Talk:Abnormal Development - Zoonotic Infection
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2020, October 24) Embryology Abnormal Development - Zoonotic Infection. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Talk:Abnormal_Development_-_Zoonotic_Infection
Reyes MM, Ailes EC, Daza M, Tong VT, Osorio J, Valencia D, Turca AR, Galang RR, González Duarte M, Ricaldi JN, Anderson KN, Kamal N, Thomas JD, Villanueva J, Burkel VK, Meaney-Delman D, Gilboa SM, Honein MA, Jamieson DJ & Martinez MO. (2020). Zika Virus Detection in Amniotic Fluid and Zika-Associated Birth Defects. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. , , . PMID: 31954155 DOI. Zika Virus Detection in Amniotic Fluid and Zika-Associated Birth Defects.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects, including brain and eye abnormalities. The clinical importance of detection of ZIKV ribonucleic acid (RNA) in amniotic fluid is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To describe patterns of ZIKV RNA testing of amniotic fluid relative to other clinical specimens and to examine the association between ZIKV detection in amniotic fluid and Zika-associated birth defects. Our null hypothesis was that ZIKV detection in amniotic fluid was not associated with Zika-associated birth defects. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of women with amniotic fluid specimens submitted to Colombia's National Institute of Health as part of national ZIKV surveillance from January 2016 to January 2017. Specimens (maternal serum, amniotic fluid, cord blood, umbilical cord tissue, and placental tissue) were tested for the presence of ZIKV RNA using a singleplex or multiplex real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assay. Birth defect information was abstracted from maternal prenatal and infant birth records and reviewed by expert clinicians. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare the frequency of Zika-associated birth defects (defined as brain abnormalities [with or without microcephaly, but excluding neural tube defects and their associated findings] or eye abnormalities) by frequency of detection of ZIKV RNA in amniotic fluid. RESULTS: Our analysis included 128 women with amniotic fluid specimens. Seventy-five women (58%) had prenatally-collected amniotic fluid, 42 (33%) at delivery, and 11 (9%) had missing collection dates. Ninety-one women had both amniotic fluid and other clinical specimens submitted for testing, allowing for comparison across specimen types. Of those 91 women, 68 had evidence of ZIKV infection based on detection of ZIKV RNA (ZIKV+) in >1 specimen. Testing of amniotic fluid collected prenatally or at delivery identified 39 (57%) of these ZIKV infections (15 [22%] identified only in amniotic fluid), and 29 (43%) infections were identified in other specimen types and not amniotic fluid. Among women included in the analysis, 89 had pregnancy outcome information available, allowing for assessment of the presence of Zika-associated birth defects. Zika-associated birth defects were significantly (p<0.05) more common among pregnancies with ZIKV+ amniotic fluid specimens collected prenatally (19/32, 59%) than for those with no laboratory evidence of ZIKV infection in any specimen (6/23, 26%), but the proportion was similar in pregnancies with only ZIKV+ specimens other than amniotic fluid (10/23, 43%). Though Zika-associated birth defects were more common among women with any ZIKV+ amniotic fluid specimen (i.e., collected prenatally or at delivery; 21/43, 49%) than those with no laboratory evidence of ZIKV infection (6/23, 26%), this comparison did not reach statistical significance (p=0.07). CONCLUSIONS: Testing of amniotic fluid provided additional evidence for maternal diagnosis of ZIKV infection. Zika-associated birth defects were more common among women with ZIKV RNA detected in prenatal amniotic fluid specimens than women with no laboratory evidence of ZIKV infection, but similar to women with ZIKV RNA detected in other, non-amniotic fluid specimen types. Published by Elsevier Inc. KEYWORDS: PCR; RNA virus; ZIKV disease; Zika virus; amniotic fluid; birth defects; congenital infection; false negatives; false positives; fetal infection; flavivirus; microcephaly; pregnancy; prenatal diagnosis; vertical transmission PMID: 31954155 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajog.2020.01.009
How does toxoplasmosis affect the maternal-foetal immune interface and pregnancy?
Parasite Immunol. 2019 Mar;41(3):e12606. doi: 10.1111/pim.12606. Epub 2018 Dec 19.
Borges M1, Magalhães Silva T2,3, Brito C1, Teixeira N1, Roberts CW4.
Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite which, depending on the geographical location, can infect between 10% and 90% of humans. Infection during pregnancy may result in congenital toxoplasmosis. The effects on the foetus vary depending on the stage of gestation in which primary maternal infection arises. A large body of research has focused on understanding immune response to toxoplasmosis, although few studies have addressed how it is affected by pregnancy or the pathological consequences of infection at the maternal-foetal interface. There is a lack of knowledge about how maternal immune cells, specifically macrophages, are modulated during infection and the resulting consequences for parasite control and pathology. Herein, we discuss the potential of T. gondii infection to affect the maternal-foetal interface and the potential of pregnancy to disrupt maternal immunity to T. gondii infection. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
KEYWORDS: activated-macrophage; congenital toxoplasmosis; immunopathogenesis; maternal-foetal Interface; pregnancy; zoonosis PMID: 30471137 DOI: 10.1111/pim.12606