J. Micr. Sc. 6S, 513.

Hill, M. and Parkes, A. S. 1931. Attempts to promote the reformation of germ cells. /. Anat. 65, 212. HiNDLE, E. 1910. A cytological study of artificial parthenogenesis in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Arch. Entwcklngsmechn, 31, 145.

HiNSEY, J. C. and Markee, J. Vj. 1933. Studios on prolan-induced ovulation in midbrain and midbrain-hypophysectomized rabbits. Am. J. Physiol. 106, 48.

HiSAW, F. L., Fevold, H. L., Foster, M. A. and Hellbaum, A. A. 1934. A physiological explanation of the oestrus cycle of the rat. Anat, Rec. 60 Sup p., 52.

HuBER, G. C. 1915. The development of the albino rat, Mus norvegicus albinus. I. From the pronuclear stage to the stage of the mesoderm anlage; end of the first to end of the ninth day. J. Morphol. 26, 247.

HuBRECHT, A. A. W. 1912. Friihe Entwickhmgsstadien des Igels und ihre Bedeutung fiir die Vorgeschichte (Phylogenese) des Amnions. Zool. Jahrb. Supp. XV, 2, 739.

Humphrey, R. R. 1928. The developmental potencies of the intermediate mesoderm of amblystoma when transplanted into ventro-lateral sites in other embryos: the primordial germ cells of such grafts and their role in the development of a gonad. Anat. Rec. Jfi, 67.

Janosik, J. 1897. Die Atrophic der FoIIikel und ein seltsames Verhalten der Eizelle. Arch. mikr. Anal. 48, 169.

Jenkinson, J. W. 1900. A reinvestigation of the early stages of the development of the mouse. Quar. J. Micr. Sc. 43, Gl.. 1913. Vertebrate embryology. Oxford.

Jones, T. W. 1837. On the first changes in the ova of Mammifera in consequence of impregnation, and the mode of origin of the chorion. Phil. Trans. Roy. Sac. 2, 339.

. 1838. On the ova of man and mammiferous brutes as they exist in the ovaries l^efore impregnation and on the discovery in them of a vesicle. London Med. Gaz., 680.

. 1885. On the ova of man and mammals before and after fecundation. Lancet 2, 283.

Just, E. E. 1928. Cortical reactions and attendant physico-chemical changes in ova following fertilization. In Alexander: Colloid Chemistry. The Chemical Catalog Co. Inc. New York.

Kampmeier, O. F. 1929. On the problem of "parthenogenesis" in the mammalian ovary. Am. J. Anal. 43, 45.

Kanel, V. Y. 1901. Regeneration processes in the ovaries of rabbits. Mattissen. Kieff.

Keibel, F. 1888. Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Igels. Anat. Am. 3, 632.

. 1894. Studien zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Schweines (Susscrofa dom.). Schwalbe's Morphol. Arb. 3, 1.

. 1899. Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Rehes. Verh. Anat. Ges., Anat. Anz. Ergdnz. 16, 64.

. 1901. Frlihe Entwicklungsstudien des Rehes und die Gastrulation der Siluger. Verh. Anat. Ges. Bonn, Anat. Anz. Ergdnz. 19, 184.

. 1902. Die Entwicklung des Rehes bis zur Anlage des Mesoblast. Arch. Anat. u. Physiol,, Anat. Abt., 292.

Kingery, H. M. 1914. So-called parthenogenesis in the white mouse. Biol. Bull. 27, 240., 1917. Oogenesis in the white mouse. /. Morphol. SO, 261.

Kingsbury, B. F. 1913. The morphogenesis of the mammalian ovary: Felis domestica. Am. J. Anat. 15, 345. . 1914. Interstitial cells of the mammalian ovary. Am. J. Anat. 16, 59.

KiRKHAM, W. B. 1915. The germ cell cycle in the mouse. Proc. Am. Assoc. Anat., Anat. Rec. 10, 217.

KiRKHAM, W. B. 1916. The prolonged gestation period in suckling mice.

Anat. Rec. 11, 31. . 1918. Observations on the relation between suckling ai. le rate

of embryonic development in mice. J. Exp. Zool. 27, 49. KoHNO, S. 1925. Zur Kenntnis der Keimbahn des Menschen. Arch.

Gyjiak. 126, 310. KuscHAKEWiTscH, S. 1910. Die Entwicklungsgeschichte der Keimdrusen von Rana esculenta. Festschr. f. R.

Hertwig 2, 61. Krasovskaja, 0. V. 1935a. Fertilization of the rabbit egg outside the organism. Contribution Z'^. Variations of size of the rabbit eggs before and after fertilization (in Russian). Biol. Jour. 4, 262.

. 1935b. Cytological study of the heterogeneous fertilization of the egg of the rabbit outside the organism. Acta Zoologica 16, 449.

Kynoch, J. A. C. 1902. Repeated ovariotomy. J. Obst. and Gynec. Brit. Emp. 2, 366.

Lams, H. 1910. Recherches sur I'oeuf de cobaye (Cavia cobaya), maturation, fecondation, segmentation. Compt. rend. Assoc. Anat. Bruxelles 12, 119.

. 1913. fitude de I'oeuf de cobaye aux premiers stades de Fembryogenese. Arch. Biol. 28, 229. . 1924. L'oeuf de la rate pendant les premieres phases de son developpement avant son arrivee dans Futerus. Compt. rend. Assoc. Anat. Bruxelles, 195.

Lams, H. and Doorme, J. 1908. Nouvelles recherches sur la maturation et la fecondation de Foeuf des mammiferes. Arch. Biol. 23, 259.

Lane-Claypon, J. E. 1905. On the origin and life history of the interstitial cells of the ovary of the rabbit. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 77 ^ 32.

. 1907. On ovogenesis and the formation of the interstitial cells of the ovary. J. Ohst. and Gynec. 11, 205.

Lane, C. E. 1935. Some influences of oestrin on the hypophyseal-gonad complex of the immature female rat. Am. J. Physiol 110, 681. Lane, C. E. and Hisaw, F. L. 1934. The follicular apparatus of the ovary of the immature rat and some factors which influence it. Anat. Rec. 60 Supp. 52.

Lange, J. 1896. Die Bildung der Eier und der Graafschen Follikel bei der Maus. Verb. phys. med. Gesell. Wurzburg N. F. 30, 57.

League, B. and Hartman, C. G. 1925. Anovular Graafian follicles in mammalian ovaries. Anat. Rec. 30, 1.

Lee, F. C. 1928. The tubo-uterine junction in various mammals. Bull.Johns Hopkins Hosp. 42, 335.

Lelievre, Peyron et Corsy. 1927. La parthenogenese dans I'ovaire des mammiferes et le probleme de I'origine des embryonies. Bull. pf etude de Cancer 16, 71L

Leonard, S. L., Hisaw, F. L. and Fevold, H. L. 193L Further studies of the folHcular-corpus luteum hormone relationship in the rabbit. Am. J. Physiol. 100, UL

Leonard, S. L., Meyer, R. K. and Hisaw, F. L. 193 L The effects of oestrin on the development of the ovary in immature female rats. Endocrinology IS, 17.

Lewis, L. L. 1911. The vitality of reproductive cells. Okla. Agr. Exp. Sta, Bull. 96.

Lewis, W. H. 1931. Living mouse eggs. Anat. Rec. 48, 52.

Lewis, W. H. and Gregory, P. W. 1929. Cinematographs of living developing rabbit eggs. Science 69, 226.

Lewis, W. H. and Hartman, C. G. 1933. Early cleavage stages of the egg of the monkey. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Contrib. Embryol. 24, 187.

Lewis, W. H. and Wright, E. S. 1935. On the early development of the mouse egg. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Contrib. Embryol. 25, 113.

LiLLiE, F. 1919. Problems of fertilization. University of Chicago Press. Chicago.

LiLLiE, R. S. 1934. The influence of hypertonic and hypotonic sea water on artificial activation of starfish eggs. Biol. Bull. 66, 361.

LiPSCHtJTZ, A. 1924. The internal secretions of the sex glands. Williams and Wilkins. Baltimore.

. 1928. New developments in ovarian dynamics and the law of follicular constancy. Brit. J. Exp. Biol. 5, 283.

LiPSCHUTz, A., Kallas, H. and Pabz, R. 1929. Hypophyse und Gesetz der Pubertat. Arch. ges. Physiol. 221, 695.

LiPSCHUTz, A. and Voss, H. E. 1925. Further developments on the dynamics of ovarian hypertrophy. Brit. J. Exp. Biol. 3, 35.

LoEB, J. 1895. Untersuchungen iiber die physiologischen Wirkungen des Sauerstoffmangels. Arch. ges. Physiol. 62, 249.

. 1906. Versuchen iiber den Qhemischen Charakter des Befruch tungsvorgangs. Biochem. Z. 1, 183.

. 1913. Artificial parthenogenesis and fertilization. University of Chicago Press. Chicago.

LoEB, J. and Wastenys, H. 1912. Die Oxydationsvorgange im befruch teten und unbefruchteten Seesternei. Arch. Entwcklngsmech. 35, 555.

LoEB, L. 1901. On progressive changes in the ova in mammalian ovaries. J. Med. Res. 6, 39.

LoEB, L. 1905. Uber hypertropische Vorgange bei den Follikelatresie nebst Bemerkungen liber die oocyten in den Markstrangen und liber Teilungserscheinungen am Ei im ovarium des Meerschweinchen. Arch. mikr. Anat. 65. 728.

. 1911a. Beitrage zur Analyse des Gewebewachstums. VII. Uber einige Bedingungen des Wachstums der embryonalen Placenta. Arch. Entwcklngsmech. 32, 662.

. 19116. The parthenogenetic development of ova in the mammalian ovary and the origin of ovarian teratomata and chorioepitheliomata. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 56, 1327.

. 1912. Uber chorionepitheliomartige Gebilde im Ovariums des Meerschweinchens und liber ihre warseheinliche Entstehung aus parthenogenetisch sich entwickelnden Eiern. Z. Krebsforsch. 11,1.

. 1915. An early stage and an experimentally produced extrauterine pregnancy and the spontaneous parthenogenesis of the eggs in the ovary of the guinea pig. Biol. Bull. 28, 59.

. 1917. Factors in the growth and sterility of the mammahan ovary. Science JfS, 591.

. 1923. The parthenogenetic development of eggs in the ovary of the guinea pig. Science 58, 35.

. 1932. The parthenogenetic development of eggs in the ovary of the guinea pig. Anat. Rec. 51, 373.

Long, J. A. 1912. Studies on early stages of development in rats and mice. Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool. 6, 105.

Long, J. A. and Evans, H. M. 1922. The oestrus cycle in the rat and associated phenomena. Mem. Univ. Calif. 6, 1.

Long, J. A. and Mark, E. L. 1911. The maturation of the egg of the mouse. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 1^2, 1.

Lowenthal, N. 1888. Zur Kenntnis des Keimfieckes im Urei einiger Sanger. Anat. Am. 3, 363.

Lyon, E. P. 1902. Effects of KCN and of lack of O2 upon the fertilized eggs and the embryos of the sea-urchin. Am. J. Physiol. 7, 56.

MacDowell, E. C, Allen, E. and MacDowell, C. G. 1929. The relation of parity, age, and body weight to the number of corpora lutea in mice. Anat. Rec. 4I, 267.

MacDowell, E. C. and Lord, E. M. 1925. The number of corpora lutea in successive pregnancies. Anat. Rec. 31, 131.

Mann, M. C. 1924. Cytological changes in unfertilized tubal eggs of the rat. Biol. Bull. 46, 316.

Marshak, a. 1935. The effect of x-rays on chromosomes in different stages of meiosis. J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 179.

Marshall, F. H. A. and Jolly, W. A. 1907. Results of removal and transplantation of ovaries. Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh 4^, 589.

. 1908. On the results of heteroplastic transplantation as compared with those produced by transplantation in the same individual. Quar. J. Exp. Physiol. 1, 115.

Melissinos, K. 1907. Die Entwicklung des Eies der Mause von den ersten Furchung-Phanomenen bis zur Festsetzung der Allantois an der Etoplacentasplatte. Arch, niikr. Anal. 70, 577.

Meredith, W. A. 1904. Pregnancy after removal of both ovaries for dermoid tumor. Brit. Med. J. 1, 1360.

Meyer, R. 1913. Ueber die Beziehung der Eizelle und des befruchteter Eies zum FoUikelapparat, sowie des Corpus luteum zur menstruation. Arch. Gyndk. 100, 1.

Meyer, R. K., Leonard, S. L., Hisaw, F. L. and Martin, S. J. 1932. The influence of oestrin on the gonad-stimulating complex of the anterior pituitary of castrated male and female rats. Endocrinology 16, 655.

Meyerhof, 0. und Kiessling, W. 1933. Uber das Auftreten und den Umsatz der a-glycerinphosphorsaure bei der Enzymatischen Kohlen hydratspaltung. Biochem. Z. 264, 40. Minot, C. S. 1889. Segmentation of the ovum with special reference to the Manomalia. Am. Nat. 23, 463.

Morris, M 1917. A cytological study of artificial parthenogenesis in Cumingia. J. Exp. Zool. 22, 1.

Morris, M. M. 1901. Pregnancy following removal of both ovaries and tubes. Boston Med. and Surg. J. 144, 86.

McPhail, M. K. 1933. Studies on the hypophysectomized ferret. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 114, 124. Needham, J. 1932. Chemical embryology. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

Nelson, W. 0., Pfiffner, J. J. and Haterius, H. 0. 1930. The prolongation of pregnancy by extracts of corpus luteum. Am. J. Physiol. 91, 690.

Newman, H. H. 1912. The ovum of the nine-banded armadillo: growth of the ovocytes, maturation, and fertilization. Biol. Bull. 23, 100.

. 1913. Parthenogenetic cleavage of the armadillo ovum. Biol. Bull. 25, 54.

Nicholas, J. S. 1933a. Development of transplanted rat eggs. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. & Med. 30,1111.

. 1933b. The development of rat embryonic tissues after transplantation of the egg to the kidney. Anat. Rec. 55, Supp. 31.

. 1934. Experiments on developing rats. I. Limits of foetal regeneration; behavior of embryonic material in abnormal environments. Anat. Rec. 58, 387.

Nicholas, J. S. and Rudnick, D. 1933. The development of embryonic rat tissues upon the chick chorioallantois. J. Exp. Zool. 66, 193.

. 1934. The development of rat embryos in tissue culture. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc. 20, 656.

Novak, J. and Eisinger, K. 1923. Ueber kunstlick bewirkte Teilung des unbefruchteten Saugertiereies. Arch. mikr. Anat. 98, 10.

NussBAUM, M. 1880. Zur Differenzierung des Geschlechts im Thierreich. Arch. mikr. Anat. 18, 1.

VAN OoRDT, G. J. 1921. Early developmental stages of Manis javanica Desm. Verhandl. kon. Scad, ven Wetensch. Amsterdam, Sec. 2, Part XXI, 1.

Palladino, G. 1887. Ulteriori ricerche sulla distruzione e rinovamento continuo del parenchima ovarico dei Mammiferi. Tipi del cav. Antonio Morano. Napoli.

. 1894. La destruction et le renouvellement continuel du parenchyme ovarique des mammiferes. Arch. ital. Biol. 21, XV Sec. d'Anat.

. 1898. Sur le type du structure de I'ovariere. Arch. ital. Biol. 29, 139.

Pallot, G. 1928. A propos de la regeneration ovarienne et des modifications periodiques de I'epithelium vaginal chez le rat blanc. Compt. rend. Soc. biol. 99, 1333.

Papanicolou, G. N. 1925. Ovogenesis during sexual maturity as elucidated by experimental methods. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. & Med. 21, 393.

Parker, G. H. 1931. The passage of sperms and eggs through the oviducts in terrestrial vertebrates. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London B 219, 381.

Parkes, a. S. 1926. On the occurrence of the oestrus cycle after x-ray sterilization. Part I. Irradiation of mice at three weeks old. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 100, 172.

. 1927a. On the occurrence of the oestrus cycle after x-ray sterilization. Part 11. Irradiation at or before birth. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 101, 71.

. 19276. On the occurrence of the oestrus cycle after x-ray sterilization. Part III. The periodicity of oestrus after sterilization of the adult. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 101, 421.

Parkes, a. S. 1927c. On the occurrence of the oestrus cycle after x-ray sterilization. Part IV. Irradiation of the adult during pregnancy and lactation; and general summary. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 102, 51.

. 1929 The internal secretions of the ovary. Longmans, Green and Co. London.

. 1931. The reproductive processes of certain mammals. II. The size of the Graafian follicle at ovulation. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 109, 185.

Parkes, A. S., Fielding, Una and Brambell, F. W. R. 1927. Ovarian regeneration in the mouse after complete double ovariotomy. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 101, 328.

Parkes, A. S., Rowlands, I. W. and Brambell, F. W. R. 1932. Effects of x-ray sterilization on oestrus in the ferret. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 109, 425.

Pearl, R. and Schoppe, W. F. 1921. Studies on the physiology of reproduction in the domestic fowl. J. Exp. Zool. 34, 101.

Pencharz, Richard. 1929. Experiments concerning ovarian regeneration in the white rat and white mouse. J. Exp. Zool. 54, 319.

PpLtJGER, E. 1863. Die Eierstocke der Saugetiere und der Menschen. Wilhelm Engelmann. Leipzig.

PiNCUS, G. 1930. Observations on the living eggs of the rabbit. Proc. Roy. Soc. 107, 132.

. 1931. The transplantation of mouse ovaries into the rat. Anat. Rec. 49, 97.

PiNCUS, G. and Enzmann, E. V. 1932. Fertilization in the rabbit. /. Exp. Biol 9, 403.

. 1934. Can mammalian eggs undergo normal development in vitro? Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc. 20, 121,

. 1935. The comparative behavior of mammalian eggs in vivo and in vitro. I. The activation of ovarian eggs. /. Exp. Med. 62, 665.

. 1936a. The comparative behavior of mammalian eggs in vivo and in vitro. II. The activation of tubal eggs of the rabbit. J. Exp. Zool. 73, 195.

. 1936b. The growth, maturation and atresia of the ovarian eggs of the rabbit. (In press.)

PiNCUS, G. and Kirsch, R. E. 1936. The sterility in rabbits produced by injections of oestrone and related compounds. Am. J. Physiol. 115, 219.

PiNcus, G. and Werthessen, N. 1933. The continued injection of oestrin into young rats. Am. J. Physiol. 103, 631.

QUINLA.N, J., Mare, G. S. and Roux, L. L. 1932. 18th Rep. Div. Vet. Serv. and Anim. Ind. Union of South Africa, Pt. II, 813.

Rabl, H. 1898. Zur Kenntnis der RichtungsspindeLn in degenerierenden Saugetiereiern. Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Naturiciss. Kl. 106, 95.

Reagan, F. P. 1916. Some results and possibilities of early embryonic castration. Anat. Rec. 11, 489.

Reichert, K. 1861. Beitrage zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Meerschweinchens. Abhandl. K. Akad. Wissensch. 182. Berhn.

Rein, G. 1883. Beitrage zur Kentniss der Reifungserscheinungen und Befruchtungsvorgange am Saugethierei. Arch. mikr. Anat. 22, 233.

Reiss, M., Selye, H. und Balint, J. 1931a. Uber die Wirkung alkahscher Hypophysenvorderlappenextrakte auf das Genitale der weibhchen Ratte. Endokrinol. 8, 15.

. 19316. tjber die Beeinflussung des mannhchen Genitales durch den luteinisierenden Wirkstoff des Hypophysenvorderlappens. Endokrinol. 5, 81.

Robertson, J. A. 1890. Renewal of menstruation and subsequent pregnancy after removal of both ovaries. Brit. Med. J. 2, 722.

Robinson, A. 1892. Observations upon the development of the segmentation cavity, the archenteron, the germinal layers, and the amnion in mammals. Quar. J. Micr. Sc. 33, 369.

. 1904. Lectures on the early stages in the development of mammalian ova and on the formation of the placenta in different groups of mammals. /. Anat. 38, 186.

. 1918. The formation, rupture and closure of ovarian follicles in ferrets and ferret-polecat hybrids, and some associated phenomena. Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh 52, 303.

RuBASCHKiN, W. 1906. Uber die Veranderungen der Eier in den zugrundegehenden Graafschen Follikeln. Aimt. Heft£ 32, 255.

. 1908. Zur frage von der Ent-stehung der Keimzellen bei Sauge tierembryonen. Anat. Anz. 32, 222.

. 1910. Uber das erste Auftreten und Migration der Keimzellen bei Saugetierembryonen. Anat. Hefte J^l, 243.

. 1912. Zur lehre von der Keimbahn bei Saugetieren. Uber die Entwicklung der Keimdriisen. Anat. Hefte Jj6, 342.

RuNNSTROM, J. 1930. Atmungsmechanismus und entwicklungserregung bei dem Seeigelei. Protopla^ma 10, 106.

. 1933. Zur Kenntnis des Stoffwechselvorgange bei der Entwicklungserregung des Seeigeleies. Biochem. Z. 258, 257.

RuNNSTROM, J. 1935. On the influence of pyocyanine on the respiration of the sea urchin egg. Biol. Bull. 68, 327.

Sainmont, G. 1905. Recherches relatives a I'organogenese du testicle et de I'ovaire chez le chat. Arch. Biol. 22, 71.

Sakurai, T. 1906. Normentafel zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Rehes (Cervus capreolus). Verlag von Gustav Fischer. Jena.

Sansom, G. S. 1920. Parthenogenesis in the water vole. J. Anal. 55, 68.

Sansom, G. S. and Hill, J. P. 1930. Observations on the structure and mode of implantation of the blastocyst of Cavia. Tram. Zool. Soc. London 21, 295.

Schottlander, G. 1891. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Follikelatresie nebst einigen Bemerkungen liber die unveriinderten Follikel in den Eierstocken der Saugetiere. Arch. mikr. Anal. 37, 192.

ScHRON, 0. 1863. Beitrag zur Kentniss der Anatomie und Physiologic des Eierstockes der Siiugethiere. Z. ivissensch. Zool. 12, 409.

ScHULTZ, W. 1900. Transplantation der Ovarien auf miinnliche Tiere. Zenlr. allg. Path. 2, 200.

Scott, J. 1906. Morphology of the parthenogenetic development of Amphitrite. /. Exp. Zool. 3, 49.

Selenka, E. 1883. Studien fiber die Entwicklungsgeschichte der Thiere. 1 Heft, Keimbliitter und Primitivorgane der Maus. C. W. Kreidel's Verlag. Wiesbaden.

. 1884. Studien fiber die Entwicklungsgeschichte der Thiere. 3 Heft, Die Blatterumkehrung im Ei der Nagethiere. C. W. Kreidel's Verlag. Wiesbaden.

. 1887. Studien fiber die Entwicklungsgeschichte der Thiere. 4 Heft. Das Opossum. C. W. Kreidel's Verlag. Wiesbaden.

Selye, H. 1933. Effect of hypophysectomy on the ovary of immature rats. Proc. Soc. E.vp. Biol. & Med. 31, 262.

Selye, H. and Collip, J. B. 1933. Production of exclusively thecal luteinization and continuous oestrus with anterior-pituitary-liko hormone. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. & Med. 30, 647.

Selye, H., Collip, J. B. and Thomson, D. L. 1935a. Endocrine interrelationships during pregnancy. Endocrinology 19, 151.

. 1935b. Effect of oestrin on ovaries and adrenals. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. & Med. 32, 1377.

Selye, H. and McKeown, T. 1934a. Production of pseudopregnancy by mechanical stimulation of the nipples. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. c(' Med. 31, 683.

Selye, H. and McKeown, T. 19346. Further studies on the influence of suckhng. Anat. Rec. 60, 323.

SiMKiNS, C. S. 1923. Origin and migration of the so-called primordial germ cells in the mouse and rat. Acta Zool. 4, 241.

. 1928. Origin of sex cells in man. Am. J. Anat. p, 249.

Slawinsky, K. 1873. Filaments glandulaires trouves dans Tovaire d'une femme adulte. Bull. Soc. Anat. Paris 4-8, 844.

Slonaker, J. R. 1927. Semi-ovariectomy, compensatory hypertrophy of the remaining ovary and migration of the ova in the albino rat. Am. J. Physiol. 81, 620.

Smith, P. E. 1930. Hypophysectomy and a replacement therapy in the rat. Am. J. Anat. 1^.5, 205.

. 1932. The effect on the reproductive system of ablation and implantation of the anterior hypophysis. In Allen: Sex and Internal Secretions, 734. Williams and Wilkins. Baltimore.

Smith, P. E. and Engle, E. T. 1927. Experimental evidence regarding the role of the anterior pituitary in the development and regulation of the genital system. Am. J. Anat. Jfi, 159.

Smith, P. E. and MacDowell, E. C. 1931. The differential effect of hereditary mouse dwarfism on the anterior-pituitary hormones. Anai. Rec. 50, 85.

Smith, P. E. and White, W. E. 1931. The effect of hypophysectomy on ovulation and corpus luteum formation in the rabbit. /. Am. Med. Assoc. 97, 1861.

Smith, S. C. 1925. Degenerative changes in the unfertilized uterine eggs of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana), with remarks on the so-called parthenogenesis in mammals. Am. J. Anat. 35, 81.

Snyder, F. F. 1923. Changes in the fallopian tube during the ovulation cycle and early pregnancy. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 34-, 121.

. 1934. The prolongation of pregnancy and complications of parturition in the rabbit following induction of ovulation near term. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 54, 1.

SoBOTTA, J. 1893. Mitteilungen liber die Vorgange bei der Reifung, Befruchtung und erste Furchung des Eies der Maus. Verhandl. Anat. Ges. Gottingen, 111.

. 1895. Die Befruchtung und Furchung des Eies der Maus. Arch. mikr. Anat. 45, 15.

. 1899. Uber die Bedeutung der mitotischen Figuren in den Eierstockseiern der Saugetieren. Wurzburg.

SoBOTTA, J. und BuRCKHARD, G. 1911. Rcifung und Befruchtung des Eies der weissen Ratte. Anat. Hefte 42, 433.

Spee, F. 1915. Anatomie und Physiologie der Schwangerschaft. 1. Theil in Doderlein: Handbuch der Geburtshilfe 1. Bergmann. Munich.

Spencer, J., D'Amour, F. E. and Gustavson, R. G. 1932. Effects of continued oestrin injections on young rats. Am. J. Anat. 50, 129.

Spuler, a. 1900. Uber die Teilungserscheinungen der Eizellen in degenerierenden Follikeln des Saugerovariums. Anat. Hefte 16, 85.

Squier, R. R. 1932. The living egg and early stages of its development in the guinea-pig. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Contrih. Emhnjol. 23, 225.

Stockard, C. R. and Papanicolou, G. N. 1917. The existence of a typical oestrus cycle in the guinea-pig, with a study of its histological and physiological changes. Am. J. Anat. 22, 225.

Stotsenburg, J. M. 1913. The effect of spaying and semi-spaying young albino rats (M. norvegicus albinus) on the growth in body weight and body length. Anat. Rec. 7, 183.

Streeter, G. L. 1931. Development of the egg as seen by the embryologist. Sc. Month. 32, 495.

Sutton, R. S. 1896. Double ovariotomy followed by pregnancy and delivery at term. Trans. Am. Gynec. Soc. 21, 109.

SwANN, W. F. G. and del Rosario, C. 1932. The effect of certain monochromatic ultra-violet radiation upon Euglena cells. J. Franklin Inst. 213, 549.

SwEZY, 0. 1929. The ovarian chromosome cycle in a mixed rat strain. J. Morphol. & Physiol. 48, 445.

. 1933a. The changing concept of ovarian rhythms. Quar. Rev. Biol. 8, 423.

. 1933b. Ovogenesis and the hypophysis: the effects of pregnancy, hypophysectomy, thyroidectomy and hormone administration on the ovary of the rat. Science Press. Lancaster.

SwEZY, 0. and Evans, H. M. 1930. Ovarian changes during pregnancy in the rat. Science 71, 46.

Tafani, a. 1889. I primi momenti delb sviluppo dei mammiferi. Rendiconti R. Accad. Lincei 5, 119.

Tamura, Y 1926. The effects of implantation upon ovarian grafts in the male mouse. Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh 47, 148.

Teel, H. M. 1926. The effect of injecting anterior hypophysial fluid on the course of gestation in the rat. Am. J. Physiol. 79, 120.

Turner, C. W. 1932. The mammary glands. In Allen: Sex and Internal Secretions. Williams and Wilkins. Baltimore.

Van Beneden, E. 1875. La maturation de I'oeuf, la fecondation et les premieres phases du developpement embryonaire des Mammiferes d'apres les recherches faites sur le Lapin. Bull. Acad. Roy. Sc. Lettres et Beaux Arts Belg. J^O, 686.

. 1880. Contribution a la connaissance de I'ovaire des mammiferes. Arch. Biol. 1, 475.

. 1899. Recherches sur les premiers stades du developpement du Murin (Vespertilio murinus). Anat. Anz. 16, 307.

. 1911. De la segmentation, de la formation de la cavite blasto dermique et de I'embryon didermique chez le Murin. Arch. Biol. 26, 1.

. 1912. Recherches sur Fembryologie des mammiferes. Arch. Biol. 27, 191.

Van Beneden, E. et Julin, C. 1880. Observations sur la maturation, la fecondation et la segmentation de I'oeuf chez les Cheiropteres. Arch. Biol. ^ 551.

Van der Stricht, 0. 1901. L'atresie ovulaire et I'atresie foUiculaire du follicule de De Graaf dans Fovaire de chauve-souris. Verhandl. anat. Ges. 15, Versamml. Bonn.

Vanneman, a. S. 1917. The early history of the germ cells in the armadillo Tatusia novemcineta. Am. J. Anat. 22, 341.

Voss, H. E. 1925. Condition de la greffe ovarienne intratesticulaire. Compt. rend. Soc. biol. 93, 1066.

Waddington, C. H. and Waterman, A. J. 1933. The development in vitro of young rabbit embryos. /. Anat. 67, 356.

Wagener, G. 1879. Bemerkungen iiber den Eierstock und den Gelben Korper. Arch. Anat. u. Physiol. 175.

Wagner, R. 1836. Prodromus historiae generationis hominis atque animahum. Leipzig.

Waldeyer, W. 1870. Eierstock und Ei. Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann. Leipzig.

. 1906. Die Geschlechtzellen. In: Handbuch der vergleichenden und experimentellen Entwickelunglehre der Wirbeltiere. Oskar Hert \vig. Jena.

Walsh, L. S. M. 1917. The growth of the ovarian follicle in the guinea pig under normal and pathological conditions. J. Exp. Med. 26, 245.

Walton, A. and Hammond, J. 1932. Observations on ovulation in the rabbit. Brit. J. Exp. Biol. 6, 190.

Wang, G. H. and Guttmacher, A. F. 1927. The effect of ovarian traumatization on the spontaneous activity and genital tract of the albino rat, correlated with a histological study of the ovaries. Ayn. J. Physiol. 82, 335.

Warburg, O. 1908. Beobachtungen fiber die Oxydationsprocesse im Seeigelei. Z. physiol. C/iem. 57, 1.

. 1909. Ue})er die Oxydation im Ei: II, Mittheilung. Z. physiol. Chem. 60, 443.

. 1910. Ueber die Oxydationen in lebenden Zellen nach Versuchen am Seeigelei. Z. physiol. Chem. 66, 305.

. 1914a. Uel)er die Rolle des Eisens in der Atmung des Seeigeleisnebst Bermerkungen iiber einige durch Eisen beschleunigte Oxydationen. Z. physiol. Chem. 92, 231.

. 1914b. Zellstruktur und Oxydationsgeschwindigkeit nach Versuchen am Seeigelei. Pflug. Arch. ges. Physiol. 158, 189.

. 1932. Das sauerstoffiibertragende Ferment der Atmung. Z. angew. Chem. Jf.5, 1.

Waterman, A. J. 1932. Culture * in vitro ' and transplantation of young rabbit embryos. Anat. Rec. 54, 72.

. 1934. Survival of young rabbit embryos on artificial media. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc. 20, 145.

Weil, C. 1873. Beitrage zur Kentniss der Befruchtung und Entwicklung des Kanincheneies. Strieker's med. Jahrb.

Weismann, August. 1883. Enstehung der Sexuallzellen bei den Hydromedusae. Verlag von Gustav Fischer. Jena.

. 1904. Vortrage liber Descendenztheorie. English translation. Edward Arnold. London.

Whitaker, D. M. 1933. On the rate of oxygen consumption by fertilized and unfertilized eggs. V. Comparisons and interpretation. J. Gen. Physiol. 16, 497.

Williams, W. L. 1909. Veterinary obstetrics including the diseases of the breeding animals and the new-born. Williams. Ithaca.

WiLLiER, B. H. 1921. Structures and homologies of free-martin gonads. /. Exp. Zool. 33, 63.

. 1932. The embryological foundations of sex in vertebrates. In Allen: Sex and Internal Secretions. Williams and Wilkins. Baltimore.

. 1933a. Potencies of the gonad-forming area in the chick as tested in chorio-allantoic grafts. Arch. Entwcklngsmech. Organ. 130, 616.

. 19336. On the origin and differentiation of the sexual gland. Am. Nat. 67, 1.

Wilson, E. B. 1901. Experimental studies in cytology. I. A cytological study of artificial parthenogenesis in sea urchin eggs. Arch. Entwcklngsmech. 12, 529.

Wilson, J. T. 1928. On the question of the interpretation of the structural features of the early blastocyst of the guinea-pig. J. Anat. 62, 346.

Wilson, J. T. and Hill, J. P. 1907. Observations on the development of Ornithorhynchus. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 199 B, 31.

DE Winiwarter, H. 1901. Recherches sur Tovogenese et I'organogenese de Fovaire des mammiferes (lapin et homme). Arch. Biol. 17, 33.

. 1910. Contributions a I'etude de Fovaire humaine. I. Appareil nerveux et pheochrome. II. Tissue musculaire. III. Cordons medullaires et corticaux. Arch. Biol. 25, 683.

. 1920. Couche corticale definitive au hile de I'ovaire et pseudoneoformation ovulaire. Compt. rend. Soc. biol. 83, 1406.

DE Winiwarter, H. et Sainmont, G. 1909. Nouvelles recherches sur Tovogenese et I'organogenese de Fovaire des mammiferes (chat). Arch. Biol. 24, 1.

WiSLOCKi, G. B. and Goodman, L. 1934. The effect of anterior lobe extract or concentrated human urine of pregnancy upon the early part of gestation in the rabbit. Anat. Rec. 69, 375.

WiSLOCKi, G. B. and Snyder, F. F. 1931. On the experimental production of superfetation. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hasp. 4-9, 106.

WiTscHi, E. 1929. Studies on sex differentiation and sex determination in amphibians. II. Sex reversal in female tadpoles of Rana sylvatica following the application of high temperature. /. Exp. Zool. 52, 267.

Yamane, J. 1930. The proteolytic action of mammalian spermatozoa and its bearing upon the second maturation division of ova. Cytologia 1, 394

. 1935. Kausal-analytische Studien iiber die Befruchtung des Kanincheneies. I. Die Dispersion der Follikelzellen und die Ablosung der Zellen der Corona radiata des Eies durch Spermatozoen. Cytologia 6, 233.

Zondek, B. 1931. Die Hormone des Ovariums und des Hypophysen vorderlappens. Julius Springer. Berlin.


Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
Mark Hill.jpg
Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)
The Eggs of Mammals (1936): Introduction | The Origin of the Definitive Ova | The Growth of the Ovum | The Development and Atresia of Full-Grown Ova and the Problem of Ovarian Parthenogenesis | Methods Employed in the Experimental Manipulation of Mammalian Ova | The Tubal History of Unfertilized Eggs | Fertilization and Cleavage | The Activation of Unfertilized Eggs | The Growth and Implantation of the Blastodermic Vesicle | Summary and Recapitulation | Bibliography | Figures | Historic Disclaimer

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology The Eggs of Mammals (1936) 10. Retrieved October 22, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/The_Eggs_of_Mammals_(1936)_10

What Links Here?
© Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G