Talk:BGD Practical - Placenta Quiz

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Here are a few simple questions that relate to your BGD practical, this page is not a part of today's Practical class. You should try in your own time as self-directed learning exercise after completing the practical today.

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  • If you get some wrong, read the displayed information with the answer, and try working again through the practical.

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1. During week 2 the blastocyst implants and the outer cell layer in that week becomes:

  decidual cells and hypoblast cell layer
  cytotrophobasts and syncitiotrophoblasts
  chorion and amniotic membranes
  the embryoblast and inner cell mass
The outer layer of the blastocyst contributes the fetal placental layers of cytotrophobasts and syncitiotrophoblasts. Decidual cells are formed from the maternal uterine stroma and hypoblast cells are a transient layer lost by week 3 in development. Chorionic and amniotic membranes form later and have extra embryonic mesoderm contributions. The embryoblast and inner cell mass are the same thing and refer to the other population of cells in the blastocyst.

2. The human placenta is derived from only fetal cells.

The human placenta is a maternal and fetal organ, with components contributed from both the mother and the conceptus.

3. The embryo umbilicus contains is

In the direction from head (rostro) toward tail (caudal). This direction of development is seen in many other structures such as: neural tube neuropore closure (cranial then caudal); intermediate mesoderm (early kidney formation) and limb development (upper then lower limb).

4. Which of the following statements concerning the amniotic membrane is incorrect.

somatic mesoderm close to ectoderm, the intraembryonic coelom and the splanchnic mesoderm closest to the endoderm.
somitic mesoderm close to ectoderm, the intraembryonic coelom and the splanchnic mesoderm closest to the endoderm.
somatic mesoderm close to endoderm, the intraembryonic coelom and the splanchnic mesoderm closest to the ectoderm.
somitic mesoderm close to endoderm, the intraembryonic coelom and the splanchnic mesoderm closest to the ectoderm.
intermediate mesoderm medially close to somites and laterally close to the intraembryonic coelom.
none of the above.
Yes trying to fool you with somatic (lateral plate) and somitic (paraxial) terms and the arrangement with germ cell layers. Remember that endoderm forms the gut epithelium and therefore splanchnic mesoderm which forms the associated connective tissue should be closer. The description of intermediate mesoderm relative anatomical location is correct, but it is not part of lateral plate separated by the intraembryonic coelom.

5. Select the correct options below for the structures formed by sclerotome

limb bud cartilage
intervertebral disc
skeletal muscle
Only the vertebral column structures are formed from sclerotome. Dermis and skeletal muscle form from the dermomyotome, dividing into the dermatome (dermis) and myotome (skeletal muscle).

6. The intraembryonic coelom finally forms

pericardial, pleural and peritoneal cavity.
single pericardial cavity and two pleural and two peritoneal cavities.
neural tube lumen, gastrointestinal tract lumen and neural crest.
the paired dorsal aortas running the embryo.
The intraembryonic coelom finally forms the 3 P's. There is only one peritoneal cavity. These other anatomical spaces have noting to do with intraembryonic coelom. The dorsal aortas form within the splanchnic mesoderm.

7. Which of the following statements about placodes is most correct.

placodes form as patches of mesoderm only in the head region
placodes are part of the neural crest that will contribute to sensory structures
placodes contribute the upper and lower jaw structures of the head
placodes are associated with sensory development, except for hearing.
placodes are paired ectodermal regions.
Placodes are paired ectodermal regions forming in the head region during week 4 and contribute to each sensory system. Neural crest does associate with sensory development, but not as the placode. The upper and lower jaw form from two separate regions of the first pharyngeal arch: maxillary (upper) and mandibular (lower).

8. The important human cardiogenic event commencing during week 5 is

heart tube fusion
heart looping
heart septation
heart valve development
Atrial and ventricular cardiac septation commences in week 5. Heart tube fusion occurs during week 3, heart looping in week 4 and heart valve development later in week 6 to 7.

9. Select the correct options below for maternal dietary components directly important for neural development

vitamin B9
vitamin B3
Vitamin B9 is folic acid or folacin or folate required for cell metabolism and neural tube closure. Iodine is required for thyroid hormone synthesis which is required for normal neural development HealthInsite - Iodine. Lead in a high enough concentration acts as a teratogen. Vitamin B3 is niacin is a precursor to NADH, NAD+, NADP+ and NADPH play essential metabolic roles in living cells not just neural tissue. Chlorine is good for the pool or bleaching your clothes.

10. Which limbs are sensitive to teratogenic damage first

upper limbs
lower limbs
The upper limb buds form first before the lower limbs and are therefore the earlier to be sensitive to environmental teratogens.

11. The bones of the adult skull form only by the process

intramembranous ossification
endochondral ossification
neither intramembranous or endochondral ossification
intramembranous and not endochondral ossification
both intramembranous and endochondral ossification
chondroblast cell replacement of osteoblast cells
Both intramembranous or endochondral ossification form different regions of the skull, the cranial vault forms by intramembranous ossification and the cranial base forms by endochondral ossification. Interestingly the lower jaw, which forms beside Meckel's cartilage of the first pharyngeal arch, forms by intramembranous ossification of the membrane surrounding the arch cartilage not by endochondral ossification.

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© Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G