Penis Development

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Introduction

Week 9, the indifferent stage of external genitalia.

The external male genitalia consists of the penis and scrotum containing the testis.


Mesonephric duct = Wolffian duct.


Genital Links: genital | Lecture - Medicine | Lecture - Science | Lecture Movie | Medicine - Practical | primordial germ cell | meiosis | Female | X | ovary | oocyte | uterus | vagina | reproductive cycles | menstrual cycle | Male | Y | testis | spermatozoa | penis | prostate | endocrine gonad‎ | Genital Movies | genital abnormalities | Assisted Reproductive Technology | puberty | Category:Genital
Historic Embryology - Genital 
1901 Urinogenital Tract | 1902 The Uro-Genital System | 1904 Ovary and Testis | 1904 Leydig Cells | 1904 Hymen | 1905 Testis vascular | 1909 Prostate | 1912 Prostate | 1912 Urinogenital Organ Development | 1914 External Genitalia | 1914 Female | 1915 Cowper’s and Bartholin’s Glands | 1920 Wolffian tubules | 1921 Urogenital Development | 1921 External Genital | 1927 Female Foetus 15 cm | 1932 Postnatal Ovary | 1935 Prepuce | 1935 Wolffian Duct | 1942 Sex Cords | 1943 Testes Descent | 1953 Germ Cells | Historic Embryology Papers | Historic Disclaimer

Some Recent Findings

  • Complex epithelial remodeling underlie the fusion event in early fetal development of the human penile urethra[1] "The opening zipper progresses from proximal to distal along the shaft of the penis and clitoris into the glans in identical fashion in both sexes. The closing zipper mechanism is active only in males and is not a single process but rather a series of layered fusion events, uniquely different from the simple fusion of two epithelial surfaces as occurs in formation of the palate and neural tube."
  • Modifications of erectile tissue components in the penis during the fetal period[2] "The penile erectile tissue has a complex microscopic anatomy with important functions in the mechanism of penile erection. The knowledge of such structures is necessary for understanding the normal physiology of the adult penis. Therefore, it is important to know the changes of these penile structures during fetal development. This study aims to analyze the development of the main components of the erectile tissue, such as collagen, smooth muscle fibers and elastic system fibers, in human fetuses. We found strong correlation between the elements analyzed with fetal age, both in corpus cavernosum and corpus spongiosum. The growth rate of these elements was more intense during the second trimester (13 to 24 WPC) of gestation, both in corpus cavernosum and in corpus spongiosum. There is greater proportional amount of collagen in the corpus spongiosum than in corpus cavernosum during all fetal period. In the corpus spongiosum, there is about four times more collagen than smooth muscle fibers and elastic system fibers, during all fetal period studied. "
More recent papers  
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Search term: Penis Embryology

G Mikuz Ectopias of the kidney, urinary tract organs, and male genitalia. [Ektopien der Niere, Harnwege und männlichen Geschlechtsorgane.] Pathologe: 2018; PubMed 30446779

Sung Jin Kim, Jongpill Lee, Chang-Hoo Park, Jong Yeon Park, Sang Hoon Song, Kun Suk Kim, Han Gwun Kim Urethral defect due to periurethral abscess treated with a tunica vaginalis flap: A case report. Medicine (Baltimore): 2018, 97(46);e13249 PubMed 30431606

G Mikuz [Ectopias of the kidney, urinary tract organs, and male genitalia. German version.] [Ektopien der Niere, Harnwege und männlichen Geschlechtsorgane.] Pathologe: 2018; PubMed 30135974

Mustafa Tosur, Lefkothea P Karaviti Case 2: 3-month-old Boy with Micropenis. Pediatr Rev: 2018, 39(7);363-365 PubMed 29967081

Muhammad Umar Nisar, Nadeem Akhtar, Mudassar Fiaz Gondal, Samer Sikander, Sana Viqar Aphallia: A Very Rare Congenital Anomaly, With Associated Genitourinary And Ano-Rectal Malformation. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad: 2018, 30(2);275-277 PubMed 29938433

Movies

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 ‎‎Male External
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 ‎‎Testis
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 ‎‎Testis Descent
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Mesonephic Duct Development

The paired mesonephic ducts (Wolffian ducts) go through a series of developmental changes to form the male internal genital tract.

Initiation

Invagination

Elongation

Links:

Foreskin Development

Foreskin development occurs during the second trimester.[3]

  • GA week 12 (Week 10) - ectoderm circular invagination at the glandular periphery now grows ventrally.
  • GA week 13 (Week 12) - glans partially covered by the foreskin.
  • GA week 16-17 (Week 14-15) - glans almost completely covered by the foreskin.
  • GA week 18-19 (Week 16-17) - complete foreskin was formed.
  • GA week 20 (Week 18) - entirely involves the glans.


Postnatal Development

Abnormalities

Hypospadia

External urethral opening on the ventral surface of penis, can extend back into scrotum. Abnormality due to failure of genital fold fusion during fetal development of the male external genitalia.

Hypospadia Classification Meatus Opening
Anterior on inferior surface of glans penis
Coronal in balanopenile furrow
Distal on distal third of shaft
Penoscrotal at base of shaft in front of scrotum
Scrotal on scrotum or between the genital swellings
Perineal behind scrotum or genital swellings
  Links: Genital Abnormalities | Penis Development

Epispadias

Uncommon abnormality associated with the penis, 1 in 30,000 infant males, external urethral opening on the dorsal surface of penis.


Endocrine Disruptors

Endocrine disruptors in female reproductive tract development and carcinogenesis.[4]


Additional Images

Historic

References

  1. Joel Shen, Maya Overland, Adriane Sinclair, Mei Cao, Xuan Yue, Gerald Cunha, Laurence Baskin Complex epithelial remodeling underlie the fusion event in early fetal development of the human penile urethra. Differentiation: 2016; PubMed 27397682
  2. Carla B M Gallo, Waldemar S Costa, Angelica Furriel, Ana L Bastos, Francisco J B Sampaio Modifications of erectile tissue components in the penis during the fetal period. PLoS ONE: 2014, 9(8);e106409 PubMed 25170760 | PLoS One.
  3. Favorito LA, Balassiano CM, Costa WS & Sampaio FJ. (2012). Development of the human foreskin during the fetal period. Histol. Histopathol. , 27, 1041-5. PMID: 22763876 DOI.
  4. Liang Ma Endocrine disruptors in female reproductive tract development and carcinogenesis. Trends Endocrinol. Metab.: 2009, 20(7);357-63 PubMed 19709900


Reviews

Articles

Wisniewski H & Terry RD. (1968). Further studies on experimental neurofibrillary tangles. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. , 27, 149-50. PMID: 5690451


Genital Links: genital | Lecture - Medicine | Lecture - Science | Lecture Movie | Medicine - Practical | primordial germ cell | meiosis | Female | X | ovary | oocyte | uterus | vagina | reproductive cycles | menstrual cycle | Male | Y | testis | spermatozoa | penis | prostate | endocrine gonad‎ | Genital Movies | genital abnormalities | Assisted Reproductive Technology | puberty | Category:Genital
Historic Embryology - Genital 
1901 Urinogenital Tract | 1902 The Uro-Genital System | 1904 Ovary and Testis | 1904 Leydig Cells | 1904 Hymen | 1905 Testis vascular | 1909 Prostate | 1912 Prostate | 1912 Urinogenital Organ Development | 1914 External Genitalia | 1914 Female | 1915 Cowper’s and Bartholin’s Glands | 1920 Wolffian tubules | 1921 Urogenital Development | 1921 External Genital | 1927 Female Foetus 15 cm | 1932 Postnatal Ovary | 1935 Prepuce | 1935 Wolffian Duct | 1942 Sex Cords | 1943 Testes Descent | 1953 Germ Cells | Historic Embryology Papers | Historic Disclaimer

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, December 9) Embryology Penis Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Penis_Development

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© Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G