Histology Glossary - E

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A Glossary of Histological and Micro-Anatomical Terms

Including historical origins and eponyms compiled by Dr Brian Freeman, Department of Anatomy, School of Medical Sciences, revised 2000.

Histology Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | ANAT2241 Support | Histology | Histology Stains | Embryology Glossary

Abbreviations: ( ) plural form in brackets, A. Arabic, abb. abbreviation, c. circa =about, F. French adj. adjective, G. Greek, Ge. German, cf. compare, L. Latin, dim. diminutive, NA. Nomina anatomica, q.v. which see, OF. Old French

Ebner, Victor (Ritter von Rosenstein). 1842-1925 Innsbruck & Vienna histologist; E.'s glands = serous lingual glands; E.'s lines = fibrils in dentine and cementum of teeth; E.'s reticulum = network of cells in seminiferous tubules.

eccentric G. ek = out(side) + kentron = centre.

eccrine G. " + krinein = to separate; of sweat secretion, or of sweat glands.

ectoderm G. ek = outside + derma = skin; outer cell layer of embryo giving rise to CNS, skin, glands, etc.

ectopic G. ek = out + topos = placed; displaced; in an abnormal position; opposite to entopic.

ectoplasm G ektos = outside + plasma = a thing formed; outermost layer of cytoplasm.

Edinger, Ludwig. 1855-1918 Franfurt-am-Main anatomist & neurologist; skilled violinist; bequeathed his own brain for study; nucleus of Edinger-Westphal = oculomotor nucleus (1885); cf. Westphal.

efferent L. ex = away + ferre = to carry; centrifugal; e.g., motor nerves are efferent with respect to central nervous system; efferent arteriole of renal glomerulus; opposite to afferent, q.v.

effete worn out.

Ehrlich, Paul. 1854-1915 German pathologist & bacteriologist; named mast cells, q.v.; E.'s haematoxylin.

elastin G. elastikos = impulsive (as in elastic recoil); protein component of yellow fibres of elastic tissue.

electron-dense appearing dark in electron microscope; scatters electrons.

electron-lucent appearing light in electron microscope; transmits electrons; opposite to electron-dense.

eleidin G. elaia = oil; acidophilic substance in oily granules in cells of stratum lucidum of epidermis.

embolus G. embolos = wedge, something inserted; something blocking the lumen of a blood vessel.

embryo G. embryon = fruit of womb before birth, from bryein = to grow, swell out.

emphysema G. emphysan = to inflate; pathological distension of tissues by gas.

en bloc F. = in the block; of dyeing tissues in the block before sectioning the block in a microtome.

en face F. = face on; e.g. an aerial view of a surface.

enamel OF. esmail = enamel, from L. smatto = I smelt; hard prismatic white substance covering crown of tooth, like the enamel fused to surface of objects.

enarthrosis G. en = in + arthron = a joint; a ball-and-socket joint.

encephalon G. enkephalos = brain, from en = in + kephalos = head.

end artery a small artery that ends in branches which do not have sufficient anastomoses other arteries to keep the organ alive if the end artery is occluded, e.g., artery to the vermiform appendix (Cohnheim, c. 1860).

end-bulb the sensory corpuscle at the peripheral end of a sensory nerve, e.g., end-bulb of Krause.

endo- or ento- G. endon = within.

endocardium G. " + kardia = heart; the tunica intima of the heart.

endochondral G. " + chondros = cartilage; of ossification taking place in a cartilage model.

endocrine G. " + krinein = to separate; formation of internal secretions (= hormones) with release into blood or lymph stream.

endoderm or entoderm G. " + derma = skin; inner cell layer of embryo giving rise to digestive system, glands, liver, part of urinary system, etc; also called entoderm.

endolymph G. " + L. lympha = clear fluid, water; fluid inside the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear.

endometrium G. " + metra = womb; mucosal lining of uterus.

endomysium G. " + mys = muscle; fine connective tissue supporting single muscle cells within a muscle fascicle.

endoneurium G. " + neuron = sinew (nerve); delicate connective tissue supporting individual nerve fibres within a peripheral nerve fascicle.

endoplasm G. " + plasma = a thing formed; central, more fluid part of cytoplasm.

endoplasmic reticulum G. " + plasma = a thing formed + reticulum = a small net (-work), dimutive of L. rete , q.v.; a connecting network of membranous channels and sacs in cytoplasm; of two types: rough e.r. with many ribosomes on surface, and smooth e.r., without ribosomes; cf. ergastoplasm.

endosteum G. " + osteon = bone; vascular membrane and osteoblasts lining medullary cavity of a bone.

endotendineum G " L. tendo = sinew; connective tissue within a sinew (also endotenon).

endothelium G. " + thele = nipple; the special name for epithelium (q.v.) lining blood and lymph vessels.

enteroendocrine G. enteron = intestine + endon = within + krinein = to separate.

entoderm G. entos = within + derma = skin; see endoderm.

enzyme G. en = in + zyme = leaven (an early use of biotechnology!).

Eosin G. eos = dawn, rose-coloured; an acidic dye staining the basic cytoplasmic proteins pink.

eosinophil G. " + philein = to love; a type of blood cell with distinct cytoplasmic granules which stain pink with eosin.

eosinophilic having an affinity for eosin dye.

ependyma G. epi = upon + endyma = a garment, an upper garment, a wrap; a vest or singlet, hence an inner garment; cellular layer lining cerebral ventricles and central canal of spinal cord.

epi- G. = upon, on.

epicardium G. " + kardia = heart; outer layer of heart, including connective tissue (i.e., its tunica adventitia) and mesothelium of the serous visceral pericardium.

epidermis G. " + derma = skin; superficial layer of skin.

epididymis (-dymides) G. " + didymos = twofold, double, testis; hence an organ on the posterosuperior aspect of the duplicated organ, the testis, with a duct through which spermatozoa pass; cf. ductus epididymidis.

epidural space space external to the dura mater in the spinal cord.

epiglottis G. " + glottis = throat, larynx; leaf-shaped structure of the upper part of larynx at root of tongue.

epimysium G. " + mys = muscle; loose connective tissue investing several muscle fascicles = muscle fascia, q.v.

epineurium G. " + neuron = sinew; loose connective tissue investing several nerve fascicles.

epiphysis (-ses) G. epi = upon + physis = a growth; extremities of long bones, covering the actual sites of growth (= metaphysis); also epiphysis cerebri = pineal gland.

epiploic G. epiploon = a net; relating to greater omentum, resembling a net with adipose tissue deposits (Galen, c. 180 AD).

epithelioid cells G. -oeides = like; cells that appear like those of an epithelium but are not, e.g., lymphocytes around the germinal centre of an active lymphatic follicle; juxtaglomerular cells of an afferent arteriole in the kidney.

epithelium (-ia) G. epi = upon + thele = nipple, ridge of the lip; cells that cover the ridges of the lip (Ruysch, c. 1700); cells covering organs and structures, or lining spaces, tubes (Henle, c. 1870); many epithelia separate the inside the body from the outside world and its inward extensions.

eponychium G. " + onyx = nail; horny structure (i.e., stratum corneum) of skin fold covering root of a nail; cuticle of a nail.

epoöphoron G. " + oöphoron = ovary; minute tubules in mesosalpinx derived from upper part of embryonic mesonephros.

ergastoplasm G. ergon = work + plasma = a thing formed; cytoplasmic ribonucleic acid as a site of protein synthesis; synonym for rough endoplasmic reticulum.

erythroblast G. erythros = red + blastos = germ; early stage in development of an erythrocyte.

erythrocyte G. " + kytos = hollow vessel; red blood cell (without a nucleus).

erythropoiesis G. " + poiesis = making; process of erythrocyte production in bone marrow, liver, etc.

euchromatin G. eus = good + chroma = colour; chromatin rich in nucleic acid.

Eustachio, Bartolomeo. ?1513,1524-1574 Rome anatomist & physician to Pope; studied teeth; described thoracic duct ( vena alba magna ), cochlea, larynx; Eustachian tube = the cartilaginous part of auditory tube (1562).

evagination L. evaginare = to unsheath; protrusion of an organ or a surface.

exocrine G. exo = outside + krinein = to separate; of glands retaining connection with epithelial surface (opposite to endocrine).

extrafusal L. extra = out + fusus = a spindle; of normal skeletal muscle fibres other than the intrafusal (q.v.) fibres of the muscle spindle.

extravasation L. extra = out + vas = vessel; leakage, e.g., of urine from urinary tract.

exudate L. ex = out + sudare = to sweat.

Histology Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | ANAT2241 Support | Histology | Histology Stains | Embryology Glossary

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Histology Glossary - E. Retrieved September 26, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Histology_Glossary_-_E

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© Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G