File:Human idiogram-chromosome X.jpg

From Embryology
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Human Idiogram - Chromosome X

Idiogram- A drawing or photograph of the chromosomes of a particular cell.

  • 155 million base pairs
  • In contrast to the Y chromosome, the X chromosome contains about 5% of the haploid genome and encodes house-keeping and specialized functions.
  • Genes such as Wnt-4 and DAX-1 necessary for initiation of female pathway ovary development
  • An early discovery (1961) was that in order to have correct levels of X chromosome gene/protein expression (gene dosage), females must "inactivate" a single copy of the X chromosome in each and every cell. The initiator of the X inactivation process was discovered (1991) to be regulated by a region on the inactivating X chromosome encoding an X inactive specific transcript (XIST), that acts as RNA and does not encode a protein.
  • The genetic content of the X chromosome has been strongly conserved between species because these genes have become adapted to working as a single dose - Ohno's law
  • X inactivation occurs randomly throughout the embryo, generating a mosaic of maternal and paternally derived X chromosome activity in all tissues and organs. This can be seen in the fur colour of tortoiseshell cats.


Links: X Inactivation | Trisomy X | Genome View - X chromosome | Ensembl - X chromosome | OMIM - Xist | 2011 Group Project - Fragile X Syndrome



X Chromosome Links: X chromosome | X Inactivation | Trisomy X | Fragile X syndrome | Klinefelter syndrome | primordial germ cell | Female | epigenetics | Y chromosome | 2011 Group Project - Fragile X Syndrome | Category:X Chromosome
Genital Links: genital | Lecture - Medicine | Lecture - Science | Lecture Movie | Medicine - Practical | primordial germ cell | meiosis | Female | X | ovary | oocyte | uterus | vagina | reproductive cycles | menstrual cycle | Male | Y | testis | spermatozoa | penis | prostate | endocrine gonad‎ | Genital Movies | genital abnormalities | Assisted Reproductive Technology | puberty | Category:Genital
Historic Embryology - Genital 
1901 Urinogenital Tract | 1902 The Uro-Genital System | 1904 Ovary and Testis | 1904 Leydig Cells | 1904 Hymen | 1905 Testis vascular | 1909 Prostate | 1912 Prostate | 1912 Urinogenital Organ Development | 1914 External Genitalia | 1914 Female | 1915 Cowper’s and Bartholin’s Glands | 1920 Wolffian tubules | 1921 Urogenital Development | 1921 External Genital | 1927 Female Foetus 15 cm | 1932 Postnatal Ovary | 1935 Prepuce | 1935 Wolffian Duct | 1942 Sex Cords | 1943 Testes Descent | 1953 Germ Cells | Historic Embryology Papers | Historic Disclaimer
Human Chromosomes: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | X | Y  



Human Chromosomes: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | X | Y  
Idiogram Chromosome Banding - The term refers to the light and dark pattern, seen after staining with a dye, of individual chromosomes identified in metaphase. It is only in meiosis and mitosis during metaphase that chromosomes can be easily identified, during the normal cell life (interphase) the chromosomes are unravelled and distributed within the nucleus in chromosome territories. A band is that part of a chromosome which is clearly distinguishable from nearby regions by appearing darker or brighter with one or more banding techniques.
Human Idiogram: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | X | Y
Genetic abnormality locations: 1-4 | 5-8 | 9-12 | 13-16 | 17-20 | 21-XY | sSMC
Inheritance Pattern images: Autosomal dominant inheritance | Autosomal recessive inheritance | X-Linked dominant (affected father) | X-Linked dominant (affected mother) | X-Linked recessive (affected father) | X-Linked recessive (carrier mother) | Mitochondrial genome inheritance | Codominant inheritance | Genogram symbols | Genetics
Links: Genetics | Abnormal Development - Genetic

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, August 19) Embryology Human idiogram-chromosome X.jpg. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/File:Human_idiogram-chromosome_X.jpg

What Links Here?
© Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G

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current13:51, 23 April 2011Thumbnail for version as of 13:51, 23 April 201131 × 293 (3 KB)S8600021 (talk | contribs)==Human Idiogram - Chromosome X== Idiogram- A drawing or photograph of the chromosomes of a particular cell. This drawing does not include the mitochondrial DNA. {{Human chromosomes}} Category:Genetics Category:Chromosome [[Category:Molecular
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