Morphodynamics refers to the biomechanical effects involved in development. There are several researchers who continue to build on concepts developed by Blechschmidt and others describing developmental events in terms of the physics involved in stresses and fluid movement within the embryo as important factors involved in establishing embryonic structures.
Mechanism - "a process, technique, or system for achieving a result".
This page is an attempt to include concepts related to development based upon the physics (stresses, strains, gravity and fluid movement) occuring during growth. In some respects this is in response to the very dominant "molecular" nature of recent studies in comparison to the many other ways of describing developmental events. The two area appear more recently to be converging using new molecular findings to be incorporated or married with the morphodynamic descriptions.
Some Recent Findings
- Review - Tissue morphodynamics shaping the early mouse embryo "Generation of the elongated vertebrate body plan from the initially radially symmetrical embryo requires comprehensive changes to tissue form. These shape changes are generated by specific underlying cell behaviors, coordinated in time and space. Major principles and also specifics are emerging, from studies in many model systems, of the cell and physical biology of how region-specific cell behaviors produce regional tissue morphogenesis, and how these, in turn, are integrated at the level of the embryo. New technical approaches have made it possible more recently, to examine the morphogenesis of the mouse embryo in depth, and to elucidate the underlying cellular mechanisms. This review focuses on recent advances in understanding the cellular basis for the early fundamental events that establish the basic form of the embryo."
- Mechanically patterning the embryonic airway epithelium "Collections of cells must be patterned spatially during embryonic development to generate the intricate architectures of mature tissues. In several cases, including the formation of the branched airways of the lung, reciprocal signaling between an epithelium and its surrounding mesenchyme helps generate these spatial patterns. Several molecular signals are thought to interact via reaction-diffusion kinetics to create distinct biochemical patterns, which act as molecular precursors to actual, physical patterns of biological structure and function. Here, however, we show that purely physical mechanisms can drive spatial patterning within embryonic epithelia. Specifically, we find that a growth-induced physical instability defines the relative locations of branches within the developing murine airway epithelium in the absence of mesenchyme. The dominant wavelength of this instability determines the branching pattern and is controlled by epithelial growth rates. These data suggest that physical mechanisms can create the biological patterns that underlie tissue morphogenesis in the embryo."
- Mechanical control of notochord morphogenesis by extra-embryonic tissues in mouse embryos "Here, we show that in mouse embryos, the expansion of the amniotic cavity (AC), which is formed between embryonic and extraembryonic tissues, provides the mechanical forces required for a type of morphogenetic movement of the notochord known as convergent extension (CE) in which the cells converge to the midline and the tissue elongates along the antero-posterior (AP) axis. The notochord is stretched along the AP axis, and the expansion of the AC is required for CE. Both mathematical modeling and physical simulation showed that a rectangular morphology of the early notochord caused the application of anisotropic force along the AP axis to the notochord through the isotropic expansion of the AC. AC expansion acts upstream of planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling, which regulates CE movement. Our results highlight the importance of extraembryonic tissues as a source of the forces that control the morphogenesis of embryos." notochord
- Apical constriction initiates new bud formation during monopodial branching of the embryonic chicken lung "Branching morphogenesis sculpts the airway epithelium of the lung into a tree-like structure to conduct air and promote gas exchange after birth. In the avian lung, a series of buds emerges from the dorsal surface of the primary bronchus via monopodial branching to form the conducting airways; anatomically, these buds are similar to those formed by domain branching in the mammalian lung. Here, we show that monopodial branching is initiated by apical constriction of the airway epithelium, and not by differential cell proliferation, using computational modeling and quantitative imaging of embryonic chicken lung explants."
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- ↑ Sutherland AE. (2016). Tissue morphodynamics shaping the early mouse embryo. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. , 55, 89-98. PMID: 26820524 DOI.
- ↑ Varner VD, Gleghorn JP, Miller E, Radisky DC & Nelson CM. (2015). Mechanically patterning the embryonic airway epithelium. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. , 112, 9230-5. PMID: 26170292 DOI.
- ↑ Imuta Y, Koyama H, Shi D, Eiraku M, Fujimori T & Sasaki H. (2014). Mechanical control of notochord morphogenesis by extra-embryonic tissues in mouse embryos. Mech. Dev. , 132, 44-58. PMID: 24509350 DOI.
- ↑ Kim HY, Varner VD & Nelson CM. (2013). Apical constriction initiates new bud formation during monopodial branching of the embryonic chicken lung. Development , 140, 3146-55. PMID: 23824575 DOI.
Heyn R, Makabe S & Motta PM. (2001). Ultrastructural morphodynamics of human Sertoli cells during testicular differentiation. Ital J Anat Embryol , 106, 163-71. PMID: 11732573
Search Pubmed: Embryo Morphodynamics | Morphodynamics
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, November 21) Embryology Developmental Mechanism - Morphodynamics. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Developmental_Mechanism_-_Morphodynamics
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