File:Spinal cord tracts.png

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Spinal Cord Tracts

Motor and sensory tracts of the adult spinal cord.

Vestibulospinal Tract Development


"Species-specific Posture of Human Foetus in Late First Trimester The ontogeny associated with the arm-hanging posture, which is considered ape-specific, remains unknown. To examine its ontogeny, we measured foetal movements of 62 human foetuses aged 10-20 gestation weeks using four-dimensional sonography. We observed that the first-trimester foetuses show this particular species-specific posture. After 11 weeks of gestation, all foetuses showed the arm-hanging posture, and the posture was most frequently observed at 14-16 weeks of gestation. Moreover, this posture often involved extension of both arms and both legs, indicating that it is not myogenic but neurogenic. Furthermore, early ontogeny suggests that it originates because of subcortical activity. Such posture extension bias and persistence indicates that vestibulospinal tract maturation involves the ontogeny of arm-hanging posture during 14-16 weeks of gestation." limb | spinal cord


"By recording EMG responses evoked by natural stimulation of the vestibular apparatus, we found that vestibular-mediated motor output to the neck and forelimb musculature became more robust during the first 10 postnatal days, concurrently with a decrease in the latency of motoneuron discharge evoked by CN VIIIth nerve electrical stimulation."


Figure - Mikael Häggström 2010

  1. Ohmura Y, Morokuma S, Kato K & Kuniyoshi Y. (2018). Species-specific Posture of Human Foetus in Late First Trimester. Sci Rep , 8, 27. PMID: 29311655 DOI.
  2. Lambert FM, Bras H, Cardoit L, Vinay L, Coulon P & Glover JC. (2016). Early postnatal maturation in vestibulospinal pathways involved in neck and forelimb motor control. Dev Neurobiol , 76, 1061-77. PMID: 26724676 DOI.


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2024, April 24) Embryology Spinal cord tracts.png. Retrieved from

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© Dr Mark Hill 2024, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G

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current12:01, 11 November 2018Thumbnail for version as of 12:01, 11 November 20181,000 × 430 (204 KB)Z8600021 (talk | contribs)==Spinal Cord Tracts== Motor and sensory tracts of the adult {{spinal cord}}. ===Reference=== Mikael Häggström 2010 ====Copyright==== Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike...

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