Genital - Female Development
|Embryology - 20 Feb 2017 Expand to Translate|
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The male and female reproductive systems develop initially "indifferently", it is the product of the Y chromosome SRY gene that initially makes the "difference". The paramesonephric (Müllerian Duct) contribute the majority of female internal genital tract, while the mesonephric duct degenerates.
The mesonephric/paramesonephric duct changes are one of the first male/female differences that occur in development, while external genitaila remain indeterminate in appearance for quite a while.
There are many different issues to consider in the development of the genital system. Importantly its sex chromosome dependence, late embryonic/fetal differential development, complex morphogenic changes, long time-course, hormonal sensitivity and hormonal influences make it a system prone to many different abnormalities.
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Zhongkai Cui, Yun Liu, Wenwen Wang, Qian Wang, Ning Zhang, Fan Lin, Na Wang, Changwei Shao, Zhongdian Dong, Yangzhen Li, Yingming Yang, Mengzhu Hu, Hailong Li, Fengtao Gao, Zhanfei Wei, Liang Meng, Yang Liu, Min Wei, Ying Zhu, Hua Guo, Christopher H K Cheng, Manfred Schartl, Songlin Chen Genome editing reveals dmrt1 as an essential male sex-determining gene in Chinese tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). Sci Rep: 2017, 7;42213 PubMed 28205594
Michail Rovatsos, Peter Praschag, Uwe Fritz, Lukáš Kratochvšl Stable Cretaceous sex chromosomes enable molecular sexing in softshell turtles (Testudines: Trionychidae). Sci Rep: 2017, 7;42150 PubMed 28186115
Daisuke Tsugama, Kohei Matsuyama, Mayui Ide, Masato Hayashi, Kaien Fujino, Kiyoshi Masuda A putative MYB35 ortholog is a candidate for the sex-determining genes in Asparagus officinalis. Sci Rep: 2017, 7;41497 PubMed 28176806
Yurina Shishido, Takashi Baba, Tetsuya Sato, Yuichi Shima, Kanako Miyabayashi, Miki Inoue, Haruhiko Akiyama, Hiroshi Kimura, Yoshiakira Kanai, Yasuhiro Ishihara, Shogo Haraguchi, Akira Miyazaki, Damjana Rozman, Takeshi Yamazaki, Man-Ho Choi, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Mikita Suyama, Ken-Ichirou Morohashi Differential lactate and cholesterol synthetic activities in XY and XX Sertoli cells. Sci Rep: 2017, 7;41912 PubMed 28150810
Liang Zhao, Michel Arsenault, Ee Ting Ng, Enya Longmuss, Tevin Chui-Ying Chau, Sunny Hartwig, Peter Koopman SOX4 regulates gonad morphogenesis and promotes male germ cell differentiation in mice. Dev. Biol.: 2017; PubMed 28118982
- Human Embryology (2nd ed.) Larson Chapter 10 p261-306
- The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (6th ed.) Moore and Persaud Chapter 13 p303-346
- Before We Are Born (5th ed.) Moore and Persaud Chapter 14 p289-326
- Essentials of Human Embryology, Larson Chapter 10 p173-205
- Human Embryology, Fitzgerald and Fitzgerald Chapter 21-22 p134-152
- Developmental Biology (6th ed.) Gilbert Chapter 14 Intermediate Mesoderm
|Urogenital Sinus||Urogenital Septum|
Three main stages during development, mesonephric/paramesonephric duct changes are one of the first male/female differences that occur in development, while external genitaila remain indeterminate in appearance for quite a while.
- Differentiation of gonad (Sex determination)
- Differentiation of internal genital organs
- Differentiation of external genital organs
The 2nd and 3rd stages dependent on endocrine gonad. Reproductive development has a long maturation timecourse, begining in the embryo and finishing in puberty. (More? Puberty Development)
Gonad - Ovary
Primordial germ cell migration (mouse)
|Migration 1||Migration 2||Migration 3|
Historic Images of Genital Changes
|Urogenital indifferent||Urogenital female|
Fetal Week 10
- Paramesonephric duct - Wnt-7a Pax-8 expression associated with the initial stages of paramesonephric duct development
- Ovary - Notum, Phlda2, Runx-1 and Msx1 genes
|Y and X Chromosomes|
| X inactivation
DAX1 (NR0B1) is a nuclear receptor with a characteristic C-terminal ligand binding domain, but an atypical DNA binding domain, for review see DAX1 protein is localized mainly in the nucleus and can bind to an RA responsive element (RARE).
- Links: OMIM 300473
- Laurent Boulanger, Maëlle Pannetier, Laurence Gall, Aurélie Allais-Bonnet, Maëva Elzaiat, Daniel Le Bourhis, Nathalie Daniel, Christophe Richard, Corinne Cotinot, Norbert B Ghyselinck, Eric Pailhoux FOXL2 is a female sex-determining gene in the goat. Curr. Biol.: 2014, 24(4);404-8 PubMed 24485832
- Congxing Lin, Yan Yin, G Michael Veith, Alexander V Fisher, Fanxin Long, Liang Ma Temporal and spatial dissection of Shh signaling in genital tubercle development. Development: 2009, 136(23);3959-67 PubMed 19906863
- Xinyu Wu, Christopher Ferrara, Ellen Shapiro, Irina Grishina Bmp7 expression and null phenotype in the urogenital system suggest a role in re-organization of the urethral epithelium. Gene Expr. Patterns: 2009, 9(4);224-30 PubMed 19159697
- Edward R B McCabe DAX1: Increasing complexity in the roles of this novel nuclear receptor. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.: 2007, 265-266;179-82 PubMed 17210221 | PMC1847396/
- S Vainio, M Heikkilä, A Kispert, N Chin, A P McMahon Female development in mammals is regulated by Wnt-4 signalling. Nature: 1999, 397(6718);405-9 PubMed 9989404 | Nature
- Florence Naillat, Wenying Yan, Riikka Karjalainen, Anna Liakhovitskaia, Anatoly Samoylenko, Qi Xu, Zhandong Sun, Bairong Shen, Alexander Medvinsky, Susan Quaggin, Seppo J Vainio Identification of the Genes regulated by Wnt-4, a critical signal for commitment of the ovary. Exp. Cell Res.: 2015; PubMed 25645944 | Exp Cell Res.
Yasmin Sajjad Development of the genital ducts and external genitalia in the early human embryo. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.: 2010, 36(5);929-37 PubMed 20846260
Sérgio Conti Ribeiro, Renata Assef Tormena, Thais Villela Peterson, Marina de Oliveira Gonzáles, Priscila Gonçalves Serrano, José Alcione Macedo de Almeida, Edmund Chada Baracat Müllerian duct anomalies: review of current management. Sao Paulo Med J: 2009, 127(2);92-6 PubMed 19597684
Ryozo Hashimoto Development of the human Müllerian duct in the sexually undifferentiated stage. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol: 2003, 272(2);514-9 PubMed 12740945
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Genital - Female Development. Retrieved February 20, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Genital_-_Female_Development
- © Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G