|Embryology - 18 Aug 2017 Expand to Translate|
|Google Translate - select your language from the list shown below (this will open a new external page)|
العربية | català | 中文 | 中國傳統的 | français | Deutsche | עִברִית | हिंदी | bahasa Indonesia | italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | မြန်မာ | Pilipino | Polskie | português | ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਦੇ | Română | русский | Español | Swahili | Svensk | ไทย | Türkçe | اردو | ייִדיש | Tiếng Việt These external translations are automated and may not be accurate. (More? About Translations)
| Amniocentesis is a prenatal diagnostic test carried out mainly between 14th to 18th week of pregnancy (GA week 14 to 18).
Amniotic fluid is taken from the uterus, sent to a diagnostic laboratory and embryonic cells isolated from the amniotic fluid. No anaesthetic is required, and a result is usually obtained in about three to four weeks. When the test is carried out by an obstetrician experienced in the technique, the risk of a miscarriage related to the test is about 1 %.
Placenta - Amnionic Sac
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Chih-Ping Chen, Jian-Pei Huang, Schu-Rern Chern, Shin-Wen Chen, Shih-Ting Lai, Peih-Shan Wu, Chen-Chi Lee, Chien-Wen Yang, Wayseen Wang Prenatal diagnosis of mosaicism for trisomy 2 in a single colony at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol: 2017, 56(4);569-570 PubMed 28805623
Chih-Ping Chen, Ming Chen, Chia-Hsun Wu, Chen-Ju Lin, Schu-Rern Chern, Peih-Shan Wu, Yen-Ni Chen, Shin-Wen Chen, Shun-Ping Chang, Li-Feng Chen, Wayseen Wang Prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of mosaicism for a small supernumerary marker chromosome derived from chromosome 21q11.2-q21.1 and a literature review. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol: 2017, 56(4);554-557 PubMed 28805618
Chih-Ping Chen, Tsang-Ming Ko, Schu-Rern Chern, Peih-Shan Wu, Shin-Wen Chen, Shih-Ting Lai, Chien-Wen Yang, Chen-Wen Pan, Wayseen Wang Prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of mosaicism for a small supernumerary marker chromosome derived from chromosome 16. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol: 2017, 56(4);545-549 PubMed 28805616
Chih-Ping Chen, Ming Chen, Liang-Kai Wang, Schu-Rern Chern, Peih-Shan Wu, Shin-Wen Chen, Shih-Ting Lai, Shun-Ping Chang, Chien-Wen Yang, Chen-Wen Pan, Wayseen Wang Detection of paternal uniparental disomy 9 in a neonate with prenatally detected mosaicism for a small supernumerary marker chromosome 9 and a supernumerary ring chromosome 9. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol: 2017, 56(4);527-533 PubMed 28805612
Lisa Hui, Sally Beard, Natalie J Hannan Measuring fetal brain and lung transcripts in amniotic fluid supernatant: A comparison of digital PCR and RT-qPCR methods. J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.: 2017;1-12 PubMed 28805106
A Chochrane review (2003) comparing prenatal diagnosis showed that early amniocentesis is not a safe as mid-trimester amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling, because of increased pregnancy loss and the increased risk of Talipes equinovarus.
Cells floating in the fluid can be isolated for genetic analysis and the amniotic fluid can also be often assessed for both quality and quantity. The amniotic fluid volume increases as the fetus grows and rate of change varies during the pregnancy.
- up to 8 weeks - increases at the rate of 10 ml/week
- 8 to 13 weeks - increases at the rate of 25 ml/week
- 13 to 21 weeks - increases at the rate of 60 ml/week
- 21 to 33 weeks - amniotic volume increase starts decreasing and eventually plateaus.
- 34 weeks (GA) - peaks at about 800 mL.
- 40 weeks (GA) - about 600 mL at term.
- Circulated by fetal inhaling and swallowing.
- Replaced by fetal exhalation and urination.
- Magnesium low levels associated with preeclampsia and diabetes.
- normal magnesium value at 16 weeks (GA) is 1.65 ± 0.16 mg/dL in amniotic fluid and 1.97 ± 0.23 mg/dL in serum.
Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells
It has been shown that human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs) can be retrieved directly from a small amount of mid-term pregnancy amniotic fluid that can be obtained at the time of diagnostic amniocentesis. These are generally considered as mesenchymal stem cells.
- Links: Stem Cell
- Keren Tzadikevitch Geffen, Ohad Ben-Zvi, Omer Weitzner, Amir Peleg, Tal Biron-Shental, Rivka Sukenik-Halevy The yield and complications of amniocentesis performed after 24 weeks of gestation. Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.: 2017; PubMed 28540575
- Magdalena Orczyk-Pawilowicz, Ewa Jawien, Stanislaw Deja, Lidia Hirnle, Adam Zabek, Piotr Mlynarz Metabolomics of Human Amniotic Fluid and Maternal Plasma during Normal Pregnancy. PLoS ONE: 2016, 11(4);e0152740 PubMed 27070784
- Kyung Joon Oh, Joong Shin Park, Errol R Norwitz, Sun Min Kim, Byoung Jae Kim, Chan-Wook Park, Jong Kwan Jun, Hee Chul Syn Proteomic biomarkers in second trimester amniotic fluid that identify women who are destined to develop preeclampsia. Reprod Sci: 2012, 19(7);694-703 PubMed 22534327
- Jovana Visnjevac, Aleksandra Novakov Mikić, Aleksandra Nikolić, Nemanja Visnjevac [Comparative analysis of amniotic fluid lamellar body count and foam stability test as indices of fetal lung maturity]. Med. Pregl.: 2011, 63(11-12);747-52 PubMed 21553448
- Boaz Weisz, Mazal Book, Shlomo Lipitz, Eldad Katorza, Reuven Achiron, Zehava Grossman, Alon Shrim Fetal outcome and amniocentesis results in pregnancies complicated by varicella infection. J Obstet Gynaecol Can: 2011, 33(7);720-4 PubMed 21749748
- Jennifer J McIntosh, Katherine McHugh, David M Haas Difficulties in establishing routine amniocentesis for preterm labor evaluation. J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.: 2012, 25(3);313-4 PubMed 21663523
- Z Alfirevic, K Sundberg, S Brigham Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling for prenatal diagnosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev: 2003, (3);CD003252 PubMed 12917956
- Julia Pilar Bocos Terraz, Silvia Izquierdo Álvarez, Jose Luis Bancalero Flores, Angel González López, Jesús Fernando Escanero Marcén Magnesium concentration in amniotic fluid in the early weeks of the second trimester of pregnancy. BMC Res Notes: 2011, 4;185 PubMed 21672230
Evans MI, Wapner RJ. Invasive prenatal diagnostic procedures 2005. Semin Perinatol. 2005 Aug;29(4):215-8.
Ball RH. Invasive fetal testing. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Apr;16(2):159-62.
Eduardo Fajnzylber, V Joseph Hotz, Seth G Sanders An economic model of amniocentesis choice. Adv Life Course Res: 2010, 15(1);11-26 PubMed 21516255
- ART - Assisted Reproductive Technology a general term to describe all the clinical techniques used to aid fertility.
- blastomere biopsy - An ART preimplantation genetic diagnosis technique carried out at cleavage stage (day 3), excluding poor quality embryos, detects chromosomal abnormalities of both maternal and paternal origin. May not detect cellular mosaicism in the embryo.
- blastocyst biopsy - An ART preimplantation genetic diagnosis technique carried out at blastocyst stage (day 4-5), removes several trophoblast (trophoderm) cells, detects chromosomal abnormalities of both maternal and paternal origin and may detect cellular mosaicism.
- cell-free fetal deoxyribonucleic acid - (cffDNA) refers to fetal DNA circulating and isolated from the plasma portion of maternal blood.
- false negative rate - The proportion of pregnancies that will test negative given that the congenital anomaly is present.
- false positive rate - The proportion of pregnancies that will test positive given that the congenital anomaly is absent.
- negative predictive value - The probability that a congenital anomaly is absent given that the prenatal screening test is negative.
- Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing - (NIPT) could refer to ultrasound or other imaging techniques, but more frequently used to describe analysis of cell-free fetal DNA circulating in maternal blood.
- polar body biopsy - (PB biopsy) An ART preimplantation genetic diagnosis technique that removes either the first or second polar body from the zygote. As these are generated by oocyte meiosis they detects chromosomal abnormalities only on the female genetics.
- positive predictive value - The probability that a congenital anomaly is present given that the prenatal screening test is positive.
- pre-implantation genetic diagnosis - (PGD, pre-implantation genetic screening) a diagnostic procedure for embryos produced through Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART, in vitro fertilisation, IVF) for genetic diseases that would generate developmental abnormalities or serious postnatal diseases.
- prenatal screening sensitivity - (detection rate) The probability of testing positive on a prenatal screening test if the congenital anomaly is present.
- prenatal screening specificity - The probability of testing negative on a prenatal screening test if the congenital anomaly is absent.
- single nucleotide polymorphisms - (SNPs) the variation in a single DNA nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome.
|Other Terms Lists|
|Terms Lists: ART | Birth | Bone | Cardiovascular | Cell Division | Gastrointestinal | Genetic | Hearing | Heart | Immune | Integumentary | Neural | Oocyte | Palate | Placenta | Renal | Spermatozoa | Ultrasound | Vision | Historic | Glossary|
External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.
- A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols
Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Amniocentesis. Retrieved August 18, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Amniocentesis
- © Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G