Talk:Cardiovascular System - Circulation Development

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, September 22) Embryology Cardiovascular System - Circulation Development. Retrieved from

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Note - This sub-heading shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term. References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing. Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance. In comparison, references listed on the content page and discussion page (under the publication year sub-headings) do include editorial selection based upon relevance and availability. (More? Pubmed Most Recent)

Circulation Embryology

<pubmed limit=5>Circulation Embryology</pubmed>

Cardiovascular System Development

<pubmed limit=5>Cardiovascular System Development</pubmed>


Infrahepatic inferior caval and azygos vein formation in mammals with different degrees of mesonephric development

J Anat. 2016 Mar;228(3):495-510. doi: 10.1111/joa.12423. Epub 2015 Dec 11.

Hikspoors JP1, Mekonen HK1, Mommen GM1, Cornillie P2, Köhler SE1, Lamers WH1,3.


Controversies regarding the development of the mammalian infrahepatic inferior caval and azygos veins arise from using topography rather than developmental origin as criteria to define venous systems and centre on veins that surround the mesonephros. We compared caudal-vein development in man with that in rodents and pigs (rudimentary and extensive mesonephric development, respectively), and used Amira 3D reconstruction and Cinema 4D-remodelling software for visualisation. The caudal cardinal veins (CCVs) were the only contributors to the inferior caval (IVC) and azygos veins. Development was comparable if temporary vessels that drain the large porcine mesonephros were taken into account. The topography of the CCVs changed concomitant with expansion of adjacent organs (lungs, meso- and metanephroi). The iliac veins arose by gradual extension of the CCVs into the caudal body region. Irrespective of the degree of mesonephric development, the infrarenal part of the IVC developed from the right CCV and the renal part from vascular sprouts of the CCVs in the mesonephros that formed 'subcardinal' veins. The azygos venous system developed from the cranial remnants of the CCVs. Temporary venous collaterals in and around the thoracic sympathetic trunk were interpreted as 'footprints' of the dorsolateral-to-ventromedial change in the local course of the intersegmental and caudal cardinal veins relative to the sympathetic trunk. Interspecies differences in timing of the same events in IVC and azygos-vein development appear to allow for proper joining of conduits for caudal venous return, whereas local changes in topography appear to accommodate efficient venous perfusion. These findings demonstrate that new systems, such as the 'supracardinal' veins, are not necessary to account for changes in the course of the main venous conduits of the embryo. © 2015 Anatomical Society. KEYWORDS: azygos vein; caudal cardinal veins; human; inferior caval vein; mesonephros; mouse; pig

PMID 26659476

Bilateral internal carotid artery segmental agenesis: embryology, common collateral pathways, clinical presentation and clinical importance of a rare condition

World Neurosurg. 2016 Aug 12. pii: S1878-8750(16)30678-7. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2016.08.012. [Epub ahead of print]

Alexandre AM, Visconti E, Schiarelli C, Frassanito P, Pedicelli A.


BACKGROUND: Bilateral segmental agenesis of the internal carotid artery is a very rare congenital anomaly. We present a case of bilateral internal carotid artery segmental agenesis in an asymptomatic 18-old man. Embryology, common collateral pathways, clinical presentation and clinical importance of this condition are discussed. According to our review of the literature, this report is the first to describe bilateral internal carotid artery segmental agenesis in a patient studied with MRI, CT, Doppler-US and DSA. CASE DESCRIPTION: an 18-year-old man presented to our hospital complaining of occasional mild headaches. Neurologic examination was unremarkable. Imaging findings consisted with a bilateral segmental agenesis of internal carotid arteries CONCLUSION: Bilateral segmental agenesis of internal carotid artery may be completly asimptomatic and harmless, but associated conditions, such as cerebral aneurysms or abnormal collateral circulation, should alert clinicians to the possibilities of subarachnoid haemorrhage or cerebral ischemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. PMID 27535626


Development of the human infrahepatic inferior caval and azygos venous systems

J Anat. 2015 Feb;226(2):113-25. doi: 10.1111/joa.12266. Epub 2014 Dec 15.

Hikspoors JP1, Soffers JH, Mekonen HK, Cornillie P, Köhler SE, Lamers WH.


Differences in opinion regarding the development of the infrahepatic inferior caval and azygos venous systems in mammals centre on the contributions of 'caudal cardinal', 'subcardinal', 'supracardinal', 'medial and lateral sympathetic line' and 'sacrocardinal' veins. The disagreements appear to arise from the use of topographical position rather than developmental origin as criterion to define separate venous systems. We reinvestigated the issue in a closely spaced series of human embryos between 4 and 10 weeks of development. Structures were visualized with the Amira(®) reconstruction and Cinema4D(®) remodelling software. The vertebral level and neighbouring structures were used as topographic landmarks. The main results were that the caudal cardinal veins extended caudally from the common cardinal vein between CS11 and CS15, followed by the development of the subcardinal veins as a plexus sprouting ventrally from the caudal cardinal veins. The caudal cardinal veins adapted their course from lateral to medial relative to the laterally expanding lungs, adrenal glands, definitive kidneys, sympathetic trunk and umbilical arteries between CS15 and CS18, and then became interrupted in the part overlaying the regressing mesonephroi (Th12-L3). The caudal part of the left caudal cardinal vein then also regressed. The infrarenal part of the inferior caval vein originated from the right caudal cardinal vein, while the renal part originated from subcardinal veins. The azygos veins developed from the remaining cranial part of the caudal cardinal veins. Our data show that all parts of the inferior caval and azygos venous systems developed directly from the caudal cardinal veins or from a plexus sprouting from these veins. © 2014 Anatomical Society. KEYWORDS: azygos vein; caudal cardinal veins; human development; inferior caval vein; subcardinal veins; topographic embryology

PMID 25496171