Talk:Carnegie Stage Comparison

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, February 18) Embryology Carnegie Stage Comparison. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Talk:Carnegie_Stage_Comparison


Data For Carnegie Stages Comparison Graph (Species/Days)

Species Stage
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Human[1] Days 20 22 24 28 30 33 36 40 42 44 48 52 54 55 58
Baboon[2] Days 23 25 27 28 29 30 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47
Rhesus Monkey[3] Days 21 22 25 28 29 30 32 34 36 37 38 40 42 44 46
Marmoset[4] Days 57 60 64 67 74
Mouse[5] Days Mouse-E9.0.jpg

9

Mouse- embryo E9.5.jpg

9.5

10

Mouse embryo E10.5.jpg

10.5

Mouse embryo E11 and tomography 01.jpg

11

Mouse- embryo E11.5.jpg

11.5

12 Mouse melanoblast distribution 02.jpg

12.5

Mouse embryo E13 microCT icon.jpg

13

Mouse melanoblast distribution 03.jpg

13.5

Mouse embryo E14 microCT icon.jpg

14

Mouse melanoblast distribution 04.jpg

14.5

Mouse embryo E15 microCT icon.jpg

15

15.5 16
Rat[6] Days 10.5 11 11.5 12 12.5 13 13.5 14 14.5 15 15.5 16 16.5 17 17.5
Chinese Hamster[7] Days 10 10.5 11 11.5 12 12.5 13 13.5 14 14.5 15 15.5 16 16.5 17
Guinea Pig[8] Days 14.5 15 15.5 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 29
Rabbit[9] Days 8 8.5 9.5 10.5 11 12 12.5 13.5 14 14.5 15.5 16 16.5 17 18
Sheep[10] Days 15 16 17.5 18.5 19.5 20.5 22 23 24.5 25.5 27.5 29.5 30 33
Pig[11] Days 14 15 16 17 18 19 20.5 21.5 23 24 25.5 27.5 29 30.5 32.5
Chicken [12] Days 1 1.5 2 2.25 2.5 3 3.25 3.75 4.75 5.5 6.25 7.25 7.75 8.5 10
Dog Days 27 28 29 30 34 36 37



2007

Application of Carnegie stages of development to unify human and baboon ultrasound findings early in pregnancy

Ultrasound Med Biol. 2007 Sep;33(9):1400-5. Epub 2007 Jun 11.

Santolaya-Forgas J, De Leon-Luis J, Friel LA, Wolf R. Source Center for Fetal Medicine and Prenatal Genetics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Texas Tech University and Health Science Center, Amarillo, USA. jsantolaya@partners.org

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine if very early ultrasonographic measurements obtained from human and baboon are comparable. For this purpose, the gestational, amniotic and yolk sacs, embryonic crown rump length (CRL) and heart rate were measured ultrasonographically between 35 and 47 days from the mean day of a three-day mating period in baboons (n=18) and between 42 to 58 days from fertilization as calculated from the CRL measurements in human pregnancies (n=82). Ultrasonographic measurements from both species were then plotted in the same graph using Carnegie stages of embryonic development as the independent variable to allow for visual comparisons. Mean gestational age at ultrasonographic studies was significantly different for humans and baboons (50.4 vs. 41 days, respectively; p>0.01). Significant correlations (p>0.01) were noted between ultrasonographic measurements and Carnegie stages of development in both humans and baboons. Only the gestational and the yolk sacs were significantly smaller in baboons than in humans (p>0.05). The findings that embryonic CRL, extra-embryonic space and heart rate are very similar between the 17th and 23rd Carnegie developmental stages make the baboon a promising surrogate of human pregnancy for investigations using celocentesis.

PMID: 17561331 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17561331


Original References

Human

O'Rahilly Early human development and the chief source of information on staged human embryos. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynec. Reprod. Biol. 9 p273 (1979)

Embryonic Development

Baboon

Hendrickx Embryology of the baboon. University of Chicago Press.

Rhesus Monkey

Hendrickx and Sawey Embryology of the rhesus monkey. The Rhesus Monkey, Bourne (ed), Academic Press, NY (1975)

Marmoset

Phillips The embryology of the common marmoset. Adv.

Mouse

Theiler The house mouse. Springer-Verlag, NY (1972)

Mouse Development

Rat

Witschi Growth. Altman and Dittmer (ed), Fed. Soc. Exp. Biol., Washington (1962)

Rat Development


Standard Stages (Witschi)
Age (days)
Size (mm)
Identification of Stages
Cleavage and Blastula
1 1 0.07 1 cell (in oviduct)
2 2 0.08 x 0.06 2 cells (in oviduct)
3 3 0.08 x 0.05 4 cells (in oviduct)
4 3.25 8-12 cells (in oviduct)
5 3.5 0.08 x 0.04 Morula (in uterus)
6 4 (0.08 x 0.03) Early blastocyst (in uterus)
7 5 (0.12 x 0.05) Free blastocyst (in uterus)
Gastrula
8 6 (0.28 x 0.07) Implanting blastocyst, with trophoblastic cone and inner cell mass; outgrowth of endoderm (hypoblast)
9 6.75 Diplotrophoblast; inner cell mass (pendant), covered with endoderm
10 7.25 (0.3 x 0.1) Near complete implantation; pendant begins differentiation into embryonic and extra-embryonic parts
11 7.75 (0.5 x 0.1) Completion of implantation; primary amniotic cyst; ectoplacental cone
Primitive Streak
12 8.5 (1.04 x 0.26) Connecting ectochorionic and amniotic cavities; rudiments of amniotic folds; primitive streak; start of 3rd layer formation; blastemas of heart and pericardium
Neurula
13 9 1.0 Presomite neurula; fusion of chorio-amniotic folds, chorio-amniotic stalk; neural plate; embryo bent dorsally; bud of allantoic stalk
14 9.5 1.5 Somites 1-4 (occipital); pendant with 3 cavities: ectochorionic cyst, exocoelom, and amniotic cavity; ectochorionic cyst collapsing; allantoic stalk projects into exocoelom; embryo bent dorsally

Chinese Hamster

Donkelaar Stages in the prenatal development of the chinese hamster. Anat. Embryol. 156 p1 (1979)

Guinea Pig

Harman and Prickett The development of the external form of the guinea-pig between the ages of 11 and 20 days of gestation. Am. J. Anat. 49 p351 (1932)

The development of the external form of the guinea-pig (Cavia cobaya) between the ages of 11 days and 20 days of gestation J. of Morphology, 64, No.3 493-519 Volume 54, Issue 3, June 1933, Pages: 493–519, Mary T. Harman and Marjorie Prickett Dobrovolny

Harman, MT and Dobrovolny, P. he development of the external form of the guinea-pig (Cavia cobaya) between the ages of 11 days and 20 days of gestation. J. of Morphology, 64, No.3 493-519 (1933)

Guinea Pig Development

Rabbit

Edwards The external development of the rabbit and rat embryo. Advances in teratology, Vol 3, Woollam (ed), Academic Press, NY (1968)

Beaudoin S, Barbet P, Bargy F: Developmental Stages in the Rabbit Embryo: Guidelines to Choose an Appropriate Experimental Model. Fetal Diagn Ther 2003;18:422-427 (DOI: 10.1159/000073136)

The external development of the rabbit and rat embryo. Adv. Teratol. 3, 239–263. Eibs, HG, Spielman, H., and Hagele M. (1982)

J.A. Edwards , The external development of the rabbit and rat embryo. In: D.H.M. Woollam, Editor, Advances in Teratology Vol. 3, Logos Press, London (1968)


Edwards, JA. The external development of the rabbit and rat embryo. In: D.H.M. Woollam, Editor, Advances in Teratology Vol. 3, Logos Press, London (1968)

Rabbit Development

Sheep

Bryden Embryology of the sheep. J. Morphology 138 p169 (1972)

Embryology of the sheep. 3. The respiratory system, mesenteries and celom in the fourteen to thirty-four day embryo. Bryden MM, Evans H, Binns W. Anat Rec. 1973 Apr;175(4):725-35. No abstract available. PMID: 4700668 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Related citations

3. Embryology of the sheep. II. The alimentary tract and associated glands. Bryden MM, Evans HE, Binns W. J Morphol. 1972 Oct;138(2):187-206. No abstract available. PMID: 5078579 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Related citations

4. Embryology of the sheep. I. Extraembryonic membranes and the development of body form. Bryden MM, Evans HE, Binns W. J Morphol. 1972 Oct;138(2):169-85. No abstract available. PMID: 5078578 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Sheep Development

Pig

Marrable The embryonic pig. A chronological account. Pitman Medical, London (1971)

Marrable , AW. The Embryonic Pig: A Chronological Account. Pitman Medical, London (1971)

The Embryonic Pig: A Chronological Account. By A. W. MARRABLE. (Pp. xiv+ 130; 111 figures; £2.25.) London: Pitman. 1971. Thisisasuccessfulattempttodescribethedevelopmentofthepigfromgametogenesisthrough to birth (including placentation). It is well presented and fully illustrated with line drawings, graphs and tables. The text is intended for the senior pupil and undergraduate, and will serve them well as an example of the embryology of a mammal; but, although the pig embryo was popularinearlystudiesofmorphogenesis, itmay bedificulttodaytojustifysuchadetailed study of one animal's development, especially when there is no reference to or comparison with others. Paradoxically, and in contrast to the professed aim of the book, itmay be more valuable for reference by advanced students who seek information on growth rates, fetal weights and bio- chemicalanalyses.Growthanddevelopmentofthepighave,ofcourse,adirectrelevanceforthe veterinarianand agriculturistwho, most ofal,willappreciatethisbook. J.MCKENZIE


The development of the embryonic membranes in the pig: observations on the afterbirths. Ashdown RR, Marrable AW. Res Vet Sci. 1970 May;11(3):227-31. No abstract available. PMID: 5498550 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Related citations

4. The embryonic membranes of the pig. Marrable AW. Vet Rec. 1969 Jun 14;84(24):598-600. No abstract available. PMID: 5798741 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Related citations

5. The ischaemic extremities of the allanto-chorion of the pig and their relation to the endometrium. Marrable AW. Res Vet Sci. 1968 Nov;9(6):578-82. No abstract available. PMID: 5721361 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Related citations

6. Adherence and fusion between the extremities of adjacent embryonic sacs in the pig. Ashdown RR, Marrable AW. J Anat. 1967 Apr;101(Pt 2):269-75. No abstract available. PMID: 6040078

Pig Development

Chicken

Hamburger and Hamilton A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo. J. Morph. 88 p49 (1951)

Butler and Juurlink An atlas for staging mammalian and chick embryos. CRC Press Inc., Florida (1987)

Butler, H. and Juurlink, B.H.J. An atlas for staging mammalian and chick embryos. CRC Press Inc., Florida (1987)

Chicken Development

  1. <pubmed>400868</pubmed>
  2. Hendrickx Embryology of the baboon. University of Chicago Press.
  3. Hendrickx and Sawey Embryology of the rhesus monkey. The Rhesus Monkey, Bourne (ed), Academic Press, NY (1975)
  4. <pubmed>827927</pubmed>
  5. Theiler, K. The House Mouse: Atlas of Embryonic Development. 1989. New York: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3 540 05940 7
  6. Witschi, E. Growth. Altman and Dittmer (ed), Fed. Soc. Exp. Biol., Washington (1962)
  7. <pubmed>453550</pubmed>
  8. Harman, MT and Dobrovolny, P. he development of the external form of the guinea-pig (Cavia cobaya) between the ages of 11 days and 20 days of gestation. J. of Morphology, (1933) 64, No.3 493-519.
  9. Edwards, JA. The external development of the rabbit and rat embryo. In: D.H.M. Woollam, Editor, Advances in Teratology Vol. 3, Logos Press, London (1968)
  10. <pubmed>5078578</pubmed>
  11. Marrable , AW. The Embryonic Pig: A Chronological Account. Pitman Medical, London (1971)
  12. <pubmed>1304821</pubmed>