Difference between revisions of "Developmental Mechanism - Morphodynamics"

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This page is an attempt to include concepts related to development based upon the physics (stresses, strains, gravity and fluid movement) occuring during growth. In some respects this is in response to the very dominant "molecular" nature of recent studies in comparison to the many other ways of describing developmental events. The two area appear more recently to be converging using new molecular findings to be incorporated or married with the morphodynamic descriptions.
 
This page is an attempt to include concepts related to development based upon the physics (stresses, strains, gravity and fluid movement) occuring during growth. In some respects this is in response to the very dominant "molecular" nature of recent studies in comparison to the many other ways of describing developmental events. The two area appear more recently to be converging using new molecular findings to be incorporated or married with the morphodynamic descriptions.
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{{Mechanism Links}}
 
{{Mechanism Links}}

Revision as of 22:08, 17 August 2015

Embryology - 17 Sep 2019    Facebook link Pinterest link Twitter link  Expand to Translate  
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Introduction

Morphodynamics refers to the biomechanical effects involved in development. There are several researchers who continue to build on concepts developed by Blechschmidt and others describing developmental events in terms of the physics involved in stresses and fluid movement within the embryo as important factors involved in establishing embryonic structures.


Mechanism - "a process, technique, or system for achieving a result".


This page is an attempt to include concepts related to development based upon the physics (stresses, strains, gravity and fluid movement) occuring during growth. In some respects this is in response to the very dominant "molecular" nature of recent studies in comparison to the many other ways of describing developmental events. The two area appear more recently to be converging using new molecular findings to be incorporated or married with the morphodynamic descriptions.


Mechanism Links: mitosis | cell migration | epithelial invagination | epithelial mesenchymal transition | mesenchymal epithelial transition | epithelial mesenchymal interaction | morphodynamics | tube formation | apoptosis | autophagy | axes formation | time | molecular

Some Recent Findings

  • Mechanically patterning the embryonic airway epithelium[1] "Collections of cells must be patterned spatially during embryonic development to generate the intricate architectures of mature tissues. In several cases, including the formation of the branched airways of the lung, reciprocal signaling between an epithelium and its surrounding mesenchyme helps generate these spatial patterns. Several molecular signals are thought to interact via reaction-diffusion kinetics to create distinct biochemical patterns, which act as molecular precursors to actual, physical patterns of biological structure and function. Here, however, we show that purely physical mechanisms can drive spatial patterning within embryonic epithelia. Specifically, we find that a growth-induced physical instability defines the relative locations of branches within the developing murine airway epithelium in the absence of mesenchyme. The dominant wavelength of this instability determines the branching pattern and is controlled by epithelial growth rates. These data suggest that physical mechanisms can create the biological patterns that underlie tissue morphogenesis in the embryo."
  • Mechanical control of notochord morphogenesis by extra-embryonic tissues in mouse embryos[2] "Here, we show that in mouse embryos, the expansion of the amniotic cavity (AC), which is formed between embryonic and extraembryonic tissues, provides the mechanical forces required for a type of morphogenetic movement of the notochord known as convergent extension (CE) in which the cells converge to the midline and the tissue elongates along the antero-posterior (AP) axis. The notochord is stretched along the AP axis, and the expansion of the AC is required for CE. Both mathematical modeling and physical simulation showed that a rectangular morphology of the early notochord caused the application of anisotropic force along the AP axis to the notochord through the isotropic expansion of the AC. AC expansion acts upstream of planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling, which regulates CE movement. Our results highlight the importance of extraembryonic tissues as a source of the forces that control the morphogenesis of embryos." Notochord
  • Apical constriction initiates new bud formation during monopodial branching of the embryonic chicken lung[3] "Branching morphogenesis sculpts the airway epithelium of the lung into a tree-like structure to conduct air and promote gas exchange after birth. In the avian lung, a series of buds emerges from the dorsal surface of the primary bronchus via monopodial branching to form the conducting airways; anatomically, these buds are similar to those formed by domain branching in the mammalian lung. Here, we show that monopodial branching is initiated by apical constriction of the airway epithelium, and not by differential cell proliferation, using computational modeling and quantitative imaging of embryonic chicken lung explants."
More recent papers
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  2. <pubmed>24509350</pubmed>
  3. <pubmed>23824575</pubmed>


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External Links

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Mechanism Links: mitosis | cell migration | epithelial invagination | epithelial mesenchymal transition | mesenchymal epithelial transition | epithelial mesenchymal interaction | morphodynamics | tube formation | apoptosis | autophagy | axes formation | time | molecular


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, September 17) Embryology Developmental Mechanism - Morphodynamics. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Developmental_Mechanism_-_Morphodynamics

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© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G