Book - Physiology of the Fetus

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Windle WF. Physiology of the Fetus. (1940) Saunders, Philadelphia.

1940 Physiology of the Fetus: 1 Introduction | 2 Heart | 3 Circulation | 4 Blood | 5 Respiration | 6 Respiratory Movements | 7 Digestive | 8 Renal - Skin | 9 Muscles | 10 Neural Genesis | 11 Neural Activity | 12 Motor Reactions and Reflexes | 13 Senses | 14 Endocrine | 15 Nutrition and Metabolism | Figures

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This 1940 textbook by Prof William Frederick Windle (1898-1986) describes human fetal physiology as it was understood at that time. His research collection consists of paper documents, plus approximately 25,000 feet of motion pictures, over 400 slides, photographs, and a few artifacts. The materials span the years 1918-1986. (More? See Online Archives of California)



See also: Historic Embryology Textbooks

Also by this author: Windle WF. (1970). Development of neural elements in human embryos of four to seven weeks gestation. Exp. Neurol. , 28, Suppl:44-83. PMID: 4097652

Modern Notes:

Fetal Links: fetal | Week 10 | Week 12 | second trimester | third trimester | fetal neural | Fetal Blood Sampling | fetal growth restriction | birth | birth weight | preterm birth | Developmental Origins of Health and Disease | macrosomia | BGD Practical | Medicine Lecture | Science Lecture | Lecture Movie | Category:Human Fetus | Category:Fetal
Historic Embryology  
1940 Fetus Physiology
Carnegie Fetal: 95 | 96 | 142 | 145 | 184 | 211 | 217 | 300 | 362 | 448 | 449 | 538 | 590 | 607 | 625 | 662 | 693 | 847 | 858 | 922 | 928 | 948 | 972 | 1318 | 1388 | 1455 | 1591 | 1597b | 1656 | 1686 | 2250a | 2250b | 3990 | 5652 | 6581 | 7218
Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
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Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

Physiology of the Fetus

William Frederick Windle
William Frederick Windle (1898-1986)

Origin and Extent of Function in Prenatal Life


By

William Frederick Windle

Professor of Microscopic Anatomy, Northwestern University Medical School



W.B. Saunders Company Philadelphia and London, 1940

Preface

More than half a century ago Wilhelm Preyer published a monograph «specielle Physiologie des Embryo« embodying not only a review of the literature of that day, but a great many new observations of his own as well. This boolc has occupied a rather unique Position in that it was long the only source of summarized knowledge concerning the activities of embryos and fetuses of many species. That no other boof has quite talcen its place is not surprising because, after initial exploration of the Held, physiologists turned their attention to more urgent problems concerning the adult. Within the last decade or two, interest has revived and a school of developmental physiology has come into being: Many of the subjects discussed by Preyer have been restudied prolitably by experimental methods not available in his time, and new observations have added facts of great signiiicance to our conception of life before birth. Few biologists, however, are aware of all that has been accomplished during the last few years.


My main purpose in writing the present boolc was to assemble and summarize scattered physiologic observations on fetuses for my own information and for that of my students. I hope that the result will be useful to others who are working in fetal physiology and perhaps will help direct attention to problems which«need to be investigated Another purpose was to provide a supplement for courses in embryo1ogy to help stress functional aspects of development; this is in line with current trends of medical teaching. Finally, I had in mind those in allied lields, especially neurology, psychology and pediatrics, who are interested in problems of behavior and who have frequent occasion to desire knowledge of prenatal physiology.


Originally I thought to produce a more comprehensive review somewhat similar to that of Preyer, but my first excursions into Helds with which I had been only slightly familiar before demonstrated the futility of doing so within a single small volume. some of the purposes of the taslc would have been defeated by undertaking lengthy detailed discussions Furthermore, a great deal has been written on subjects with· which I feel incompetent to deal critically. This is particularly true of nutrition and metabolism. To do justice to these subjects would have meant- duplication of much that is contained in Joseph Needham’s splendid «Chemical Embryology." Therefore I determined to place emphasis upon the more strictly physiologic aspects of prenatal life and to enter into the chemistry of the fetus only to the point of supplying the reader with brief up-to-date synopses for the salce of completeness.


It is clearly realized that the present boolc is incomplete in respect to many subjects which might have been included had arbitrary limits not been set down. It was in many instances diilicult to draw the line between physiology and anatomy. Determinate growth in the early stages of development was of necessity ignored entirely, and many very interesting observations in experimental embryology of lower vertebrates (indeed, most of the studies in inframammalian species) ,have been purposely omitted or mentioned only brieHy. As much as possible, therefore, I have tried to limit consideration to mammals, and especially to the higher mammals, but I have brought in observations on other animals when these seem to add siguilicantly to our knowledge of human physiology.


Bibliographic references are placed at the end of each chaptetn Even though this involves some repetition, it was thought to be a more useful plan than to collect them at the end of the boof. Citations have been used freely, but no attempt has been made to include all references on any subject: In most instances, preliminary articles and many of the older papers discussed by Preyer have been left out and only the more recent key references included.


Acknowledgments are due a number of individuals and groups who have contributed directly and indirectly to my program of investigation in fetal physiology and to the present book. In the Hrst place, I am grateful to my teachers and colleagues, especially Professors L. B. Arey, s. W. Ranson and A. C. Ivy, for helpful criticisms and suggestions My graduate students and associates in research during the past ten years have contributed notably to the project and have provided the incentive to proceed with it. To sir Joseph Baker-oft, in whose laboratory I was a guest during the winter on 1935-36, belongs credit kor kindling my interest in respiratory physiologzn Finally, to the National Research council, the Ella sachs Plotz Foundation, The American Academy of Arts and sciences. The Chijd Neurology Research Council (Friedsham Foundation) , and The J0hn and Mary R. Marlcle Foundation, all of whom have generously supplied kunds to aid my investigations, I wish to extend thanks.


W. F. MoRE than half a century ago Wilhelm Preyer published a monograph «specielle Physiologie des Embryo« embodying not only a review of the literature of that day, but a great many new observations of his own as well. This boolc has occupied a rather unique Position in that it was long the only source of summarized knowledge concerning the activities of embryos and fetuses of many species. That no other book has quite talcen its place is not surprising because, after initial exploration of the Held, physiologists turned their attention to more urgent problems concerning the adult. Within the last decade or two, interest has revived and a school of developmental physiology has come into being: Many of the subjects discussed by Preyer have been restudied prolitably by experimental methods not available in his time, and new observations have added facts of great signiiicance to our conception of life before birth. Few biologists, however, are aware of all that has been accomplished during the last few years.


My main purpose in writing the present boolc was to assemble and summarize scattered physiologic observations on fetuses for my own information and for that of my students. I hope that the result will be useful to others who are working in fetal physiology and perhaps will help direct attention to problems which«need to be investigated Another purpose was to provide a supplement for courses in embryo1ogy to help stress functional aspects of development; this is in line with current trends of medical teaching. Finally, I had in mind those in allied lields, especially neurology, psychology and pediatrics, who are interested in problems of behavior and who have frequent occasion to desire knowledge of prenatal physiology.


Originally I thought to produce a more comprehensive review somewhat similar to that of Preyer, but my first excursions into Helds with which I had been only slightly familiar before demonstrated the futility of doing so within a single small volume. some of the purposes of the taslc would have been defeated by undertaking lengthy detailed discussions Furthermore, a great deal has been written on subjects with· which I feel incompetent to deal critically. This is particularly true of nutrition and metabolism. To do justice to these subjects would have meant- duplication of much that is contained in Joseph Needham’s splendid «Chemical Embryology." Therefore I determined to place emphasis upon the more strictly physiologic aspects of prenatal life and to enter into the chemistry of the fetus only to the point of supplying the reader with brief up-to-date synopses for the salce of completeness.


It is clearly realized that the present boolc is incomplete in respect to many subjects which might have been included had arbitrary limits not been set down. It was in many instances diilicult to draw the line between physiology and anatomy. Determinate growth in the early stages of development was of necessity ignored entirely, and many very interesting observations in experimental embryology of lower vertebrates (indeed, most of the studies in inframammalian species) ,have been purposely omitted or mentioned only brieHy. As much as possible, therefore, I have tried to limit consideration to mammals, and especially to the higher mammals, but I have brought in observations on other animals when these seem to add siguilicantly to our knowledge of human physiology.


Bibliographic references are placed at the end of each chaptetn Even though this -involves some repetition, it was thought to be a more useful plan than to collect them at the end of the book. Citations have been used freely, but no attempt has been made to include all references on any subject: In most instances, preliminary articles and many of the older papers discussed by Preyer have been left out and only the more recent key references included.


Aclcnowledgments are due a number of individuals and groups who have contributed directly and indirectly to my program of investigation in fetal physiology and to the present book. In the Hrst place, I am grateful to my teachers and colleagues, especially Professors L. B. Arey, s. W. Ranson and A. C. Ivy, for helpful criticisms and suggestions My graduate students and associates in research during the past ten years have contributed notably to the project and have provided the incentive to proceed with it. To sir Joseph Bakeroft, in whose laboratory I was a guest during the winter in 1935-36, belongs credit kor kindling my interest in respiratory physiologzn Finally, to the National Research council, the Ella sachs Plotz Foundation, The American Academy of Arts and sciences. The Chijd Neurology Research Council (Friedsham Foundation) , and The J0hn and Mary R. Markle Foundation, all of whom have generously supplied kunds to aid my investigations, I wish to extend thanks.


W. F. Windle.

Contents

Windle1940 title page.jpg
  1. Introduction
    1. Relation of Fetal to Maternal Organism
    2. Experimental Methods
    3. References Cited
  2. The Fetal Heart
    1. Initiation of the Heart Beat
    2. The Fetal Electrocardiogram
    3. The Fetal Pulse Rate
    4. Nervous Control of the Fetal Heart and Circulation
    5. Arteria1 B1ood Pressure
    6. Venous Blood Pressure
    7. References Cited
  3. The Fetal Circulation
    1. Volume of Blood and Rate of Circulation
    2. The Course of the Fetal B1ood
    3. Changes in the Circulation at Birth
    4. References Cited
  4. The Blood of the Fetus
    1. The Red Blood Corpuscles
    2. Oxygen Carrying Power of Fetal Blood
    3. The Leukocytes and Platelets
    4. The Plasma
    5. The Cerebrospinal Fluid
    6. References Cited
  5. Fetal Respiration
    1. The Mechanism of Gaseous Exchange
    2. The Oxygen capacity of the Blood
    3. Dissociation Curves
    4. Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide contents of Fetal Blood
    5. Asphyxia at Birth
    6. References Cited
  6. Fetal Respiratory Movements
    1. Respiratory Movements in the Intact Animal
    2. Respiratory Movernents under Experimental Conditions
    3. Relation of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide to Respiratory Movements
    4. Other Factors in the Development of Respiration
    5. Aspiration of Amniotic Contents
    6. Fetal Hiccup
    7. Summary
    8. References Cited
  7. The Fetal Digestive System
    1. Fetal Swallowing
    2. Fetal Gastric Motility
    3. Fetal Intestinal Movements
    4. Absorption in the Fetal Digestive Tract
    5. Defecation and Meconiophagy in Amnio
    6. The Fetal Digestive Glands Enzymes
    7. References Cited
  8. The Fetal Kidney And Fluids The Fetal Skin
    1. Development of Kidney Function
    2. Physiologic Development of the Nephric Tubules
    3. Conditions Regulating Renal Function
    4. Changes in Elimination at Birth
    5. The Fetal Urine
    6. The Allantoic F1uid
    7. The Amniotic Fluid
    8. The Fetal skin
    9. References Cited
  9. The Fetal Muscles
    1. Tissue Cultures and In-vitro Experiments
    2. Spontaneous Activity of Intact skeletal Muscle
    3. Faradic and Mechanical Stimulation
    4. The Fetal Tetanic Reaction
    5. Excitation of Fetal Musc1e by Nerve Stimulation
    6. Effects of curare
    7. Feta1 Rigor Mortis
    8. References Cited
  10. The Genesis of Function in the Nervous System
    1. Myogenic Responses
    2. Neuromotor Responses
    3. Genesis of Reflex Behavior
    4. The Concept of a Total Pattern
    5. EarIy Reflexes in Mammalian Embryos
    6. Other sirnple Reflexes and Their Integration
    7. References Cited
  11. Conditions Regulating Fetal Nervous Activity
    1. The Plan of Structural Development of the Fetal Brain
      1. Order of Development in Functional Systems
      2. Growth of Other Circuits for Reflexes and Higher Integration
      3. Myelogeny as Related to Function in the Nervous System
    2. Factors Other than Structural Growth
      1. The Quiescence of Intra-Uterine Life
      2. Afferent Stimulation In Utero
      3. Neural Threshold to Stimulation
      4. Muscle Tonus and Mass Movement
      5. Susceptibility Gradients to Asphyxia
      6. Inhibition of Motor Mechanisms by Higher Centers
    3. References Cited
  12. Fetal Motor Reactions and Reflexes
    1. Development of Feeding Reactions
    2. Development of Posture and Progression
    3. Development Of Eye Reflexes
    4. Development Of Palmar And Plantar Reflexes
    5. Other Reflexes
    6. References Cited
  13. The Fetal Senses
    1. The Fetal Skin as a Receptor Organ
      1. Pnsssure Touch and Pain
      2. Temperature Sensitivity
    2. Proprioceptive Function in the Fetus
    3. Olfactory Gustatory and Visceral Senses
    4. Hearing and Vision
    5. References Cited
  14. The Fetal Endocrine Glands
    1. The Suprarenal Cortex
    2. The Suprarenal Medulla
    3. The Sex Hormones
    4. The Thyroid Gland
    5. The Parathyroid Glands
    6. The Thymus
    7. The Hypophysis
    8. Secretin
    9. The Endocrine Pancreas
    10. References Cited
  15. Fetal Nutrition and Metabolism
    1. Paraplacental Nutrition
    2. Inorganic Metabolism
    3. Energy Metabolism
    4. References Cited
  16. Figures



Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, July 22) Embryology Book - Physiology of the Fetus. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Book_-_Physiology_of_the_Fetus

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