Developmental Mechanism - Epithelial Invagination

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Introduction

Epithelia during development often undergo folding or invagination. In some cases the epithelial cells are eventually "pinched off" fron the existing epithelia to form a distinct structure, such as a tube or vesicle. For example this process occurs in neural tube formation, sensory placode (otic and optic vesicles). Changes in cell shape require changes in the actin cytoskeleton and recent researh has shown Rho1 a small GTPase of the Rho subfamily (Rho, Rac and Cdc42) which acts as regulatory switch for actin cytoskeleton is activated in epithelial cells for invagination process initiation.


Mechanism - "a process, technique, or system for achieving a result".


Mechanism Links: epithelial invagination | epithelial mesenchymal transition | mesenchymal epithelial transition | epithelial mesenchymal interaction | cell migration | morphodynamics | tube formation | apoptosis | autophagy | axes formation | time | molecular

Some Recent Findings

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Search term: Epithelial Invagination

<pubmed limit=5>Epithelial Invagination</pubmed>

Neural Plate to Neural Groove

In week 3 (GA week 5) of human development, the ectodermal neural plate invaginated to form the neural groove. This is the first step in converting an epithelial sheet into an epithelial tube that will form the central nervous system.

Human embryo stage 10 electron micrograph neural plate

Dorsal view of the early human embryo (stage 10) showing the neural plate folding to form an open groove.

Links: Neural System Development

Otic Placode to Otic Vesicle

In week 4 (GA week 6) of human development, on the embryo head region surface ectoderm specialised "patches" (placodes) form associated with later sensory and endocrine development. The first to appear are the paired otic placodes, forming behind the second pharyngeal arch, that invaginate and are eventually lost from the surface. These placodes will form the structures of the inner ear. Other sensory placodes, nasal and optic, can be seen slightly later.

Human embryo stage 11 electron micrograph otic placode

Dorsal view of the early human embryo (stage 11) showing the surface ectoderm otic placode folding to form an indentation on the embryo surface.


Links: Placodes | Inner Ear Development

References

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Mechanism Links: epithelial invagination | epithelial mesenchymal transition | mesenchymal epithelial transition | epithelial mesenchymal interaction | cell migration | morphodynamics | tube formation | apoptosis | autophagy | axes formation | time | molecular


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, January 18) Embryology Developmental Mechanism - Epithelial Invagination. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Developmental_Mechanism_-_Epithelial_Invagination

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© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G