Histology Glossary - O

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A Glossary of Histological and Micro-Anatomical Terms

Including historical origins and eponyms compiled by Dr Brian Freeman, Department of Anatomy, School of Medical Sciences, revised 2000.

Histology Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | ANAT2241 Support | Histology | Histology Stains | Embryology Glossary


Abbreviations: ( ) plural form in brackets, A. Arabic, abb. abbreviation, c. circa =about, F. French adj. adjective, G. Greek, Ge. German, cf. compare, L. Latin, dim. diminutive, NA. Nomina anatomica, q.v. which see, OF. Old French



Oddi, Ruggero. (19th centuary, no dates) Perugia physiologist; sphincter of O. (1887) = circular smooth muscle fibres at termination of bile duct, first described by Glisson, q.v. (1654)


odontoblast G. odons = tooth + blastos = germ; cells which produce and maintain dentine.


oedema (-mata) G. oidema = swelling; excessive accumulation of fluid in tissue spaces.


oesophagus G. oiso = future of phero = I carry + pahgein = to eat; G. oisophagos = gullet, or tube carrying food from pharynx to stomach.


oligodendrocyte G. oligos = a little + dendron = tree + kytos = hollow vessel; a type of glial cell with few processes, responsible for making myelin sheaths in the central nervous system (del Hortega, 1921); cf. Schwann cell.


oncocyte G. oncos = mass + kytos = hollow vessel; solitary large glandular cell.


oocyte G. öon = egg + kytos = hollow vessel (cell); germ cell in ovary.


oolemma G. öon = egg + lemma = sheath; the zona pellucida, q.v.


ora serrata L. ora = sea-shore, extremity of something + serra = saw; notched anterior border of neural part of retina.


oral adj. L. os, oris = mouth; e.g. os uteri .


orbicularis oculi L. orbiculus = small circle, dim. L. orbis = a circle + oculus = eye; muscle around eye.


orbicularis oris L. " + oris = of a mouth; muscle around mouth.


organelle dim. of G. organon = a living part of body with special function, hence a little body; an intracellular component, e.g., a mitochondrion.


orthochromatophilic G. ortho = straight, correct + chroma = colour + philein = to love; of a type of erythroblast with a normal staining reaction for haemoglobin.


os L. os, ossis = a bone, e.g. os innominatum .


osmium tetroxide chemical staining lipids black.


ossicle L. ossiculum = a little bone, dim. L. os .


ossification L. os = bone + facere = to make.


osteoblast G. osteon = bone + blastos = germ; immature bone-producing cell.


osteoclast G. " + klan = to break; multinucleated bone cell that can reabsorp bone.


osteocyte G. " + kytos = hollow vessel, cell; mature bone cell.


osteogenic adj. G. " + gennan = to produce; of cells and conditions leading to ossification.


osteoid G. " + -oeides = of the form of; uncalcified, organic extracellular matrix of immature bone laid down by osteoblasts.


osteon G. = bone; system of concentric bony lamellae surrounding a canal containing nerves, blood vessels, etc.; cf. Havers.


ostium L. = a door.


otolith G. otikos = of the ear (G. ous = the ear) + lithos = stone; cystals embedded in mucus of maculae of utricle and saccule.


ovary L. ovum = egg, L. ovarius = a skilled and respected slave who looked after chickens and their eggs; the female gonad (Stensen, 1667). NB. " ovarium " is not Latin.


oviduct L. ovum = egg + ductus = a path; salpinx; uterine tube; cf. Fallopius.


ovum L. = an egg; oocyte.


oxyntic adj. G. oxyntos = making acid; parietal cells in gastric mucosa.


oxyphil G. oxys = sour, sharp + philein = to love; staining readily with acidic dyes.


oxytocin G. oxys = sharp, swift + tokos = childbirth; a hormone producing strong contractions of the uterine muscle.




Histology Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | ANAT2241 Support | Histology | Histology Stains | Embryology Glossary

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Histology Glossary - O. Retrieved August 23, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Histology_Glossary_-_O

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© Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G