Template:Lower limb ossification table

From Embryology
Table Of Ossification Of The Bones Of The Inferior Extremity
Bone Centres Time of appearance of centre Time of fusion: general remarks
Os coxae Os ilium 56th day (Mall) The rami of the ischium and the pubis are united by bone in the 7th or 8th year (Quain) ( 12-14 year Sappey). In the acetabulum the three hip bones are separated by a Y-shaped cartilage until after puberty. In this cartilage between the ilium and pubis the "os acetabuli" appears between the ninth and twelfth years. This bone, variable in size, forms a greater or less part of the pubic portion of the articular cavity. Leche (1884). Krause (1885), and many others consider it primarily an independent bone. About puberty between the ilium and ischium and over the acetabular surfaces of these bones small irregular epiphyseal centres appear. The os acetabuli becomes imited to the pubic bone about puberty and soon afterwards the acetabular portions of the ilium and ischium and the ischium and pubis begin to become united by bone. The acetabular portions of the pubis and ilium are unite a little later. Osseous union takes place earlier on the pelvic than on the articular surface of the acetabulum. The union of the several primary centres and the epiphyses is usually completed about the twentieth year.
Os ischii 105th day (Mall)
Os pubis 4th to 5th fetal month
Os acetabuli. 9th to 12th year

Those of the acetabulum

Soon after puberty
Crest of ilium Soon after puberty Fuses with main bone 20th to 25th year
Tuberosity of ischium Soon after puberty Fusion begins in the 17th year and is completed between the 20th and 24th years (Sappey)
Ischial spine Soon after puberty 18th to 20th year (Poirier).
Ant. inf. spine of ilium Soon after puberty 18th to 20th year (Poirier)
Symphysis end of os pubis (1 or 2 centres) 18th to 20th year (Sappey) After the 20th year
Femur Diaphysis 43d day (Mall)

Distal end

Shortly before birth1 20th to 24th year
Head 1st year 18th to 19th year
Great trochanter 3d to 4th year (Osseous granules soon after birth, (Poirier) 18th year
Small trochanter 13th to 14th year

8th year (Sappey)

17th year (Quain)

Proximal epiphysis 18th to 22d year (Poirier)

Patella 3d to 5th year The osseous patella reaches its definitive form soon before puberty
Tibia Diaphysis 44th day (Mall)

Proximal end

About birth 19th to 24th year (Sappey)
Distal end 2d year 16th to 19th year
Tubercle (occas.) 13th year Fuses with epiphysis of the proximal end and then with this to the diaphysis
Fibula Diaphysis 55th day (Mall).

Distal end

2d year 20th to 22d year
Proximal end 3d to 5th year 22d to 24th year
Calcaneus Chief centre 6th fetal month The chief nucleus is endochondral. A periosteal nucleus appears frequently in the 4-5 fetal month (Hasselwander)
Epiphysis (distal end) 10th year (Quain)

7th-8th year ( Sappey)

15th-16th year (Quain)

16th-18th year (Poirier)

M 17-21, average 20 years

F 13-17, average 16 years (Hasselwander)

Talus 6th fetal month (Hasselwander) In the 7th-8th year the posterior part of the talus, the os trigonum, is frequently ossified from a special centre (v. Bardeleben). It fuses about the 18th year.
Cuboid About birth
Cuneiform III 1st year
Cuneiform I 2d-3d year
Cuneiform II 3d-4th year
Navicular 4th-5th year
Metatarsals Diaphyses 8th-10th week According to v. Bardeleben a second centre of ossincation appears much later than the primary in the navicular, and finally about the time of puberty a medial epiphyseal centre arises.
Epiphyses 3d-8th year The centre for the 2d metatarsal usually appears first, then come the 3rd, 4th, 1st and 5th. The epiphysis of the 1st metatarsal appears at the proximal end of the bone: the other epiphyses arise at the distal ends of the metatarsals. There may be a distal epiphysis in the first metatarsal also.2 In some instances a proximal epiphysis is formed on the tuberosity of the fifth metatarsal (Gruber). The epiphyses unite with the shafts in the 17-21 year in males and in the 14-19 year in females. (Hasselwander).
Terminal row Diaphyses 58th day (Mall)
Epiphyses (distal) 4th year M 13-23, average 16-21 year.

F 13-17, average 14-17 year (Hasselwander).

Middle row Diaphyses 4th-10th fetal month
Epiphyses 3d year M 15-19 year

F 13-16 year (Hasselwander)

Proximal row Diaphyses 3d fetal month
Epiphyses 3d year M 15-17 year.

F 14-15 year (Hasselwander)

The centres for the shafts of the phalanges often appear double, one for the dorsal and one for the plantar surface. The centres for the medial phalanges in each row usually appear before the more laterally placed centres. The centre for the 5th terminal phalanx appears much later than the other centres in this row (Mall). According to Rambaud and Renault the epiphyses arise each from two centres which fuse together. In the terminal phalanx of the great toe the ossification centre of the epiphysis often appears as early as the second or even the first year. (Hasselwander)

Sesamoid bones of the great toe M 14th year

F 12th-13th year

Ossification may begin in the 8th year in females, in the 11th in males (Hasselwander).
  1. Poirier, Traite d'Anatomie, vol. 1. page 227, gives a summary of the literature on the time of the appearance of this epiphysis. The epiphysis has some medico-legal importance, since its presence or absence has been utilized to determine whether a child is born at term. Schwegel found it to appear between birth and the third year; Casper in the ninth fetal month. Hartmann found it lacking in 12 percent, of cases at birth and in 7 per cent, of cases present as early as the eighth fetal month.
  2. Mayet has described two centres of ossification for the proximal epiphysis of the first metatarsal, one of which represents the real metatarsal of the first digit.
Days and weeks refer to the prenatal, years to the postnatal period. M = male F = female.

According to Poirier, Traite d'Anatomie, p. 138, two centres appear in the eighth week, and unite in the third month to form a centre of ossification for the body of the scapula.

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  1. Keibel F. and Mall FP. Manual of Human Embryology I. (1910) J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia.