Endocrine - Gonad Development

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Introduction

Female HPG axis

The term gonad refers to both the female ovary and the male testis, which have their own topic pages.

This section of notes refers only to the development of the gonad as an endocrine organ. A detailed description of the gonad development is covered in both Ovary Development and Testis Development.

Embryonically, initial endocrine development of the testis is required for development of both the internal genital tract and the external genitalia.

Postnatally, the gonads are part of an integrated Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Gonad (HPG) axis.


Endocrine Links: Introduction | BGD Lecture | Science Lecture | Pineal | Hypothalamus‎ | Pituitary | Thyroid | Parathyroid | Thymus‎ | Pancreas‎ | Adrenal‎ | Gonad‎ | Placenta‎ | Other Tissues | Stage 22 | Abnormalities | Hormones | Category:Endocrine
Historic Embryology - Endocrine  
1903 Islets of Langerhans | 1904 interstitial Cells | 1908 Pancreas Different Species | 1912 Suprarenal Bodies | 1914 Suprarenal Organs | 1915 Pharynx | 1916 Thyroid | 1918 Rabbit Hypophysis | 1920 Adrenal | 1935 Mammalian Hypophysis | 1926 Human Hypophysis | 1937 Pineal | 1938 Parathyroid | 1940 Adrenal | 1941 Thyroid | 1950 Thyroid Parathyroid Thymus | 1957 Adrenal


Genital Links: Introduction | Lecture - Medicine | Lecture - Science | Lecture Movie | Medicine - Practical | Primordial Germ Cell | Meiosis | Female | Ovary | Oocyte | Uterus | Vagina | Reproductive Cycles | Menstrual Cycle | Male | Testis | Spermatozoa | Penis | Prostate | Genital Movies | Abnormalities | Assisted Reproductive Technology | Puberty | Category:Genital
Historic Embryology - Genital 
1902 The Uro-Genital System | 1904 Ovary and Testis | 1904 Leydig Cells | 1904 Hymen | 1905 Testis vascular | 1912 Urinogenital Organ Development | 1914 Female | 1915 Cowper’s and Bartholin’s Glands | 1921 Urogenital Development | 1921 External Genital | 1927 Female Foetus 15 cm | 1932 Postnatal Ovary | 1935 Prepuce | 1935 Wolffian Duct | 1942 Sex Cords | 1943 Testes Descent | 1953 Germ Cells | Historic Embryology Papers | Historic Disclaimer

Some Recent Findings

  • Regulation of seminiferous tubule-associated stem Leydig cells in adult rat testes[1] "Testicular Leydig cells are the primary source of testosterone in males. Adult Leydig cells have been shown to arise from stem cells present in the neonatal testis. Once established, adult Leydig cells turn over only slowly during adult life, but when these cells are eliminated experimentally from the adult testis, new Leydig cells rapidly reappear. As in the neonatal testis, stem cells in the adult testis are presumed to be the source of the new Leydig cells. ... The proliferation of the stem Leydig cells was stimulated by paracrine factors including Desert hedgehog (DHH), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and activin. Suppression of proliferation occurred with transforming growth factor β (TGF-β). The differentiation of the stem cells was regulated positively by DHH, lithium- induced signaling, and activin, and negatively by TGF-β, PDGFBB, and FGF2. DHH functioned as a commitment factor, inducing the transition of stem cells to the progenitor stage and thus into the Leydig cell lineage."
  • Fetal Testosterone (FT) Influences Sexually Dimorphic Gray Matter in the Human Brain[2] "These results bridge a long-standing gap between human and nonhuman species by showing that fetal testosterone acts as an organizing mechanism for the development of regional sexual dimorphism in the human brain." Male Hormone Levels | Neural System Development
More recent papers  
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This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.

  • Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.

References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

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Search term: Endocrine Gonad Development

Li-Ping Hou, Yang Yang, Hu Shu, Guang-Guo Ying, Jian-Liang Zhao, Gui-Zhen Fang, Li Xin, Wen-Jun Shi, Li Yao, Xue-Mei Cheng Masculinization and reproductive effects in western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) after long-term exposure to androstenedione. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.: 2017, 147;509-515 PubMed 28915398

Cheryl S Rosenfeld, Nancy D Denslow, Edward F Orlando, Juan Manuel Gutierrez-Villagomez, Vance L Trudeau Neuroendocrine disruption of organizational and activational hormone programming in poikilothermic vertebrates. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev: 2017, 20(5);276-304 PubMed 28895797

Celso E Gomez-Sanchez, Mark Lewis, Kazutaka Nanba, William E Rainey, Maniselvan Kuppusamy, Elise P Gomez-Sanchez Development of Monoclonal Antibodies Against the Human 3β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase/Isomerase Isozymes. Steroids: 2017; PubMed 28863887

Sarah F Ackley, John W Hargrove A dynamic model for estimating adult female mortality from ovarian dissection data for the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes Austen sampled in Zimbabwe. PLoS Negl Trop Dis: 2017, 11(8);e0005813 PubMed 28854189

Dércia Santos, Ana Luzio, Ana M Coimbra Zebrafish sex differentiation and gonad development: A review on the impact of environmental factors. Aquat. Toxicol.: 2017, 191;141-163 PubMed 28841494


HPG Axis - Endocrinology - Simplified diagram of the actions of gonadotrophins

Gonad Development

Infant Ovary
  • mesoderm - mesothelium and underlying mesenchyme, primordial germ cells
  • Gonadal ridge - mesothelium thickening, medial mesonephros
  • Primordial Germ cells - yolk sac, to mesentery of hindgut, to genital ridge of developing kidney

Differentiation

  • testis-determining factor (TDF) from Y chromosome: presence (testes), absence (ovaries)

Testis

  • 8 Weeks, mesenchyme, interstitial cells (of Leydig) secrete testosterone, androstenedione
  • 8 to 12 Weeks - hCG stimulates testosterone production
  • Sustentacular cells - produce anti-mullerian hormone to puberty

Ovary

  • X chromosome genes regulate ovary development

Male Hormone Levels

Testicular Leydig cells (interstitial cells) are the main source of testosterone in males.

Male testosterone and AMH level graph.jpg

Human Male Testosterone and Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) relative levels[3]

Leydig Cells

Leydig cells stained for LHCGR1.jpg

Leydig cells stained for LHCGR1[4]

Steroidogenesis

Steroidogenesis

Androgen and Digit ratio (2D:4D)

Androgen and Digit ratio (2D:4D

The ratio of 2nd and 4th finger (D, digit) length. This ratio has been suggested to relate to high fetal testosterone concentration (males have lower 2D:4D than females) and has been shown for several species.[5] Although a study in mice has not shown the same correlation.[6] There have been some suggestions that the ratio may also be an indicator of various neurological abnormalities.

To measure (2D:4D) - using your right hand palm up, measure the index finger (2) and ring finger (4) length from palm to tip. Dividing the index finger by the ring finger gives the 2D:4D ratio, average women ratio is 1, average men is 0.98.


Genital Links: Introduction | Lecture - Medicine | Lecture - Science | Lecture Movie | Medicine - Practical | Primordial Germ Cell | Meiosis | Female | Ovary | Oocyte | Uterus | Vagina | Reproductive Cycles | Menstrual Cycle | Male | Testis | Spermatozoa | Penis | Prostate | Genital Movies | Abnormalities | Assisted Reproductive Technology | Puberty | Category:Genital
Historic Embryology - Genital 
1902 The Uro-Genital System | 1904 Ovary and Testis | 1904 Leydig Cells | 1904 Hymen | 1905 Testis vascular | 1912 Urinogenital Organ Development | 1914 Female | 1915 Cowper’s and Bartholin’s Glands | 1921 Urogenital Development | 1921 External Genital | 1927 Female Foetus 15 cm | 1932 Postnatal Ovary | 1935 Prepuce | 1935 Wolffian Duct | 1942 Sex Cords | 1943 Testes Descent | 1953 Germ Cells | Historic Embryology Papers | Historic Disclaimer

Adult Histology

References

  1. Xiaoheng Li, Zhao Wang, Zhenming Jiang, Jingjing Guo, Yuxi Zhang, Chenhao Li, Jinyong Chung, Janet Folmer, June Liu, Qingquan Lian, Renshan Ge, Barry R Zirkin, Haolin Chen Regulation of seminiferous tubule-associated stem Leydig cells in adult rat testes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2016; PubMed 26929346
  2. Michael V Lombardo, Emma Ashwin, Bonnie Auyeung, Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Kevin Taylor, Gerald Hackett, Edward T Bullmore, Simon Baron-Cohen Fetal testosterone influences sexually dimorphic gray matter in the human brain. J. Neurosci.: 2012, 32(2);674-80 PubMed 22238103
  3. Rodolfo Rey Anti-Müllerian hormone in disorders of sex determination and differentiation. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol: 2005, 49(1);26-36 PubMed 16544032 | Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol.
  4. Nina Kossack, Manuela Simoni, Annette Richter-Unruh, Axel P N Themmen, Jörg Gromoll Mutations in a novel, cryptic exon of the luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor gene cause male pseudohermaphroditism. PLoS Med.: 2008, 5(4);e88 PubMed 18433292
  5. Matthew H McIntyre The use of digit ratios as markers for perinatal androgen action. Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol.: 2006, 4;10 PubMed 16504142
  6. Reginia H Y Yan, Mark Bunning, Douglas Wahlsten, Peter L Hurd Digit ratio (2Dratio4D) differences between 20 strains of inbred mice. PLoS ONE: 2009, 4(6);e5801 PubMed 19495421


Reviews

Articles

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Endocrine - Gonad Development. Retrieved September 25, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Endocrine_-_Gonad_Development

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