Paper - An infrequent developmental abnormality of the foot (1928)

From Embryology
Embryology - 12 Apr 2021    Facebook link Pinterest link Twitter link  Expand to Translate  
Google Translate - select your language from the list shown below (this will open a new external page)

العربية | català | 中文 | 中國傳統的 | français | Deutsche | עִברִית | हिंदी | bahasa Indonesia | italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | မြန်မာ | Pilipino | Polskie | português | ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਦੇ | Română | русский | Español | Swahili | Svensk | ไทย | Türkçe | اردو | ייִדיש | Tiếng Việt    These external translations are automated and may not be accurate. (More? About Translations)

Wigoder SB. An infrequent developmental abnormality of the foot. (1928) J Anat. 63(1): 142-4. PMID 17104209

Online Editor  
Mark Hill.jpg
This historic 1928 paper by Wigoder describes a developmental abnormality of the foot.

Modern Notes: limb abnormalities | limb

Musculoskeletal Links: Introduction | mesoderm | somitogenesis | limb | cartilage | bone | bone timeline | bone marrow | shoulder | pelvis | axial skeleton | skull | joint | skeletal muscle | muscle timeline | tendon | diaphragm | Lecture - Musculoskeletal | Lecture Movie | musculoskeletal abnormalities | limb abnormalities | developmental hip dysplasia | cartilage histology | bone histology | Skeletal Muscle Histology | Category:Musculoskeletal
Historic Embryology - Musculoskeletal  
1853 Bone | 1885 Sphenoid | 1902 - Pubo-femoral Region | Spinal Column and Back | Body Segmentation | Cranium | Body Wall, Ribs, and Sternum | Limbs | 1901 - Limbs | 1902 - Arm Development | 1906 Human Embryo Ossification | 1906 Lower limb Nerves and Muscle | 1907 - Muscular System | Skeleton and Limbs | 1908 Vertebra | 1908 Cervical Vertebra | 1909 Mandible | 1910 - Skeleton and Connective Tissues | Muscular System | Coelom and Diaphragm | 1913 Clavicle | 1920 Clavicle | 1921 - External body form | Connective tissues and skeletal | Muscular | Diaphragm | 1929 Rat Somite | 1932 Pelvis | 1940 Synovial Joints | 1943 Human Embryonic, Fetal and Circumnatal Skeleton | 1947 Joints | 1949 Cartilage and Bone | 1957 Chondrification Hands and Feet | 1968 Knee
Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
Mark Hill.jpg
Pages where the terms "Historic" (textbooks, papers, people, recommendations) appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms, interpretations and recommendations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

An Infrequent Developmental Abnormality of the Foot

By Sylvia B. Wigoder, M.D.

Assistant Radiologist, Mercer’s Hospital, Dublin

The cases of Pirie’s dorsal astragulo-scaphoid bone that have been described in English medical literature are far from numerous. Indeed, Pirie himself, in the Archives of Radiology for 1919, only recorded eight. The following case and the radiograms showing this condition may therefore be of interest.

The patient, Anthony ..., aged 27, was sent to the X-ray department for a suspected tubercular lesion of the right ankle. He stated that twelve years previously, when he was fifteen, he had been struck on the dorsum of the right foot by an iron girder. The lateral radiogram of the foot revealed a small piece of bone in the astragulo-navicular articulation, and this was also faintly indicated in the radiogram taken in the anterior posterior view. The left foot showed no abnormality when radiographed for comparison. It might be said that the abnormality was the result of his old accident, but against this are the facts that:

  1. The shapes of the astragulus and the navicular bones were quite normal.
  2. The bony outlines were quite distinct and sharply defined.
  3. There was no sign of injury to the other bones, and a girder falling across the whole dorsum of the foot is unlikely to fracture, and cause no displacement of only a small piece of bone lying at an articulation.
  4. In a fracture of this duration one would expect either some callus formation, or else complete absorption of such a small fragment.
  5. A small fragment of bone lying in this position would possibly cause pain, and until six months ago the patient suffered no disability.

The other theory that it is the congenital accessory ossicle of Pirie is more probable, as it resembles published illustrations of this condition.

Had the condition existed in both feet, no doubt would have existed as to the diagnosis, but although developmental abnormalities are usually bilateral, this is not always the case. Cervical ribs are frequently found on one side only, and of eight cases in which Pirie found this bone, in one only was it bilateral. He does not state, however, if both feet were always radiographed.

It is of interest to note that the radiograms of the wrist in this case show sesamoid bones at the metacarpal joints of the thumb, index and little finger, and also at the inter-phalangeal joint of the thumb.

I wish to thank Dr Garratt Hardman, the radiologist to this hospital, and Mr Maunsell, the surgeon in charge, for permission to publish this case. To the former also my grateful thanks are due for his kind and valuable assistance.

A. Outline of dorsal view of right foot.



B. Outline of lateral view of right foot. ASTRAGALUS-~ --“e


— —\- 7 CUNE/FORM

C. Outline of dorsal view of left foot.


D. Outline of lateral view of left foot.

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, April 12) Embryology Paper - An infrequent developmental abnormality of the foot (1928). Retrieved from

What Links Here?
© Dr Mark Hill 2021, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G