From Embryology
Embryology - 14 Jun 2024    Facebook link Pinterest link Twitter link  Expand to Translate  
Google Translate - select your language from the list shown below (this will open a new external page)

العربية | català | 中文 | 中國傳統的 | français | Deutsche | עִברִית | हिंदी | bahasa Indonesia | italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | မြန်မာ | Pilipino | Polskie | português | ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਦੇ | Română | русский | Español | Swahili | Svensk | ไทย | Türkçe | اردو | ייִדיש | Tiếng Việt    These external translations are automated and may not be accurate. (More? About Translations)


Dr Mark Hill

There are a number of different places where references appear on pages ono this website. This current page describes the structure of where these references appear and resources to find references. An extension has been installed in this site that allows automatic reference formatting even if only the PubMed ID number is known.

Students and contributors looking for a tutorial on how to add references to the website, should look at the Reference Tutorial.

Reference Links: Embryology Textbooks | Journals | Journal Searches | Reference Tutorial | Copyright | For Students | UNSW Online Textbooks | iBooks | Journals | RSS Feeds | Online | Societies | Online Databases | Historic - Textbooks | Pubmed Most Recent | Category:References


Mark Hill (talk) 10:58, 15 February 2018 (AEDT) Implemented new extension PubmedParser will eventually replace original extension Pubmed. Allows easier reference formatting changes (now APA) and local cache settings.

Wiki Code

  • In-text citation (superscript number):
  • In-text multiple citation (superscript same number):
<ref name="PMID17304021" />
  • Reference list:


  • The template "pubmed" must exist in the wiki; otherwise, "Template:pubmed" will be inserted in red into your displayed page (click on the red link to create the template).
    • Note this template is admin protected to prevent vandalism.
  • Can fully customize the names of the template itself as well as the names of the parameters of the template (see below)).
  • Template does not need to use all available parameters; unused parameters will be discarded. For example:
    • authors is an abbreviated list of the author names; use allauthors if you need all of the names.
    • journal is the full journal name as stored in Pubmed; use journala to get the ISO abbreviation.

Content Page References

Shown below is an overview of the location of reference material on content pages.

Some Recent Findings

Show near the top of content pages after the "Introduction" section. These are new research articles, reviews, reports or findings that relate to that specific topic. Note this section is generally only updated when the page is being edited or related undergraduate teaching pages are being prepared.

In Text Citations

Shown as numbered superscripts using and extension that allows automatic reference formatting using the PubMed ID. The actual reference format/layout has been structured by the site author and can be universally updated by changing a single extension associated file.


Shown near the bottom of content pages. This is the formatted list of references that appear on that page. Links at the end of each reference include Pubmed, Pubmed Central and the original Journal if available.

Beneath this list can be a number of sub-headings including: Journals, Reviews, Articles and Search Pubmed.

Discussion/Talk Page

Shown as a tab at the top of the content page, references are added here to show paper abstracts and also for potential use on the content page. References are listed here chronologically by year with most reset at the top of the page, paper titles are shown as sub-headings, author, abstract and Pubmed link are also shown. These discussion pages are also linked by the Category:References, shown at the bottom of the page. Note the only other pages where this category appears is on this current page and the reference tutorial page.

When the "Discussion" tab is selected, a new page opens that I liken this to the other side of the current page where you can prepare draft information etc. At the top of each discussion page the following information is also shown.

About Discussion Pages

On this website the Discussion Tab for a topic, or "talk pages", are used for several purposes: References - recent and historic that relates to the topic, Additional topic information - currently in draft format, Links - to original UNSW Embryology webpages, Topic page - an edit history as used on other Wiki sites, Student Projects - online project discussions.

10 Most Recent

Shown at the top of the Discussion/Talk Page. This sub-heading shows an automated computer search using the listed sub-heading term. References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing. Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance. In comparison, references listed under the publication year sub-headings do include editorial selection based upon relevance and availability.

The is also a page showing an aggregation of these topic specific searches.

References - Pubmed Most Recent - Please note this is an automated computer search and does not reflect editorial reference selection.


The Category:References is on Discussion pages where references are listed. Currently the only other pages where this category appears is on this current page and the reference tutorial page.

  • 23 July 2018 (EST) - 491 pages are listed in this category.
  • 23 June 2016 (EST) - 418 pages are listed in this category.
  • 7 August 2014 (EST) - 350 pages are listed in this category.
  • 2 October 2012 (EST) - 269 pages are listed in this category.
  • 9 November 2011 (EST) - 193 pages are listed in this category.

Historic References

As far as possible, key research articles in the history of each page topic have been included to place our current knowledge in context. The website also includes a number of historic embryology textbooks and the Carnegie Institution of Washington Series "Contributions to Embryology", historic series of papers published early in the 20th Century.

Please note the disclaimer shown below and included on these early historic pages.

Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
Mark Hill.jpg
Pages where the terms "Historic" (textbooks, papers, people, recommendations) appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms, interpretations and recommendations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

Links: Historic Textbooks | Contributions to Embryology | Embryology History

Medline Database

MEDLINE is a literature database of life sciences and biomedical information containing review and research articles. See also Project Referencing to generate references within your project, a reference list on your page and formatting the pubmed reference link.

  • Pubmed MEDLINE is the National Library of Medicine (NLM) USA premier bibliographic database covering the fields of medicine, nursing, dentistry, veterinary medicine, the health care system, and the preclinical sciences." (NCBI)
    • MH - I would prefer reference links to be added pointing to this database.
  • UNSW also has the MEDLINE database available through the Library using Sirius.
    • While it is essentially the same reference database, some papers will have different access rights based upon the university's subscriptions.

Searching with nearly any term will result in a large number of results that can be made more specific by either:

  1. Using "Preview/Index" option to carry out an additional search and then combining with your first result. (#1 AND #2) or
  2. Using "Limits" option to set limits on your search results. (review, years, english, etc)

OMIM Database

  • OMIM - "OMIM is a comprehensive, authoritative, and timely compendium of human genes and genetic phenotypes. The full-text, referenced overviews in OMIM contain information on all known mendelian disorders and over 12,000 genes. OMIM focuses on the relationship between phenotype and genotype."


--Mark Hill 11:51, 9 November 2011 (EST) There are no references on this page, so the extension has not listed any here.

External Links

External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.

  • US National Library of Medicine
    • Pubmed - PubMed comprises more than 21 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
    • Pubmed Central - PMC is a free full-text archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health's National Library of Medicine (NIH/NLM).
  • BioMed Central - All original research articles published by BioMed Central are made freely and permanently accessible online immediately upon publication. BioMed Central views open access to research as essential in order to ensure the rapid and efficient communication of research findings.
  • Son of Citation Machine - This online citation tool was originally created by David Warlick of The Landmark Project on October 29, 2000 and is part of the Landmarks for Schools Web site for teachers.

Glossary Links

Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols | Term Link

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2024, June 14) Embryology References. Retrieved from

What Links Here?
© Dr Mark Hill 2024, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G