|Embryology - 20 Feb 2018 Expand to Translate|
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| Amniocentesis is a prenatal diagnostic test carried out mainly between 14th to 18th week of pregnancy (GA week 14 to 18).
Amniotic fluid is taken from the uterus, sent to a diagnostic laboratory and embryonic cells isolated from the amniotic fluid. No anaesthetic is required, and a result is usually obtained in about three to four weeks. When the test is carried out by an obstetrician experienced in the technique, the risk of a miscarriage related to the test is about 1 %.
Placenta - Amnionic Sac
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Thomas C Winter, Nancy C Rose How to Integrate Cell-Free DNA Screening With Sonographic Markers for Aneuploidy: An Update. AJR Am J Roentgenol: 2018;1-7 PubMed 29446677
Hong-Guo Zhang, Rui-Xue Wang, Yuan Pan, Han Zhang, Lei-Lei Li, Hai-Bo Zhu, Rui-Zhi Liu A report of nine cases and review of the literature of infertile men carrying balanced translocations involving chromosome 5. Mol Cytogenet: 2018, 11;10 PubMed 29416565
Jane L Halliday, Cecile Muller, Taryn Charles, Fiona Norris, Joanne Kennedy, Sharon Lewis, Bettina Meiser, Susan Donath, Zornitza Stark, George McGillivray, Melody Menezes, Sian K Smith, Della Forster, Susan Walker, Mark Pertile, David J Amor Offering pregnant women different levels of genetic information from prenatal chromosome microarray: a prospective study. Eur. J. Hum. Genet.: 2018; PubMed 29410473
Selen G Erzincan, Fusun G Varol, Cihan Inan, N Cenk Sayin Relationship between second-trimester amniotic fluid levels of Prokineticin-1 and Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 with adverse pregnancy outcome. Placenta: 2018, 62;25-27 PubMed 29405963
Bruno Drera, Carlo Poggiani Ultrasound follow-up of an unusual giant urinoma in a newborn. J Ultrasound: 2016; PubMed 29374393
A Chochrane review (2003) comparing prenatal diagnosis showed that early amniocentesis is not a safe as mid-trimester amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling, because of increased pregnancy loss and the increased risk of Talipes equinovarus.
Cells floating in the fluid can be isolated for genetic analysis and the amniotic fluid can also be often assessed for both quality and quantity. The amniotic fluid volume increases as the fetus grows and rate of change varies during the pregnancy.
- up to 8 weeks - increases at the rate of 10 ml/week
- 8 to 13 weeks - increases at the rate of 25 ml/week
- 13 to 21 weeks - increases at the rate of 60 ml/week
- 21 to 33 weeks - amniotic volume increase starts decreasing and eventually plateaus.
- 34 weeks (GA) - peaks at about 800 mL.
- 40 weeks (GA) - about 600 mL at term.
- Circulated by fetal inhaling and swallowing.
- Replaced by fetal exhalation and urination.
- Magnesium low levels associated with preeclampsia and diabetes.
- normal magnesium value at 16 weeks (GA) is 1.65 ± 0.16 mg/dL in amniotic fluid and 1.97 ± 0.23 mg/dL in serum.
Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells
It has been shown that human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs) can be retrieved directly from a small amount of mid-term pregnancy amniotic fluid that can be obtained at the time of diagnostic amniocentesis. These are generally considered as mesenchymal stem cells.
- Links: Stem Cell
- Keren Tzadikevitch Geffen, Ohad Ben-Zvi, Omer Weitzner, Amir Peleg, Tal Biron-Shental, Rivka Sukenik-Halevy The yield and complications of amniocentesis performed after 24 weeks of gestation. Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.: 2017; PubMed 28540575
- Magdalena Orczyk-Pawilowicz, Ewa Jawien, Stanislaw Deja, Lidia Hirnle, Adam Zabek, Piotr Mlynarz Metabolomics of Human Amniotic Fluid and Maternal Plasma during Normal Pregnancy. PLoS ONE: 2016, 11(4);e0152740 PubMed 27070784
- Kyung Joon Oh, Joong Shin Park, Errol R Norwitz, Sun Min Kim, Byoung Jae Kim, Chan-Wook Park, Jong Kwan Jun, Hee Chul Syn Proteomic biomarkers in second trimester amniotic fluid that identify women who are destined to develop preeclampsia. Reprod Sci: 2012, 19(7);694-703 PubMed 22534327
- Jovana Visnjevac, Aleksandra Novakov Mikić, Aleksandra Nikolić, Nemanja Visnjevac [Comparative analysis of amniotic fluid lamellar body count and foam stability test as indices of fetal lung maturity]. Med. Pregl.: 2011, 63(11-12);747-52 PubMed 21553448
- Boaz Weisz, Mazal Book, Shlomo Lipitz, Eldad Katorza, Reuven Achiron, Zehava Grossman, Alon Shrim Fetal outcome and amniocentesis results in pregnancies complicated by varicella infection. J Obstet Gynaecol Can: 2011, 33(7);720-4 PubMed 21749748
- Jennifer J McIntosh, Katherine McHugh, David M Haas Difficulties in establishing routine amniocentesis for preterm labor evaluation. J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.: 2012, 25(3);313-4 PubMed 21663523
- Z Alfirevic, K Sundberg, S Brigham Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling for prenatal diagnosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev: 2003, (3);CD003252 PubMed 12917956
- Julia Pilar Bocos Terraz, Silvia Izquierdo Álvarez, Jose Luis Bancalero Flores, Angel González López, Jesús Fernando Escanero Marcén Magnesium concentration in amniotic fluid in the early weeks of the second trimester of pregnancy. BMC Res Notes: 2011, 4;185 PubMed 21672230
Evans MI, Wapner RJ. Invasive prenatal diagnostic procedures 2005. Semin Perinatol. 2005 Aug;29(4):215-8.
Ball RH. Invasive fetal testing. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Apr;16(2):159-62.
Eduardo Fajnzylber, V Joseph Hotz, Seth G Sanders An economic model of amniocentesis choice. Adv Life Course Res: 2010, 15(1);11-26 PubMed 21516255
- ART - Assisted Reproductive Technology a general term to describe all the clinical techniques used to aid fertility.
- blastomere biopsy - An ART preimplantation genetic diagnosis technique carried out at cleavage stage (day 3), excluding poor quality embryos, detects chromosomal abnormalities of both maternal and paternal origin. May not detect cellular mosaicism in the embryo.
- blastocyst biopsy - An ART preimplantation genetic diagnosis technique carried out at blastocyst stage (day 4-5), removes several trophoblast (trophoderm) cells, detects chromosomal abnormalities of both maternal and paternal origin and may detect cellular mosaicism.
- cell-free fetal deoxyribonucleic acid - (cffDNA) refers to fetal DNA circulating and isolated from the plasma portion of maternal blood.
- false negative rate - The proportion of pregnancies that will test negative given that the congenital anomaly is present.
- false positive rate - The proportion of pregnancies that will test positive given that the congenital anomaly is absent.
- negative predictive value - The probability that a congenital anomaly is absent given that the prenatal screening test is negative.
- Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing - (NIPT) could refer to ultrasound or other imaging techniques, but more frequently used to describe analysis of cell-free fetal DNA circulating in maternal blood.
- polar body biopsy - (PB biopsy) An ART preimplantation genetic diagnosis technique that removes either the first or second polar body from the zygote. As these are generated by oocyte meiosis they detects chromosomal abnormalities only on the female genetics.
- positive predictive value - The probability that a congenital anomaly is present given that the prenatal screening test is positive.
- pre-implantation genetic diagnosis - (PGD, pre-implantation genetic screening) a diagnostic procedure for embryos produced through Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART, in vitro fertilisation, IVF) for genetic diseases that would generate developmental abnormalities or serious postnatal diseases.
- prenatal screening sensitivity - (detection rate) The probability of testing positive on a prenatal screening test if the congenital anomaly is present.
- prenatal screening specificity - The probability of testing negative on a prenatal screening test if the congenital anomaly is absent.
- single nucleotide polymorphisms - (SNPs) the variation in a single DNA nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome.
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, February 20) Embryology Amniocentesis. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Amniocentesis
- © Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G