File:Hyaline cartilage 04.jpg

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Respiratory Trachea - Layers

Mucosa - formed by epithelium and underlying lamina propria.

  • respiratory epithelium - (pseudostratified columnar and ciliated) ciliated cells, goblet cells, brush cells, endocrine cells, surfactant-producing cells (Clara cells), serous cells, basal cells, basement membrane.
  • lamina propria - loose connective tissue, many elastic fibres
  • elastic lamina - forming the border between the mucosa and submucosa is not visible in H&E stained slides.

Submucosa - connective tissue and submucosal glands

  • submucosal gland - serous (dark) and mucous (light) parts have different staining appearance.

Tracheal Cartilage

  • tracheal cartilage - hyaline cartilage, 16 to 20 C-shaped cartilages.
  • perichondrium - surface of cartilage.
  • trachealis muscle - (smooth muscle) Not visible in this section, together with connective tissue fibres, join ends of the cartilages together.

Hyaline Cartilage Development

  • forms from mesenchymal cells.
  • precursor cells become rounded and form densely packed cellular masses, chondrification centres.
  • chondroblasts - (cartilage-forming cells) begin secreting the extracellular matrix components of cartilage.
    • extracellular matrix - ground substance (hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfates and keratan sulfate) and tropocollagen (polymerises into fine collagen fibres, not visible).


  • appositional growth - mesenchymal cells surrounding the cartilage in the deep part of the perichondrium (or the chondrogenic layer) differentiate into chondroblasts. Appositional growth occurs also in mature cartilage.
  • Interstitial growth - small groups of chondroblasts (isogenous groups) in existing cartilage, can divide and become separated from each other by a thin partition of matrix. Interstitial growth occurs mainly in immature cartilage.

Trachea Histology Links: Overview HE | Overview VG | Detail 1 HE Detail 2 HE | Respiratory Histology | Histology Stains | Histology

Respiratory Histology: Bronchiole | Alveolar Duct | Alveoli | EM Alveoli septum | Alveoli Elastin | Trachea 1 | Trachea 2 | labeled lung | unlabeled lung | Respiratory Bronchiole | Lung Reticular Fibres | Nasal Inferior Concha | Nasal Respiratory Epithelium | Olfactory Region overview | Olfactory Region Epithelium | Histology Stains

Cartilage Histology: Developing | Hyaline HE | Hyaline VG | Hyaline HE | Hyaline VG | Elastic 1 | Elastic 2 | Fibrous - articular disc | Fibrous - intervertebral disc | Articular 1 | Articular 2

Links: Histology | Histology Stains | Blue Histology images copyright Lutz Slomianka 1998-2009. The literary and artistic works on the original Blue Histology website may be reproduced, adapted, published and distributed for non-commercial purposes. See also the page Histology Stains.

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2024, May 23) Embryology Hyaline cartilage 04.jpg. Retrieved from

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© Dr Mark Hill 2024, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G

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current23:24, 18 February 2013Thumbnail for version as of 23:24, 18 February 2013500 × 626 (101 KB)Z8600021 (talk | contribs)==Trachea Hyaline Cartilage== {{Cartilage Histology}} {{Blue Histology}}