Endocrine - Gonad Development

From Embryology
Embryology - 18 Nov 2017    Facebook link Pinterest link Twitter link  Expand to Translate  
Google Translate - select your language from the list shown below (this will open a new external page)

العربية | català | 中文 | 中國傳統的 | français | Deutsche | עִברִית | हिंदी | bahasa Indonesia | italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | မြန်မာ | Pilipino | Polskie | português | ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਦੇ | Română | русский | Español | Swahili | Svensk | ไทย | Türkçe | اردو | ייִדיש | Tiếng Việt    These external translations are automated and may not be accurate. (More? About Translations)

Introduction

Female HPG axis

The term gonad refers to both the female ovary and the male testis, which have their own topic pages.

This section of notes refers only to the development of the gonad as an endocrine organ. A detailed description of the gonad development is covered in both Ovary Development and Testis Development.

Embryonically, initial endocrine development of the testis is required for development of both the internal genital tract and the external genitalia.

Postnatally, the gonads are part of an integrated Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Gonad (HPG) axis.


Endocrine Links: Introduction | BGD Lecture | Science Lecture | Lecture Movie | Pineal | Hypothalamus‎ | Pituitary | Thyroid | Parathyroid | Thymus‎ | Pancreas‎ | Adrenal‎ | Gonad‎ | Placenta‎ | Other Tissues | Stage 22 | Abnormalities | Hormones | Category:Endocrine
Historic Embryology - Endocrine  
1903 Islets of Langerhans | 1904 interstitial Cells | 1908 Pancreas Different Species | 1908 Pituitary | 1908 Pituitary histology | 1911 Rathke's pouch | 1912 Suprarenal Bodies | 1914 Suprarenal Organs | 1915 Pharynx | 1916 Thyroid | 1918 Rabbit Hypophysis | 1920 Adrenal | 1935 Mammalian Hypophysis | 1926 Human Hypophysis | 1927 Hypophyseal fossa | 1935 Hypophysis | 1937 Pineal | 1938 Parathyroid | 1940 Adrenal | 1941 Thyroid | 1950 Thyroid Parathyroid Thymus | 1957 Adrenal


Genital Links: Introduction | Lecture - Medicine | Lecture - Science | Lecture Movie | Medicine - Practical | Primordial Germ Cell | Meiosis | Female | Ovary | Oocyte | Uterus | Vagina | Reproductive Cycles | Menstrual Cycle | Male | Testis | Spermatozoa | Penis | Prostate | Genital Movies | Abnormalities | Assisted Reproductive Technology | Puberty | Category:Genital
Historic Embryology - Genital 
1902 The Uro-Genital System | 1904 Ovary and Testis | 1904 Leydig Cells | 1904 Hymen | 1905 Testis vascular | 1909 Prostate | 1912 Prostate | 1912 Urinogenital Organ Development | 1914 Female | 1915 Cowper’s and Bartholin’s Glands | 1920 Wolffian tubules | 1921 Urogenital Development | 1921 External Genital | 1927 Female Foetus 15 cm | 1932 Postnatal Ovary | 1935 Prepuce | 1935 Wolffian Duct | 1942 Sex Cords | 1943 Testes Descent | 1953 Germ Cells | Historic Embryology Papers | Historic Disclaimer

Some Recent Findings

  • Regulation of seminiferous tubule-associated stem Leydig cells in adult rat testes[1] "Testicular Leydig cells are the primary source of testosterone in males. Adult Leydig cells have been shown to arise from stem cells present in the neonatal testis. Once established, adult Leydig cells turn over only slowly during adult life, but when these cells are eliminated experimentally from the adult testis, new Leydig cells rapidly reappear. As in the neonatal testis, stem cells in the adult testis are presumed to be the source of the new Leydig cells. ... The proliferation of the stem Leydig cells was stimulated by paracrine factors including Desert hedgehog (DHH), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and activin. Suppression of proliferation occurred with transforming growth factor β (TGF-β). The differentiation of the stem cells was regulated positively by DHH, lithium- induced signaling, and activin, and negatively by TGF-β, PDGFBB, and FGF2. DHH functioned as a commitment factor, inducing the transition of stem cells to the progenitor stage and thus into the Leydig cell lineage."
  • Fetal Testosterone (FT) Influences Sexually Dimorphic Gray Matter in the Human Brain[2] "These results bridge a long-standing gap between human and nonhuman species by showing that fetal testosterone acts as an organizing mechanism for the development of regional sexual dimorphism in the human brain." Male Hormone Levels | Neural System Development
More recent papers  
Mark Hill.jpg
PubMed logo.gif

This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.

  • Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.

References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

Links: References | Discussion Page | Pubmed Most Recent | Journal Searches


Search term: Endocrine Gonad Development

Philipp Bolli, Sabine Schädelin, Stefan Holland-Cunz, Peter Zimmermann Ovarian torsion in children: Development of a predictive score. Medicine (Baltimore): 2017, 96(43);e8299 PubMed 29069000

Weiting Chen, Shuk-Wa Lau, Yuqin Fan, Rudolf S S Wu, Wei Ge Juvenile exposure to bisphenol A promotes ovarian differentiation but suppresses its growth - Potential involvement of pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone. Aquat. Toxicol.: 2017, 193;111-121 PubMed 29055862

Xianming Dou, Jingjing Gao, Pan Gao, Dongdong Tang, Dangwei Peng, Jun Mao, Zhenyu Huang, Peng Chen, He Chen, Shengwei Ke, Chaozhao Liang, Xiansheng Zhang Association between RNA-binding protein Ptbp2 and germ cell injury in an experimentally-induced unilateral cryptorchidism murine model. PLoS ONE: 2017, 12(10);e0186654 PubMed 29045475

JoAnne S Richards, Yi A Ren, Nicholes Candelaria, Jaye E Adams, Aleksandar Rajkovic Ovarian Follicular Theca Cell Recruitment, Differentiation and Impact on Fertility: 2017 Update. Endocr. Rev.: 2017; PubMed 29028960

Jiajun Zhu, Peiying Hao, Chaofeng Lu, Yan Ma, Yalin Feng, Xiaoping Yu Expression and RNA Interference of Ribosomal Protein L5 Gene in Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). J. Insect Sci.: 2017, 17(3); PubMed 28973571


HPG Axis - Endocrinology - Simplified diagram of the actions of gonadotrophins

Gonad Development

Infant Ovary
  • mesoderm - mesothelium and underlying mesenchyme, primordial germ cells
  • Gonadal ridge - mesothelium thickening, medial mesonephros
  • Primordial Germ cells - yolk sac, to mesentery of hindgut, to genital ridge of developing kidney

Differentiation

  • testis-determining factor (TDF) from Y chromosome: presence (testes), absence (ovaries)

Testis

  • 8 Weeks, mesenchyme, interstitial cells (of Leydig) secrete testosterone, androstenedione
  • 8 to 12 Weeks - hCG stimulates testosterone production
  • Sustentacular cells - produce anti-mullerian hormone to puberty

Ovary

  • X chromosome genes regulate ovary development

Male Hormone Levels

Testicular Leydig cells (interstitial cells) are the main source of testosterone in males.

Male testosterone and AMH level graph.jpg

Human Male Testosterone and Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) relative levels[3]

Leydig Cells

Leydig cells stained for LHCGR1.jpg

Leydig cells stained for LHCGR1[4]

Steroidogenesis

Steroidogenesis

Androgen and Digit ratio (2D:4D)

Androgen and Digit ratio (2D:4D

The ratio of 2nd and 4th finger (D, digit) length. This ratio has been suggested to relate to high fetal testosterone concentration (males have lower 2D:4D than females) and has been shown for several species.[5] Although a study in mice has not shown the same correlation.[6] There have been some suggestions that the ratio may also be an indicator of various neurological abnormalities.

To measure (2D:4D) - using your right hand palm up, measure the index finger (2) and ring finger (4) length from palm to tip. Dividing the index finger by the ring finger gives the 2D:4D ratio, average women ratio is 1, average men is 0.98.


Genital Links: Introduction | Lecture - Medicine | Lecture - Science | Lecture Movie | Medicine - Practical | Primordial Germ Cell | Meiosis | Female | Ovary | Oocyte | Uterus | Vagina | Reproductive Cycles | Menstrual Cycle | Male | Testis | Spermatozoa | Penis | Prostate | Genital Movies | Abnormalities | Assisted Reproductive Technology | Puberty | Category:Genital
Historic Embryology - Genital 
1902 The Uro-Genital System | 1904 Ovary and Testis | 1904 Leydig Cells | 1904 Hymen | 1905 Testis vascular | 1909 Prostate | 1912 Prostate | 1912 Urinogenital Organ Development | 1914 Female | 1915 Cowper’s and Bartholin’s Glands | 1920 Wolffian tubules | 1921 Urogenital Development | 1921 External Genital | 1927 Female Foetus 15 cm | 1932 Postnatal Ovary | 1935 Prepuce | 1935 Wolffian Duct | 1942 Sex Cords | 1943 Testes Descent | 1953 Germ Cells | Historic Embryology Papers | Historic Disclaimer

Adult Histology

References

  1. Xiaoheng Li, Zhao Wang, Zhenming Jiang, Jingjing Guo, Yuxi Zhang, Chenhao Li, Jinyong Chung, Janet Folmer, June Liu, Qingquan Lian, Renshan Ge, Barry R Zirkin, Haolin Chen Regulation of seminiferous tubule-associated stem Leydig cells in adult rat testes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2016; PubMed 26929346
  2. Michael V Lombardo, Emma Ashwin, Bonnie Auyeung, Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Kevin Taylor, Gerald Hackett, Edward T Bullmore, Simon Baron-Cohen Fetal testosterone influences sexually dimorphic gray matter in the human brain. J. Neurosci.: 2012, 32(2);674-80 PubMed 22238103
  3. Rodolfo Rey Anti-Müllerian hormone in disorders of sex determination and differentiation. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol: 2005, 49(1);26-36 PubMed 16544032 | Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol.
  4. Nina Kossack, Manuela Simoni, Annette Richter-Unruh, Axel P N Themmen, Jörg Gromoll Mutations in a novel, cryptic exon of the luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor gene cause male pseudohermaphroditism. PLoS Med.: 2008, 5(4);e88 PubMed 18433292
  5. Matthew H McIntyre The use of digit ratios as markers for perinatal androgen action. Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol.: 2006, 4;10 PubMed 16504142
  6. Reginia H Y Yan, Mark Bunning, Douglas Wahlsten, Peter L Hurd Digit ratio (2Dratio4D) differences between 20 strains of inbred mice. PLoS ONE: 2009, 4(6);e5801 PubMed 19495421


Reviews

Articles

Search PubMed

Search Pubmed: endocrine gonad development

External Links

External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.

Additional Images

Glossary Links

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Endocrine - Gonad Development. Retrieved November 18, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Endocrine_-_Gonad_Development

What Links Here?
© Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G