Chicken stages

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Introduction

Hamburger & Hamilton Stage 11 (40-45 hr; 13 somites)
Viktor Hamburger

Viktor Hamburger (1900 – 2001)

Hamburger & Hamilton staged the chicken embryo in 1951.[1] The original paper had approx 25 citations between 1955 - 59, while in the year 1991 alone there were over 300 citations. Series of Embryonic Chicken Growth. J. Morphology, 88 49 - 92 (1951). Atlas recently republished by J.R. Sanes in Developmental Dynamics 195 229-275 (1992). There was also an earlier Witschi staging though the Hamburger Hamilton Stages most commonly currently used.
Franz Keibel

Franz Keibel (1861 - 1929)

An even older 1900 staging[2] in the Normentafeln zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Wirbeltiere - Gallus domestics (Normal Plates of the Development of the Chicken Embryo by Franz Keibel and Karl Abraham. This was part of a series of embryo stagings in different species designed by Franz Keibel.


See also the 1910 description of chicken somitogenesis staging.[3]

The table overview below describes feature of the chicken that can be seen at specific times (mean of a range) after fertilization, see Hamburger Hamilton Stages page for complete details and stage images. Some of the stages can be clicked to see sample embryo pictures on another page. There is also a stage comparison with the alternative universal Witschi staging.

Avian Incubation Periods  
Bird Days
Budgerigar 18
Chicken 21
Duck 28
Finch 14
Goose 28
Guinea fowl 28
Muscovy duck 35
Parrot 26
Pheasant 24
Pigeon 18
Quail 16
Swan 35
Turkey 28


Chicken Links: Introduction | Chicken stages | Hamburger Hamilton Stages | Witschi Stages | Placodes | Category:Chicken
Historic Chicken Embryology  
1883 History of the Chick | 1900 Chicken Embryo Development Plates | 1904 X-Ray Effects | 1910 Somites | 1920 Chick Early Embryology | 1933 Neural | 1939 Sternum | 1948 Limb | Movie 1961 | Historic Papers

Hamburger Hamilton Stages

Hamburger Hamilton Stages

Hamburger Hamilton Stages
Age
Identification of Stages
Links
Before Laying
Early cleavage
3.5 - 4.5 hr Shell membrane of egg formed in isthmus of oviduct
During cleavage
Germ wall formed from marginal periblast
Late cleavage
4.5 - 24.0 hr Shell of egg formed in uterus
After Laying
1
Preprimitive streak (embryonic shield)
2
6 - 7 hr Initial primitive streak, 0.3-0.5 mm long Gastrulation
3
12 - 13 hr Intermediate primitive streak
4
18 - 19 hr Definitive primitive streak, 1.88 mm long Gastrulation
5
19 - 22 hr Head process (notochord)
6
23 - 25 hr Head fold
7
23 - 26 hr 1 somite; neural folds Somitogenesis
7 to 8-
ca. 23 - 26 hr 1-3 somites; coelom
8
26 - 29 hr 4 somites; blood islands
9
29-33 hr 7 somites; primary optic vesicles
9+ to 10-
ca. 33 hr 8-9 somites; anterior amniotic fold
10
33-38 hr 10 somites; 3 primary brain vesicles
11
40 - 45 hr 13 somites; 5 neuromeres of hindbrain
12
45 - 49 hr 16 somites; telencephalon Heart
13
48-52 hr 19 somites; atrioventricular canal
13+ to 14-
ca. 50 - 52 hr 20-21 somites; tail bud
14
50 - 53 hr 22 somites; trunk flexure; visceral arches I and II, clefts 1 and 2
14+ to 15-
ca. 50 - 54 hr 23 somites; premandibular head cavities
15
50 - 55 hr 24 - 27 somites; visceral arch III, cleft 3
16
51 - 56 hr 26 - 28 somites; wing bud; posterior amniotic fold; trigeminal ganglion (CN V) close lateral head ectoderm. Heart
17
52 - 64 hr 29-32 somites; leg bud; epiphysis
18
3 da 30 - 36 somites extending beyond level of leg bud; allantois
19
3.0 - 3.5 da 37 - 40 somites extending into tail; maxillary process
20
3.0 - 3.5 da 40 - 43 somites; rotation completed; eye pigment
21
3.5 da 43-44 somites; visceral arch IV, cleft 4 Heart
22
3.5 - 4.0 da Somites extend to tip of tail
23
4 da Dorsal contour from hindbrain to tail is a curved line
24
4.5 da Toe plate, eye primordium reaches optic cup stage.
25
4.5 - 5.0 da Elbow and knee joints Heart
26
5 da 1st 3 toes
27
5.0 - 5.5 da Beak
28
5.5 - 6.0 da 3 digits, 4 toes
29
6.0 - 6.5 da Rudiment of 5th toe
30
6.5 - 7.0 da Feather germs; scleral papillae; egg tooth
31
7.0 - 7.5 da Web between 1st and 2nd digits
32
7.5 da Anterior tip of mandible has reached beak
33
7.5 - 8.0 da Web on radial margin of wing and 1st digit
34
8 da Nictitating membrane
35
8.5 - 9.0 da Phalanges in toes
36
10 da Length of 3rd toe from tip to middle of metatarsal joint = 5.4±0.3mm; length of beak from anterior angle of nostril to tip of bill = 2.5mm; primordium of comb; labial groove; uropygial gland
37
11 da Length of 3rd toe = 7.4±0.3mm; length of beak = 3.0 mm
38
12 da Length of 3rd toe = 8.4±0.3 mm; length of beak = 3.1 mm
39
13 da Length of 3rd toe = 9.8±0.3 mm; length of beak = 3.5 mm
40
14 da Length of beak = 4.0 mm; length of 3rd toe = 12.7±0.5 mm
41
15 da Length of beak from anterior angle of nostril to tip of upper bill = 4.5 mm; length of 3rd toe = 14.9±0.8 mm
42
16 da Length of beak = 4.8 mm; length of 3rd toe = 16.7±0.8 mm
43
17 da Length of beak = 5.0 mm; length of 3rd toe = 18.6±0.8 mm
44
18 da Length of beak = 5.7 mm; length of 3rd toe = 20.4±0.8 mm
45
19 - 20 da Yolk sac half enclosed in body cavity; chorio-allantoic membrane contains less blood and is "sticky" in living embryo
46
20 - 21 da Newly-hatched chick

Standard Stage Comparison

Witschi Stages

Standard Stages (Witschi)
Hamburger Hamilton Stages
Age
Identification of Stages
Before Laying
3,4 Early cleavage 3.5-4.5 hr2 Shell membrane of egg formed in isthmus of oviduct
5,6 During cleavage Germ wall formed from marginal periblast
7 Late cleavage 4.5-24.0 hr2 Shell of egg formed in uterus
After Laying
8,9 1 Preprimitive streak (embryonic shield)
10 2 6-7 hr Initial primitive streak, 0.3-0.5 mm long
11 3 12-13 hr Intermediate primitive streak
12 4 18-19 hr Definitive primitive streak, ±1.88 mm long
13a 5 19-22 hr Head process (notochord)
13b 6 23-25 hr Head fold
14a 7 23-26 hr 1 somite; neural folds
14b 7 to 8- ca. 23-26 hr 1-3 somites; coelom
14c 8 26-29 hr 4 somites; blood islands
15a 9 29-33 hr 7 somites; primary optic vesicles
15b 9+ to 10- ca. 33 hr 8-9 somites; anterior amniotic fold
15c 10 33-38 hr 10 somites; 3 primary brain vesicles
16a 11 40-45 hr 13 somites; 5 neuromeres of hindbrain
16b 12 45-49 hr 16 somites; telencephalon
16c 13 48-52 hr 19 somites; atrioventricular canal
17a 13+ to 14- ca. 50-52 hr 20-21 somites; tail bud
17b 14 50-53 hr 22 somites; trunk flexure; visceral arches I and II, clefts 1 and 2
17c 14+ to 15- ca. 50-54 hr 23 somites; premandibular head cavities
17d 15 50-55 hr 24-27 somites; visceral arch III, cleft 3
18 16 51-56 hr 26-28 somites; wing bud; posterior amniotic fold
19 17 52-64 hr 29-32 somites; leg bud; epiphysis
20 18 3 da 30-36 somites extending beyond level of leg bud; allantois
21 19 3.0-3.5 da 37- 40 somites extending into tail; maxillary process
22 20 3.0-3.5 da 40-43 somites; rotation completed; eye pigment
23 21 3.5 da 43-44 somites; visceral arch IV, cleft 4
24 22 3.5-4.0 da Somites extend to tip of tail
25 23 4 da Dorsal contour from hindbrain to tail is a curved line
26 24 4.5 da Toe plate
27 25 4.5-5.0 da Elbow and knee joints
28 26 5 da 1st 3 toes
29 27 5.0-5.5 da Beak
30 28 5.5-6.0 da 3 digits, 4 toes
31 29 6.0-6.5 da Rudiment of 5th toe
32 30 6.5-7.0 da Feather germs; scleral papillae; egg tooth
33a 31 7.0-7.5 da Web between 1st and 2nd digits
33b 32 7.5 da Anterior tip of mandible has reached beak
34a 33 7.5-8.0 da Web on radial margin of wing and 1st digit
34b 34 8 da Nictitating membrane
34c 35 8.5-9.0 da Phalanges in toes
34d 36 10 da Length of 3rd toe from tip to middle of metatarsal joint = 5.4±0.3mm; length of beak from anterior angle of nostril to tip of bill = 2.5mm; primordium of comb; labial groove; uropygial gland
34e 37 11 da Length of 3rd toe = 7.4±0.3mm; length of beak = 3.0 mm
34f 38 12 da Length of 3rd toe = 8.4±0.3 mm; length of beak = 3.1 mm
35a 39 13 da Length of 3rd toe = 9.8±0.3 mm; length of beak = 3.5 mm
35b 40 14 da Length of beak = 4.0 mm; length of 3rd toe = 12.7±0.5 mm
35c 41 15 da Length of beak from anterior angle of nostril to tip of upper bill = 4.5 mm; length of 3rd toe = 14.9±0.8 mm
35d 42 16 da Length of beak = 4.8 mm; length of 3rd toe = 16.7±0.8 mm
35e 43 17 da Length of beak = 5.0 mm; length of 3rd toe = 18.6±0.8 mm
35f 44 18 da Length of beak = 5.7 mm; length of 3rd toe = 20.4±0.8 mm
36a 45 19-20 da Yolk sac half enclosed in body cavity; chorio-allantoic membrane contains less blood and is "sticky" in living embryo
36b 46 20-21 da Newly-hatched chick

Modified from: GROWTH Altman, P.L. and Dittmer, D.S. (ed) Biological Handbooks, FASEB (1962)


Images

References

  1. Hamburger V & Hamilton HL. (1992). A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo. 1951. Dev. Dyn. , 195, 231-72. PMID: 1304821 DOI.
  2. Keibel F. and Abraham K. Normal Plates of the Development of the Chicken Embryo (Gallus domesticus). (1900) Vol. 2 in series by Keibel F. Normal plates of the development of vertebrates (Normentafeln zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Wirbelthiere) Fisher, Jena., Germany.
  3. Williams LW. The somites of the chick. (1910) Amer. J Anat. 11(1): 56 -100.

Other Chicken Atlases

  • Vertebrate and Invertebrate Embryos (7th Edition) G.C. Schoenwolf, Prentice Hall, New Jersey
  • An Atlas of Embryology (1975) W.H. Freeman and B. Bracegirdle, Heinemann Educational Books, UK.
    • This is an ATLAS (no description of development) , asically reprinted from the original 1963 edition.
    • Photos with labelled diagrams covering Amphioxus (worm) Frog, Chicken.
  • Butler H. and Juurlink BHJ. An atlas for staging mammalian and chick embryos. (1987) CRC. Boca Raton, Florida.
    • This ATLAS is not a complete series of development but has interesting comparisons of species. Mostly photos of embryos with a few drawn diagrams and a series of staging correlation graphs.


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, July 19) Embryology Chicken stages. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Chicken_stages

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© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G