Talk:Cardiovascular System - Heart Development

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, July 27) Embryology Cardiovascular System - Heart Development. Retrieved from


Morris GM & Ariyaratnam JP. (2019). Embryology of the Cardiac Conduction System Relevant to Arrhythmias. Card Electrophysiol Clin , 11, 409-420. PMID: 31400866 DOI.

Embryology of the Cardiac Conduction System Relevant to Arrhythmias Abstract Embryogenesis of the heart involves the complex cellular differentiation of slow-conducting primary myocardium into the rapidly conducting chamber myocardium of the adult. However, small areas of relatively undifferentiated cells remain to form components of the adult cardiac conduction system (CCS) and nodal tissues. Further investigation has revealed additional areas of nodal-like tissues outside of the established CCS. The embryologic origins of these areas are similar to those of the adult CCS. Under pathologic conditions, these areas can give rise to important clinical arrhythmias. Here, we review the embryologic basis for these proarrhythmic structures within the heart. Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. KEYWORDS: Arrhythmias; Atrial tachycardia; Cardiac conduction system; Cardiac development; Embryology DOI: 10.1016/j.ccep.2019.05.002

Cardiomyocyte orientation modulated by the Numb family proteins-N-cadherin axis is essential for ventricular wall morphogenesis

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Jul 30;116(31):15560-15569. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1904684116. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

Miao L1, Li J1, Li J2, Lu Y1, Shieh D1, Mazurkiewicz JE3, Barroso M1, Schwarz JJ1, Xin HB4, Singer HA1, Vincent PA1, Zhong W5, Radice GL6, Wan LQ7, Fan ZC8, Huang G2, Wu M9.

The roles of cellular orientation during trabecular and ventricular wall morphogenesis are unknown, and so are the underlying mechanisms that regulate cellular orientation. Myocardial-specific Numb and Numblike double-knockout (MDKO) hearts display a variety of defects, including in cellular orientation, patterns of mitotic spindle orientation, trabeculation, and ventricular compaction. Furthermore, Numb- and Numblike-null cardiomyocytes exhibit cellular behaviors distinct from those of control cells during trabecular morphogenesis based on single-cell lineage tracing. We investigated how Numb regulates cellular orientation and behaviors and determined that N-cadherin levels and membrane localization are reduced in MDKO hearts. To determine how Numb regulates N-cadherin membrane localization, we generated an mCherry:Numb knockin line and found that Numb localized to diverse endocytic organelles but mainly to the recycling endosome. Consistent with this localization, cardiomyocytes in MDKO did not display defects in N-cadherin internalization but rather in postendocytic recycling to the plasma membrane. Furthermore, N-cadherin overexpression via a mosaic model partially rescued the defects in cellular orientation and trabeculation of MDKO hearts. Our study unravels a phenomenon that cardiomyocytes display spatiotemporal cellular orientation during ventricular wall morphogenesis, and its disruption leads to abnormal trabecular and ventricular wall morphogenesis. Furthermore, we established a mechanism by which Numb modulates cellular orientation and consequently trabecular and ventricular wall morphogenesis by regulating N-cadherin recycling to the plasma membrane. Copyright © 2019 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

KEYWORDS: Numb family proteins; cellular orientation; endocytosis; single-cell lineage tracing; trabecular morphogenesis PMID: 31300538 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1904684116

Myoarchitectural disarray of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy begins pre-birth

J Anat. 2019 Jul 26. doi: 10.1111/joa.13058. [Epub ahead of print]

Garcia-Canadilla P1, Cook AC1, Mohun TJ2, Oji O1, Schlossarek S3,4, Carrier L3,4, McKenna WJ1, Moon JC1,5, Captur G1.

Myoarchitectural disarray - the multiscalar disorganisation of myocytes, is a recognised histopathological hallmark of adult human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). It occurs before the establishment of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) but its early origins and evolution around the time of birth are unknown. Our aim is to investigate whether myoarchitectural abnormalities in HCM are present in the fetal heart. We used wild-type, heterozygous and homozygous hearts (n = 56) from a Mybpc3-targeted knock-out HCM mouse model and imaged the 3D micro-structure by high-resolution episcopic microscopy. We developed a novel structure tensor approach to extract, display and quantify myocyte orientation and its local angular uniformity by helical angle, angle of intrusion and myoarchitectural disarray index, respectively, immediately before and after birth. In wild-type, we demonstrate uniformity of orientation of cardiomyocytes with smooth transitions of helical angle transmurally both before and after birth but with traces of disarray at the septal insertion points of the right ventricle. In comparison, heterozygous mice free of LVH, and homozygous mice showed not only loss of the normal linear helical angulation transmural profiles observed in wild-type but also fewer circumferentially arranged myocytes at birth. Heterozygous and homozygous showed more disarray with a wider distribution than in wild-type before birth. In heterozygous mice, disarray was seen in the anterior, septal and inferior walls irrespective of stage, whereas in homozygous mice it extended to the whole LV circumference including the lateral wall. In conclusion, myoarchitectural disarray is detectable in the fetal heart of an HCM mouse model before the development of LVH. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Anatomical Society.

KEYWORDS: cardiac embryology; developmental biology; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; myocardial disarray PMID: 31347708 DOI: 10.1111/joa.13058


Coronary vessel development: a unique form of vasculogenesis.


Identifying the Evolutionary Building Blocks of the Cardiac Conduction System

PLoS ONE 7(9): e44231.

Jensen B, Boukens BJD, Postma AV, Gunst QD, van den Hoff MJB, et al. (2012)

Direct Contact with Endoderm-Like Cells Efficiently Induces Cardiac Progenitors from Mouse and Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

Tbx2 and Tbx3 induce atrioventricular myocardial development and endocardial cushion formation

Cell Mol Life Sci. 2012 Apr;69(8):1377-89. Epub 2011 Dec 1.

Singh R, Hoogaars WM, Barnett P, Grieskamp T, Rana MS, Buermans H, Farin HF, Petry M, Heallen T, Martin JF, Moorman AF, 't Hoen PA, Kispert A, Christoffels VM. Source Institut für Molekularbiologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Germany.


A key step in heart development is the coordinated development of the atrioventricular canal (AVC), the constriction between the atria and ventricles that electrically and physically separates the chambers, and the development of the atrioventricular valves that ensure unidirectional blood flow. Using knock-out and inducible overexpression mouse models, we provide evidence that the developmentally important T-box factors Tbx2 and Tbx3, in a functionally redundant manner, maintain the AVC myocardium phenotype during the process of chamber differentiation. Expression profiling and ChIP-sequencing analysis of Tbx3 revealed that it directly interacts with and represses chamber myocardial genes, and induces the atrioventricular pacemaker-like phenotype by activating relevant genes. Moreover, mutant mice lacking 3 or 4 functional alleles of Tbx2 and Tbx3 failed to form atrioventricular cushions, precursors of the valves and septa. Tbx2 and Tbx3 trigger development of the cushions through a regulatory feed-forward loop with Bmp2, thus providing a mechanism for the co-localization and coordination of these important processes in heart development.

PMID 22130515

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.


Zebrafish cardiac development requires a conserved secondary heart field

Development. 2011 Jun;138(11):2389-98.

Hami D, Grimes AC, Tsai HJ, Kirby ML. Source Department of Pediatrics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, USA.


The secondary heart field is a conserved developmental domain in avian and mammalian embryos that contributes myocardium and smooth muscle to the definitive cardiac arterial pole. This field is part of the overall heart field and its myocardial component has been fate mapped from the epiblast to the heart in both mammals and birds. In this study we show that the population that gives rise to the arterial pole of the zebrafish can be traced from the epiblast, is a discrete part of the mesodermal heart field, and contributes myocardium after initial heart tube formation, giving rise to both smooth muscle and myocardium. We also show that Isl1, a transcription factor associated with undifferentiated cells in the secondary heart field in other species, is active in this field. Furthermore, Bmp signaling promotes myocardial differentiation from the arterial pole progenitor population, whereas inhibiting Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation leads to reduced myocardial differentiation with subsequent increased smooth muscle differentiation. Molecular pathways required for secondary heart field development are conserved in teleosts, as we demonstrate that the transcription factor Tbx1 and the Sonic hedgehog pathway are necessary for normal development of the zebrafish arterial pole.

PMID 21558385


Abnormal patterning of the aortic arch arteries does not evoke cardiac malformations

Dev Dyn. 1997 Jan;208(1):34-47.

Kirby ML, Hunt P, Wallis K, Thorogood P. Source Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta 30912-2000, USA.


Ablation of the cardiac neural crest results in abnormal development of the aortic arch arteries leading to altered patterning of the great arteries. The cardiac outflow tract is also affected after neural crest ablation because normally a subset of neural crest cells migrates from the pharyngeal region to form the outflow septum. Using neural crest ablation, it has not been possible to separate the occurrence of aortic arch maldevelopment from cardiac outflow tract dysmorphogenesis. In order to determine whether normal aortic arch artery development is a prerequisite for normal outflow tract development, we have used a combination of antisense treatment with backtransplantation of cardiac neural folds to produce abnormal patterning of the aortic arch arteries. Paralogous groups of Hox messages with their anterior expression domains in pharyngeal arches 3, 4 and 6 were targeted. Antisense targeted to paralogous group 3 Hox message caused aortic arch 3 located within the pharyngeal arch to regress in a manner similar to aortic arch 2, while antisense targeted to paralogous group 5 Hox message caused the appearance of an additional pharyngeal arch containing a novel and completely independent aortic arch artery. Antisense treatment targeting paralogous group 4 Hox message led to no detectable cardiovascular phenotype in the first 6 days of development. While regression of arch artery 3 was associated with abnormal branching patterns of the aorta and pulmonary trunk, this did not involve abnormal separation of the aorta and pulmonary trunks, the semilunar valves or the subvalvular region of the outflow tract. Because none of these changes in pharyngeal or aortic arch artery development was accompanied by abnormal development of the cardiac outflow tract, it appears that normal patterning of the aortic arch arteries is not a prerequisite for normal heart development. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) we were unable to detect changes in any of the Hox messages except group 4, thus, using this particular experimental strategy, we are unable to demonstrate or refute that expression of hox genes by cardiac neural crest cells controls aortic arch patterning. Development of the cardiac outflow tract was normal in each instance. This suggests that abnormal aortic arch patterning does not necessarily lead to cardiac malformations.

PMID 8989519