Genital - Female Development
|Embryology - 27 Aug 2016 Expand to Translate|
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The male and female reproductive systems develop initially "indifferently", it is the product of the Y chromosome SRY gene that initially makes the "difference". The paramesonephric (Müllerian Duct) contribute the majority of female internal genital tract, while the mesonephric duct degenerates.
The mesonephric/paramesonephric duct changes are one of the first male/female differences that occur in development, while external genitaila remain indeterminate in appearance for quite a while.
There are many different issues to consider in the development of the genital system. Importantly its sex chromosome dependence, late embryonic/fetal differential development, complex morphogenic changes, long time-course, hormonal sensitivity and hormonal influences make it a system prone to many different abnormalities.
- Genital Links: Introduction | Lecture - Medicine | Lecture - Science | Medicine - Practical | Primordial Germ Cell | Meiosis | Female | Ovary | Oocyte | Uterus | Vagina | Reproductive Cycles | Menstrual Cycle | Male | Testis | Spermatozoa | Prostate | Genital Movies | Abnormalities | Assisted Reproductive Technology | Puberty | Category:Genital
|Historic Embryology - Genital|
|1902 The Uro-Genital System | 1912 Urinogenital Organ Development | 1921 Urogenital Development | 1921 External Genital Development | 1927 Female Foetus 15 cm | 1943 Testes Descent | Historic Disclaimer|
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Heath Blackmon, Laura Ross, Doris Bachtrog Sex Determination, Sex Chromosomes, and Karyotype Evolution in Insects. J. Hered.: 2016; PubMed 27543823
Richard P Meisel, Taira Davey, Jae Hak Son, Alec C Gerry, Toshio Shono, Jeffrey G Scott Is Multifactorial Sex Determination in the House Fly, Musca domestica (L.), Stable Over Time? J. Hered.: 2016; PubMed 27540102
Jasdeep Kaur Dhanoa, Chandra Sekhar Mukhopadhyay, Jaspreet Singh Arora Y-chromosomal genes affecting male fertility: A review. Vet World: 2016, 9(7);783-91 PubMed 27536043
E Krzywinska, V Kokoza, M Morris, E de la Casa-Esperon, A S Raikhel, J Krzywinski The sex locus is tightly linked to factors conferring sex-specific lethal effects in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Heredity (Edinb): 2016; PubMed 27485667
Zhen-Yu She, Wan-Xi Yang Sry and SoxE genes: How they participate in mammalian sex determination and gonadal development? Semin. Cell Dev. Biol.: 2016; PubMed 27481580
- Human Embryology (2nd ed.) Larson Chapter 10 p261-306
- The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (6th ed.) Moore and Persaud Chapter 13 p303-346
- Before We Are Born (5th ed.) Moore and Persaud Chapter 14 p289-326
- Essentials of Human Embryology, Larson Chapter 10 p173-205
- Human Embryology, Fitzgerald and Fitzgerald Chapter 21-22 p134-152
- Developmental Biology (6th ed.) Gilbert Chapter 14 Intermediate Mesoderm
|Urogenital Sinus||Urogenital Septum|
Three main stages during development, mesonephric/paramesonephric duct changes are one of the first male/female differences that occur in development, while external genitaila remain indeterminate in appearance for quite a while.
- Differentiation of gonad (Sex determination)
- Differentiation of internal genital organs
- Differentiation of external genital organs
The 2nd and 3rd stages dependent on endocrine gonad. Reproductive development has a long maturation timecourse, begining in the embryo and finishing in puberty. (More? Puberty Development)
Gonad - Ovary
Primordial germ cell migration (mouse)
|Migration 1||Migration 2||Migration 3|
Historic Images of Genital Changes
|Urogenital indifferent||Urogenital female|
Fetal Week 10
- Paramesonephric duct - Wnt-7a Pax-8 expression associated with the initial stages of paramesonephric duct development
- Ovary - Notum, Phlda2, Runx-1 and Msx1 genes
|Y and X Chromosomes|
| X inactivation
DAX1 (NR0B1) is a nuclear receptor with a characteristic C-terminal ligand binding domain, but an atypical DNA binding domain, for review see DAX1 protein is localized mainly in the nucleus and can bind to an RA responsive element (RARE).
- Links: OMIM 300473
- Laurent Boulanger, Maëlle Pannetier, Laurence Gall, Aurélie Allais-Bonnet, Maëva Elzaiat, Daniel Le Bourhis, Nathalie Daniel, Christophe Richard, Corinne Cotinot, Norbert B Ghyselinck, Eric Pailhoux FOXL2 is a female sex-determining gene in the goat. Curr. Biol.: 2014, 24(4);404-8 PubMed 24485832
- Congxing Lin, Yan Yin, G Michael Veith, Alexander V Fisher, Fanxin Long, Liang Ma Temporal and spatial dissection of Shh signaling in genital tubercle development. Development: 2009, 136(23);3959-67 PubMed 19906863
- Xinyu Wu, Christopher Ferrara, Ellen Shapiro, Irina Grishina Bmp7 expression and null phenotype in the urogenital system suggest a role in re-organization of the urethral epithelium. Gene Expr. Patterns: 2009, 9(4);224-30 PubMed 19159697
- Edward R B McCabe DAX1: Increasing complexity in the roles of this novel nuclear receptor. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.: 2007, 265-266;179-82 PubMed 17210221 | PMC1847396/
- S Vainio, M Heikkilä, A Kispert, N Chin, A P McMahon Female development in mammals is regulated by Wnt-4 signalling. Nature: 1999, 397(6718);405-9 PubMed 9989404 | Nature
- Florence Naillat, Wenying Yan, Riikka Karjalainen, Anna Liakhovitskaia, Anatoly Samoylenko, Qi Xu, Zhandong Sun, Bairong Shen, Alexander Medvinsky, Susan Quaggin, Seppo J Vainio Identification of the Genes regulated by Wnt-4, a critical signal for commitment of the ovary. Exp. Cell Res.: 2015; PubMed 25645944 | Exp Cell Res.
Yasmin Sajjad Development of the genital ducts and external genitalia in the early human embryo. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.: 2010, 36(5);929-37 PubMed 20846260
Sérgio Conti Ribeiro, Renata Assef Tormena, Thais Villela Peterson, Marina de Oliveira Gonzáles, Priscila Gonçalves Serrano, José Alcione Macedo de Almeida, Edmund Chada Baracat Müllerian duct anomalies: review of current management. Sao Paulo Med J: 2009, 127(2);92-6 PubMed 19597684
Ryozo Hashimoto Development of the human Müllerian duct in the sexually undifferentiated stage. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol: 2003, 272(2);514-9 PubMed 12740945
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2016) Embryology Genital - Female Development. Retrieved August 27, 2016, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Genital_-_Female_Development
- © Dr Mark Hill 2016, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G