Abnormal Development - Fetal Growth Restriction
|Embryology - 22 Mar 2019 Expand to Translate|
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The term "Fetal Growth Restriction" (FGR) or Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) are used to describe when the fetus does not reach full growth potential. This is usually determined by clinical sonography calculations of fetal weight, fetal size, or symmetry.
The fetal period (weeks 9 to 37) is about four times the length of the embryonic period and the clinical term may not relate directly to just the "fetal period", that is a time of extensive growth in size and mass as well as ongoing differentiation of organ systems established in the embryonic period. Clinically this period is generally described as the Second Trimester and Third Trimester. Many of the critical measurements of growth are now carried out by ultrasound and measured at birth including the Birth-Weight.
|Fetal Links: fetal | Week 10 | Week 12 | second trimester | third trimester | fetal neural | Fetal Blood Sampling | birth weight | Developmental Origins of Health and Disease | fetal growth restriction | macrosomia | BGD Practical | Medicine Lecture | Science Lecture | Lecture Movie | preterm birth | birth | Category:Human Fetus | Category:Fetal|
- Fetal Graphs: Crown-Rump Length (CRL) | Third trimester CRL | Head Circumference | Head Circumference 2nd Trimester | Liver Weight | Pancreas Weight | Thymus Weight | Small Intestine Length | Large Intestine Length | Length and Weight Changes | Fetal Development
Some Recent Findings
"Using unbiased population data, to examine whether having a positive Pap smear, and thus a high probability of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection, is a significant risk factor for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in a subsequent pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Two independent population-based databases, namely the South Australian Perinatal Statistics Collection and the South Australian Cervical Screening Database, were deidentified and linked by the SANT Datalinkage Service. Analyses were performed on cases where Pap smear screening data was available for up to 2 years prior to a singleton live birth. RESULTS: A total of 31,827 women met the criteria. Of these, 1311 women (4.1%) had a positive Pap smear within 2 years of the current pregnancy. Those having a positive Pap smear were more likely to have a baby with IUGR than those with negative smear results. For SGA, 5.8% babies were from mothers with positive Pap smears compared to 4.0% with negative smears indicating a 40% higher risk of having an SGA baby (95%CI 20-70%) among women with positive Pap smears. For VLBW, 7.6% mothers had positive Pap smears compared with 4.0% with negative smears (p < .001), which reflects a 90% increased risk (95%CI 40-150%). These associations reduced to 20% (95%CI 1-40%) and 50% (95%CI 10-100%) for SGA and VLBW, respectively, after adjusting for all other significant covariates including maternal age, ethnicity, marital status, occupation, smoking, pregnancy history, and maternal health during pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Mothers with a positive Pap smear have an increased risk of IUGR, especially for VLBW, which is independent of other risk factors. The results confirm previous findings in a small study and emphasise the need to consider the risks of both cancer and IUGR in all HPV vaccination programs."
|More recent papers|
This table allows an automated computer search of the external PubMed database using the listed "Search term" text link.
|These papers originally appeared in the Some Recent Findings table, but as that list grew in length have now been shuffled down to this collapsible table.
- Second Trimester
- Week 12 - CRL 85 mm, femur length 15 mm, biparietal diameter 25 mm.
Then look in detail at the head development in a 12 week fetus showing both forms of ossification in the skull.
Fetal Head Growth
- Vibration acoustically of maternal abdominal wall induces startle respone in fetus.
- Month 7 - respiratory bronchioles proliferate and end in alveolar ducts and sacs.
- Week 37 to 38 Birth.
- Links: Third Trimester
- Ford JH, Li M, Scheil W & Roder D. (2019). Human papillomavirus infection and intrauterine growth restriction: a data-linkage study. J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med. , 32, 279-285. PMID: 28889772 DOI.
- Hinkle SN, Johns AM, Albert PS, Kim S & Grantz KL. (2015). Longitudinal changes in gestational weight gain and the association with intrauterine fetal growth. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. , 190, 41-7. PMID: 25978857 DOI.
- Cotechini T, Komisarenko M, Sperou A, Macdonald-Goodfellow S, Adams MA & Graham CH. (2014). Inflammation in rat pregnancy inhibits spiral artery remodeling leading to fetal growth restriction and features of preeclampsia. J. Exp. Med. , 211, 165-79. PMID: 24395887 DOI.
- Heazell AE, Bernatavicius G, Roberts SA, Garrod A, Whitworth MK, Johnstone ED, Gillham JC & Lavender T. (2013). A randomised controlled trial comparing standard or intensive management of reduced fetal movements after 36 weeks gestation--a feasibility study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth , 13, 95. PMID: 23590451 DOI.
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Search Pubmed: Fetal Growth Restriction
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, March 22) Embryology Abnormal Development - Fetal Growth Restriction. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Fetal_Growth_Restriction
- © Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G