Birth - Stillbirth and Perinatal Death
|Embryology - 18 Sep 2018 Expand to Translate|
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|Educational Use Only - Embryology is an educational resource for learning concepts in embryological development, no clinical information is provided and content should not be used for any other purpose.|
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Some Recent Findings
- 3 World High Rate Countries
- 4 Classification Differences
- 5 Decreased Fetal Movements
- 6 Uterine Artery Pulsatility Index
- 7 Australian Data
- 8 USA Data
- 9 Conditions Associated with Stillbirth
- 10 References
- 11 External Links
- 12 Glossary Links
The perinatal period is the early postnatal period relating to the birth, statistically it includes the period up to 7 days after birth. Neonatal period is the four weeks/month after birth.
Stillbirth and perinatal death can be classified by a number of different systems, all still have "unexplained" or "other" as a potential option. in several systems contribute to many of these deaths. Neonatal deaths include a broader age range of infants who have also died after birth from various causes.
Stillbirths with a gestational age of 28 weeks or more are defined as "late fetal deaths".
There are several death classification systems used in different countries around the world, the most recent are the suggested ReCoDe (UK, 2005), the modified Whitfield (Australia/New Zealand, 2004), and the World Health Organization's International Classification of Disease (ICD-10) systems.
A common stillbirth classification is still "unexplained", with recent analysis of data showing fetal growth restriction is a common antecedent.
|Australian Categories of Perinatal and Infant Death|
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Wei Zhao, Xinyu Li, Xinghai Xia, Zhengnan Gao, Cheng Han Iodine Nutrition During Pregnancy: Past, Present, and Future. Biol Trace Elem Res: 2018; PubMed 30218312
Alexa A Freedman, Lauren M Kipling, Katie Labgold, Carmen J Marsit, Carol J Hogue, Augustine Rajakumar, Alicia K Smith, Halit Pinar, Deborah L Conway, Radek Bukowski, Michael W Varner, Robert L Goldenberg, Donald J Dudley, Carolyn Drews-Botsch Comparison of diameter-based and image-based measures of surface area from gross placental pathology for use in epidemiologic studies. Placenta: 2018, 69;82-85 PubMed 30213489
Manoj Murhekar, Ashish Bavdekar, Asha Benakappa, Sridhar Santhanam, Kuldeep Singh, Sanjay Verma, Gajanan N Sapkal, Nivedita Gupta, Valsan Philip Verghese, Rajlakshmi Viswanathan, Asha Mary Abraham, Shyama Choudhary, Gururajrao N Deshpande, Suji George, Garima Goyal, Parul Chawla Gupta, Ishani Jhamb, Deepa John, Swetha Philip, Sandeep Kadam, Ravinder Kaur Sachdeva, Praveen Kumar, Anjali Lepcha, S Mahantesh, S Manasa, Urvashi Nehra, Sanjay Kumar Munjal, Vijaya Lakshmi Nag, Sadanand Naik, Naga Raj, Jagat Ram, R K Ratho, C G Raut, Manoj Kumar Rohit, R Sabarinathan, Sanjay Shah, Pratibha Singh, Mini P Singh, Ashish Tiwari, Neelam Vaid Sentinel Surveillance for Congenital Rubella Syndrome - India, 2016-2017. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep.: 2018, 67(36);1012-1016 PubMed 30212443
Kadie Anderson, Patricia M Dennis RETROSPECTIVE MORTALITY REVIEW OF SIX CALLITRICHID SPECIES HOUSED AT A SINGLE INSTITUTION (1990-2014). J. Zoo Wildl. Med.: 2018, 49(3);715-721 PubMed 30212336
Suzan L Carmichael, Yair J Blumenfeld, Jonathan A Mayo, Jochen Profit, Gary M Shaw, Susan R Hintz, David K Stevenson Stillbirth and Live Birth at Periviable Gestational Age: A Comparison of Prevalence and Risk Factors. Am J Perinatol: 2018; PubMed 30208499
Hajnalka Barta, Agnes Jermendy, Marton Kolossvary, Lajos R Kozak, Andrea Lakatos, Unoke Meder, Miklos Szabo, Gabor Rudas Prognostic value of early, conventional proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in cooled asphyxiated infants. BMC Pediatr: 2018, 18(1);302 PubMed 30219051
Marco Podda, Davide Bacciu, Alessio Micheli, Roberto Bellù, Giulia Placidi, Luigi Gagliardi A machine learning approach to estimating preterm infants survival: development of the Preterm Infants Survival Assessment (PISA) predictor. Sci Rep: 2018, 8(1);13743 PubMed 30213963
Teresa Janevic, Jennifer Zeitlin, Nathalie Auger, Natalia N Egorova, Paul Hebert, Amy Balbierz, Elizabeth A Howell Association of Race/Ethnicity With Very Preterm Neonatal Morbidities. JAMA Pediatr: 2018; PubMed 30208467
Rosemary Townsend, Francesco D'Antonio, Filomena Giulia Sileo, Hafsah Kumbay, Basky Thilaganathan, Asma Khalil Perinatal outcome of monochorionic twin pregnancies complicated by selective fetal growth restriction according to management: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol: 2018; PubMed 30207011
Torri D Metz Eliminating Preventable Maternal Deaths in the United States: Progress Made and Next Steps. Obstet Gynecol: 2018; PubMed 30204696
World High Rate Countries
Graph shows the number of infant deaths / 1,000 live births for countries above 1%.
- World Health Organization - report stillbirths weighing 500g, or born at or after 22 weeks gestational age GA, or 25 cm crown-heel length (CRL), if neither birthweight nor gestational age is known. Restrict stillbirth used for international reporting to those weighing 1,000g (or born at or after 28 weeks gestational age or 35 cm CRL.
- Australia - a baby who is stillborn must be of at least 20 weeks gestational age or weigh 400g or more.
- New Zealand - include all fetal deaths from 20 week gestational age or 400g birthweight.
- Canada - includes fetal deaths from 20 week gestational age or 500g birthweight in all provinces except Quebec where only the birthweight criterion applies. 
- United States - states to report fetal deaths of 20 or more weeks gestation, but the definition of a ‘fetal death’ specifically excludes deaths that result from induced termination of pregnancy.
- United Kingdom - 24 weeks gestational age and includes all fetal deaths that meet this criterion.
- Europe - the lower limit ranges from 16–26 weeks gestational age and member states vary in their capacity to include late termination of pregnancy that meet their gestation criterion for a stillbirth (Gissler 2012).
Decreased Fetal Movements
Decreased fetal movements (DFM) can occur during the normal fetal period. Pregnancies with multiple occasions of decreased fetal movements are at increased risk of poor perinatal outcomes, including fetal death, intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUFGR) or preterm birth. An evaluation of women presenting with DFM should involve a thorough history, examination and auscultation of fetal heart, cardiotocography (CTG) and ultrasound if indicated. There are guidelines and position statements available for DFM.
There have been studies using maternal recording of movements, that have limitations of non-compliance and initial analysis shows poor correlation.
A population-based study has also been unable to link, except for some subgroups, maternally perceived DFM to placental pathology.
- Links: Fetal Development | Ultrasound | Australia RANZCOG Guideline 2013 PDF | Health 2011 | UK 2011 Guideline No. 57 | USA Reduced fetal movements 2011
Uterine Artery Pulsatility Index
Uterine Artery Pulsatility Index (UT-PI) is a clinical ultrasound technique used for monitoring placental and fetal function. Can be used in second trimester screening in combination with maternal factors and fetal biometry to predict stillbirths and in particular those associated with impaired placentation. Maternal factors can include measurement of maternal serum placental growth factor (PLGF) levels.
|Australian Perinatal Deaths|
- Perinatal deaths are all fetal deaths (at least 20 weeks gestation or at least 400 grams birth weight) plus all neonatal deaths (death of a live born baby within 28 completed days of birth).
- Perinatal death rates are calculated per 1,000 all births for the calendar year.
- Source: ABS Births, Australia, 2009 (cat. no. 3301.0); ABS Perinatal Deaths, Australia, 2009 (cat. no. 3304.0).
In New South Wales (2002) 613 perinatal deaths were reported.
- Unexplained antepartum deaths: 26.3% of perinatal deaths (or 39.2% of stillbirths)
- Spontaneous preterm labour: 20.6% (less than 37 weeks gestation)
- Congenital abnormality: 16.8%
- Antepartum haemorrhage: 8.5%
- Specific perinatal conditions: 7.3%, of which twin-twin transfusion accounted for 2.3% of deaths
- Hypertension (high blood pressure): 5.5%
- Perinatal infection: 4.4%
- Maternal disease: 4.4%
- Hypoxic peripartum death: 3.8%
Neonatal deaths (four weeks/month after birth)
- extreme prematurity was most common cause (39.6%)
- congenital abnormality (19.3%)
- neurological disease (13.4%)
- cardio-respiratory conditions (11.9%)
- infection (8.4%)
Data: Report of the New South Wales Chief Health Officer, 2004 accessed 19Oct05
Leading causes of infant death for 2005:
- Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities
- Disorders related to short gestation and low birthweight, not elsewhere classified
- Sudden infant death syndrome
- Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy
- Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes
- Accidents (unintentional injuries); Respiratory distress of newborn
- Bacterial sepsis of newborn
- Neonatal hemorrhage
- Necrotizing enterocolitis of newborn.
Fetal Death Information
- 2003 Revisions of the U.S. Standard Certificates of Live Birth and Death and the Fetal Death Report. The revision process is generally carried out every 10 to 15 years.
- Maternal, Paternal and medical and health information is collected.
CAUSE/CONDITIONS CONTRIBUTING TO FETAL DEATH
- INITIATING CAUSE/CONDITION
- OTHER SIGNIFICANT CAUSES OR CONDITIONS
- WEIGHT OF FETUS (grams preferred, specify unit)
- ESTIMATED TIME OF FETAL DEATH
- WAS AN AUTOPSY PERFORMED?
- WAS A HISTOLOGICAL PLACENTAL EXAMINATION PERFORMED?
- WERE AUTOPSY OR HISTOLOGICAL PLACENTAL EXAMINATION RESULTS USED IN DETERMINING THE CAUSE OF FETAL DEATH?
Conditions Associated with Stillbirth
Based upon the 2007 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development workshop. 
- Severe maternal illness
- Placental infection leading to hypoxemia
- Fetal infection leading to congenital deformity
- Fetal infection leading damage of a vital organ
- Precipitating preterm labor with the fetus dying in labor
Maternal medical conditions
- Hypertensive disorders
- Diabetes mellitus
- Thyroid disease
- Renal disease
- Liver disease
- Connective tissue disease (systemic lupus erythematosus)
- Antiphospholipid syndrome
- Heritable thrombophilias
- Red cell alloimmunization
- Platelet alloimmunization
- Congenital anomaly and malformations
- Chromosomal abnormalities including confined placental mosaicism
- Fetomaternal hemorrhage
- Fetal growth restriction
- Placental abnormalities including vasa previa and placental abruption
- Umbilical cord pathology including velamentous insertion, prolapse, occlusion and entanglement
- Multifetal gestation including twin–twin transfusion syndrome and twin reverse arterial perfusion
- Amniotic band sequence
- Central nervous system lesions
- Dorling D. (2007). Worldmapper: the human anatomy of a small planet. PLoS Med. , 4, e1. PMID: 17411312 DOI.
- AIHW: Hilder L, Li Z, Zeki R & Sullivan EA 2014. Stillbirths in Australia 1991-2009. Perinatal statistics series no. 29. Cat. no. PER 63. Canberra: AIHW.
- Wojcieszek AM, Shepherd E, Middleton P, Gardener G, Ellwood DA, McClure EM, Gold KJ, Khong TY, Silver RM, Erwich JJH & Flenady V. (2018). Interventions for investigating and identifying the causes of stillbirth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev , 4, CD012504. PMID: 29709055 DOI.
- Malacova E, Regan A, Nassar N, Raynes-Greenow C, Leonard H, Srinivasjois R, W Shand A, Lavin T & Pereira G. (2018). Risk of stillbirth, preterm delivery, and fetal growth restriction following exposure in a previous birth: systematic review and meta-analysis. BJOG , 125, 183-192. PMID: 28856792 DOI.
- Pinar MH, Gibbins K, He M, Kostadinov S & Silver R. (2018). Early Pregnancy Losses: Review of Nomenclature, Histopathology, and Possible Etiologies. Fetal Pediatr Pathol , , 1-19. PMID: 29737906 DOI.
- Hübner J, Gast AS, Müller AM, Bartmann P & Gembruch U. (2015). [Stillbirths in Germany: Retrospective Analysis of 168 Cases between 2003 and 2011]. Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol , 219, 73-80. PMID: 25901868 DOI.
- Sullivan EA, Wang YA, Norman RJ, Chambers GM, Chughtai AA & Farquhar CM. (2013). Perinatal mortality following assisted reproductive technology treatment in Australia and New Zealand, a public health approach for international reporting of perinatal mortality. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth , 13, 177. PMID: 24044524 DOI.
- Oestergaard MZ, Inoue M, Yoshida S, Mahanani WR, Gore FM, Cousens S, Lawn JE & Mathers CD. (2011). Neonatal mortality levels for 193 countries in 2009 with trends since 1990: a systematic analysis of progress, projections, and priorities. PLoS Med. , 8, e1001080. PMID: 21918640 DOI.
- Syed M, Javed H, Yakoob MY & Bhutta ZA. (2011). Effect of screening and management of diabetes during pregnancy on stillbirths. BMC Public Health , 11 Suppl 3, S2. PMID: 21501437 DOI.
- Pasupathy D, Wood AM, Pell JP, Fleming M & Smith GC. (2010). Time of birth and risk of neonatal death at term: retrospective cohort study. BMJ , 341, c3498. PMID: 20634347
- Luo ZC & Karlberg J. (2001). Timing of birth and infant and early neonatal mortality in Sweden 1973-95: longitudinal birth register study. BMJ , 323, 1327-30. PMID: 11739216
- Reddy UM, Goldenberg R, Silver R, Smith GC, Pauli RM, Wapner RJ, Gardosi J, Pinar H, Grafe M, Kupferminc M, Hulthén Varli I, Erwich JJ, Fretts RC & Willinger M. (2009). Stillbirth classification--developing an international consensus for research: executive summary of a National Institute of Child Health and Human Development workshop. Obstet Gynecol , 114, 901-14. PMID: 19888051 DOI.
- Perinatal and Maternal Mortality Review Committee (PMMRC). 2013. Seventh Annual Report of the Perinatal and Maternal Mortality Review Committee: Reporting mortality 2011. Wellington: Health Quality & Safety Commission
- Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC). 2008. Canadian Perinatal Health Report, 2008 Edition. Ottawa.
- Kowaleski J. 1997. State definitions and reporting requirements for live births, fetal deaths, and induced terminations of pregnancy (1997 revision). Hyattsville, Maryland: National Center for Health Statistics.
- Winje BA, Røislien J, Saastad E, Eide J, Riley CF, Stray-Pedersen B & Frøen JF. (2013). Wavelet principal component analysis of fetal movement counting data preceding hospital examinations due to decreased fetal movement: a prospective cohort study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth , 13, 172. PMID: 24007565 DOI.
- Winje BA, Roald B, Kristensen NP & Frøen JF. (2012). Placental pathology in pregnancies with maternally perceived decreased fetal movement--a population-based nested case-cohort study. PLoS ONE , 7, e39259. PMID: 22723978 DOI.
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- Heron M & Tejada-Vera B. (2009). Deaths: leading causes for 2005. Natl Vital Stat Rep , 58, 1-97. PMID: 20361522
July 2010 "Perinatal Death" All (8144) Review (899) Free Full Text (1129)
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