Splanchnic Mesoderm

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Draft Page

Anterior lateral plate mesoderm (ALPM) generates the cardiac progenitor field, beside the cranial paraxial mesoderm.

Some Recent Findings

  • Developmental Mechanism of Limb Field Specification along the Anterior-Posterior Axis during Vertebrate Evolution[1] "In gnathostomes, limb buds arise from the lateral plate mesoderm at discrete positions along the body axis. Specification of these limb-forming fields can be subdivided into several steps. The lateral plate mesoderm is regionalized into the anterior lateral plate mesoderm (ALPM; cardiac mesoderm) and the posterior lateral plate mesoderm (PLPM). Subsequently, Hox genes appear in a nested fashion in the PLPM and provide positional information along the body axis. The lateral plate mesoderm then splits into the somatic and splanchnic layers. In the somatic layer of the PLPM, the expression of limb initiation genes appears in the limb-forming region, leading to limb bud initiation. Furthermore, past and current work in limbless amphioxus and lampreys suggests that evolutionary changes in developmental programs occurred during the acquisition of paired fins during vertebrate evolution. This review presents these recent advances and discusses the mechanisms of limb field specification during development and evolution, with a focus on the role of Hox genes in this process."
More recent papers  
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Search term: Splanchnic Mesoderm

Older papers  
These papers originally appeared in the Some Recent Findings table, but as that list grew in length have now been shuffled down to this collapsible table.

See also the Discussion Page for other references listed by year and References on this current page.


The nested tables below show an overview of the different mesoderm-derived tissues (links go to topic pages).
intervertebral disc nucleus pulposis
unsegmented paraxial  
head mesoderm
segmented paraxial  
axial skeleton
vertebral body intervertebral disc
renal genital
lateral plate
body wall connective tissue
intra-embryonic coelom  
pericardial cavity pleural cavity peritoneal cavity
splanchnic mesoderm
heart blood vessels gastrointestinal tract connective tissue gastrointestinal tract smooth muscle respiratory connective tissue
placental membranes
placental villi
amnion chorion yolk sac villi connective tissue villi blood vessels
Overview: Ectoderm | Mesoderm | Endoderm Layers: ectoderm | mesoderm | endoderm

Hierarchical View  
mesoderm - (hierarchical view)
  1. embryonic mesoderm
    1. axial
      1. notochord
        1. axial skeleton - nucleus pulpous
    2. paraxial
      1. unsegmented paraxial
      2. segmented paraxial somites
        1. sclerotome
          1. syndetome - tendon
          2. axial skeleton - vertebral body, intervertebral disc
        2. dermomyotome
          1. dermis - integumentary dermis, hypodermis
          2. myotome skeletal muscle
    3. intermediate
      1. renal
      2. genital
    4. lateral plate
      1. somatic
      2. intraembryonic coelom
        1. pericardial
        2. pleural
        3. peritoneal
      3. splanchnic mesoderm
  2. extra-embryonic mesoderm
    1. placental membranes
      1. amnion, chorion, yolk sac
    2. placental villi
      1. villi connective tissue, villi blood vessels
Germ Layers: ectoderm | mesoderm | endoderm


  1. Tanaka M. (2016). Developmental Mechanism of Limb Field Specification along the Anterior-Posterior Axis during Vertebrate Evolution. J Dev Biol , 4, . PMID: 29615584 DOI.


Lawson LY & Harfe BD. (2017). Developmental mechanisms of intervertebral disc and vertebral column formation. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Dev Biol , 6, . PMID: 28719048 DOI.


Imuta Y, Koyama H, Shi D, Eiraku M, Fujimori T & Sasaki H. (2014). Mechanical control of notochord morphogenesis by extra-embryonic tissues in mouse embryos. Mech. Dev. , 132, 44-58. PMID: 24509350 DOI.

Lee JD & Anderson KV. (2008). Morphogenesis of the node and notochord: the cellular basis for the establishment and maintenance of left-right asymmetry in the mouse. Dev. Dyn. , 237, 3464-76. PMID: 18629866 DOI.

Nathan E, Monovich A, Tirosh-Finkel L, Harrelson Z, Rousso T, Rinon A, Harel I, Evans SM & Tzahor E. (2008). The contribution of Islet1-expressing splanchnic mesoderm cells to distinct branchiomeric muscles reveals significant heterogeneity in head muscle development. Development , 135, 647-57. PMID: 18184728 DOI.

Dong F, Sun X, Liu W, Ai D, Klysik E, Lu MF, Hadley J, Antoni L, Chen L, Baldini A, Francis-West P & Martin JF. (2006). Pitx2 promotes development of splanchnic mesoderm-derived branchiomeric muscle. Development , 133, 4891-9. PMID: 17107996 DOI.

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Search NLM Online Textbooks: "Splanchnic Mesoderm" : Developmental Biology | The Cell- A molecular Approach | Molecular Biology of the Cell | Endocrinology

Search Pubmed: Splanchnic Mesoderm

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2020, January 21) Embryology Splanchnic Mesoderm. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Splanchnic_Mesoderm

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