Histology Glossary - B

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A Glossary of Histological and Micro-Anatomical Terms

Including historical origins and eponyms compiled by Dr Brian Freeman, Department of Anatomy, School of Medical Sciences, revised 2000.

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Abbreviations: ( ) plural form in brackets, A. Arabic, abb. abbreviation, c. circa =about, F. French adj. adjective, G. Greek, Ge. German, cf. compare, L. Latin, dim. diminutive, NA. Nomina anatomica, q.v. which see, OF. Old French


bacterium (-ia) G. bakterion = a rod.


Baillarger, Jules Gabriel François. 1806-1890. French neurologist; striae of Baillarger are two bands of fibres in grey matter of cerebral cortex running parallel to its surface; cf. Gennari.


Barr, Murray. 1908- ? Canadian anatomist; B. body = intranuclear satellite = sex-chromatin mass seen in a certain proportion of the cells of a female.


Bartholin, Thomas. 1616-1680. Danish mathematician and philosopher, doctor in Basel, anatomist at Cophenhagen; discovered thoracic duct and lymphatic system in 1653; wrote a textbook of anatomy.


Bartholin, Casper. 1655-1738 (son of Thomas). Philosopher professor, then Deputy of Finances (civil service) in Copenhagen; Bartholin's mucous glands of vestibule and labia minora in female reproductive system (1677).


basal body G. basis = base; the root of a cilium.


basal lamina G. basis = base + L. lamina = thin plate; term for a layer seem in the electron microscope of thick glycocalyx at base of epithelial cells; a sublayer of the basement membrane.


basement membrane histological term for extracellular layer at base of epithelium, seen in the light microscope after use of certain dyes; includes basal lamina; constitutes the interface between epithelium and connective tissue.


basilic A. al-basiliq = vein on inner aspect of arm (G. basilikos = royal, hence prominent?); vein used for blood-letting.


basket cell a type of cell partially enclosing another like a basket; e.g., stellate myo-epithelial cells enclosing an acinus of a gland; cerebellar nerve cells whose branches form a basket around the Purkinje cells.


basophil type of leucocyte characterised by basophilic cytoplasmic granules.


basophilic G. basis = base + philein = to love; affinity for a basic dye, e.g. haematoxylin, gallocyanin, toluidine blue.


Bellini, Lorenzo. 1643-1704. Mathematician, anatomist at Pisa; terminal collecting tubules of B. in kidney (1662).


Berengarius of Carpi. 1470-1530. Anatomist at Bologna & Pavia; described pineal gland and sphenoidal air sinuses.


Bernard, Claude. 1813-1878. Sorbonne physiologist; suggested idea of internal secretions and established science of endocrinology; developed concept of constancy of internal environment of body ( milieu interne ).


Bertin, Exupère Joseph. 1712-1781. French anatomist; renal columns of Bertin; conchae of sphenoid bone.


beta cell basophilic cell of adenohypohysis; basophilic cell secreting insulin of pancreatic islets of Langerhans.


Betz, Vladimir Alexandrovich. 1834-1894. Kiev anatomist; Betz cells are large pyramidal cells in 5th layer of motor cortex (1874), giving rise to a small number of fibres in the pyramidal tract.


Bichat, Marie François Xavier. 1771-1802. Paris anatomist, a founder of histology; classification of 23 basic tissues; Bichat's tunica intima; B's internal elastic lamina; B's fat pad in cheek.


bicornuate L. bis = twice + cornua = horns; uterus with 2 horns found in many animals, and occasionally in woman.


bicuspid L. bis = twice + cuspis = a point; of lymphatic valves, mitral valve, premolar tooth.


Bielschowsky, Max. 1869-1940. Berlin neurologist; developed staining and silver impregnation techniques for histological study of nervous system.


bifurcate L. bis = twice + furca = fork; divide into two branches.


bile L. bilus = bile; cf. choledochus.


Billroth, C.A. Theodor. 1829-1894 Austrian surgeon; B.'s cords = the components of red pulp occurring between the venous sinuses of the spleen.


bipolar cell L. bis = twice + polus = pole; nerve cell with two processes, one being a neurite (q.v.) and the other, a dendrite (q.v.). NB. all sensory nerve cells of the embryo are initally bipolar, becoming pseudounipolar (q.v.) with growth, except for the vestibulocochlear ganglion cells.


blastema G. = a sprout; embryonic tissue giving rise to a particular structure; an anlage, q.v.


body cavity a coelom, q.v.


body wall the part of the body which surrounds a coelom, q.v.; paries, q.v.


Boerhaave, Hermann. 1668-1738. Leiden physician; sweat glands; wrote famous textbook Istitutiones medicae (1708).


Botallo, Leonardo. 1530-? Pavia anatomist, surgeon; duct of B. = ductus arteriosus.


bouton terminal (boutons terminaux) F. = terminal button or knob; bulb-like expansion at a synapse of the tip of an axon.


Bowman, William (Sir). 1816-1892. London physician, anatomist & ophthalmologist; B's capsule and B.'s space of renal corpuscle (1842); B's elastic membrane of anterior corneal epithelium (1847).


brain sand acervulus, q.v.; corpora arenaceum, q.v.; psammoma bodies, q.v.


Broca, Pierre Paul. 1824-1880. Paris surgeon, pathologist, anthropologist; B's convolution = area for motor speech is posterior part of inferior frontal gyrus of left hemisphere (1861).


Brodmann, Korbinian. 1868-1918. Armenian anatomist; described 52 allegedly discrete areas of human cerebral cortex by transferring results of studies in monkey brain to human.


bronchiole L. bronchiolus = small bronchus; air passage in lung.


bronchus (-i) G. bronchos = windpipe; later, branches of the trachea.


Brown, Robert. 1773-1858 British Museum botanist; described nucleus of plant cells; Brownian movement.


Bruch, Karl Wilhelm Ludwig. 1819-1884. Anatomist at Basle & Giessen; B's membrane = glassy basement membrane of the retinal (pigment) epithelium (1844); lymphatic follicles of palpebral conjunctiva.


Brücke, Ernst Wilhelm von. 1819- 1892 Vienna physiologist and microscopic anatomist; B.'s muscle = meridional fibres of ciliary muscle.


Brunn, Albert von. 1849-1895 German anatomist; B's membrane = the olfactory epithelium; B.'s cell nests = glandlike invaginations of epithelium forming cell masses, or cell pearls, in lower urinary tract.


Brunner, Johann Konrad. 1653-1727. Professor of Medince at Heidelberg; B's glands = compound mucus-secreting glands of duodenal submucosa (1687).


brush border term of light microscopy for taller (coarser) microvilli, e.g., on kidney tubule cells; cf. striated border.


buccal L. bucca = cheek; related to cheek or mouth.


buccinator L. buccina = trumpet; muscle which prevents the vestibule of the mouth being distended in trumpet playing.


buffer Mid. Eng. buffe = to deaden the shock of; applied to a substance which when added to an acid or a base, preserves the hydrogen ion concentration.


bulbar L. bulbus = a swollen root; of eye-ball; of urethra; of olfactory tract; of aorta; of a hair; of embryonic heart.


Burdach, Karl Friedrich. 1776-1847. Anatomist at Dorpat, Königsberg & Breslau; B's column = cuneate fasciculus of spinal cord (1819).


bursa (-ae) L. from G. = a leather sac, a purse; a sac associated with tendons or muscles, containing synovial fluid.




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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Histology Glossary - B. Retrieved September 26, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Histology_Glossary_-_B

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