Book - Outline of Comparative Embryology

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Richards A Outline of Comparative Embryology. (1931)

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This historic 1931 embryology textbook by Richards was designed as an introduction to the topic. Currently only the text has been made available online, figures will be added at a later date. My thanks to the Internet Archive for making the original scanned book available.
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1931 Richards: Part One General Embryology 1 Historical Development of Embryology | 2 The Germ-Cell Cycle | 3 Egg and Cleavage Types | 4 Holoblastic Types of Cleavage | 5 Meroblastic Types of Cleavage | 6 Types of Blastulae | 7 Endoderm Formation | 8 Mesoderm Formation | 9 Types of Invertebrate Larvae | 10 Formation of the Mammalian Embryo | 11 Egg and Embryonic Membranes | Part Two Embryological Problems 1 The Origin And Development Of Germ Cells | 2 Germ-Layer Theory | 3 The Recapitulation Theory | 4 Asexual Reproduction | 5 Parthenogenesis | 6 Paedogenesis And Neoteny | 7 Polyembryony | 8 The Determination Problem | 9 Ecological Control Of Invertebrate Larval Types

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Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

Outline of Comparative Embryology

By

Aute Richards

Professor of Zoology

University of Oklahoma

New York John Wiley 8: Sons, Inc. London: Chapman & Hall, Limited 1931

1951

Table of Contents

Part One General Embryology Part Two Embryological Problems

Preface

As the result of a number of years of experience in introducing students to the subject of embryology, the writer has found it desirable to ‘depart from the common practice of studying chiefly the special embryology of the chick, pig, and perhaps of amphioxus and the frog, and to devote much attention to the principles of general embryology. This procedure is based upon the assumption that a broad background of general knowledge forms a desirable starting point for the study of special embryology to be taken up later. As comparative anatomy has proven to be the best basis for the later study of anatomy, so comparative embryology forms a proper basis for a study of special embryology. Unfortunately there has been no book in our language which brings together in a small compass the principles of general comparative embryology.

In this book it is the aim to set up the general principles of development so that the student may see how his special case—chick, starfish, or other form—is merely one of several types and what its relation to the other types may be. The writer holds that the most effective presentation of the subject matter of embryology is the laboratory study of desirable types, supported by text-book and “quiz” work on these forms and accompanied by the consideration from a comparative standpoint of the broad principles of the subject, such as types of egg structure, of cleavage, of gastrulation, and the critical consideration of classical embryological doctrines, etc. To present the material in brief form for this general part of a course in Comparative Embryology this volume is designed. '

In Part One are taken up those phases of development which are passed through in the embryology of most higher forms of animals. A comparative study of these phases no doubt forms the basis of ninetenths of the courses in this subject. Of the vast amount of material from which choice must be made, the decision as to whether any certain topic should be discussed has been based always upon a single criterion. It is sought to show only how the single-celled fertilized egg arrives at the multicellular condition characteristic of the fully formed, but undifferentiated, young organism in which the organ systems are established. In an outline of comparative embryology it is not possible to follow through all the details nor to repeat descriptions whose general features apply to more than one kind of animal. Nor is it possible to follow through for these forms the later stages in their development and differentiation. If completeness were the goal, it would be necessary to include the special embryology of the many forms about which investigators would desire information, an obviously impossible task. It is hoped, however, that a basis is here laid for understanding the detailed embryology of any of the types and for working out later stages in whatever group the student’s interest may lie.


Part Two considers numerous miscellaneous problems that have arisen in connection with the history of embryology. Here the choice of topics has been governed largely by questions asked by students both beginning and more advanced. No attempt is made to cover all the classical topics of embryology, nor to arrange the ones chosen in an order to develop any particular thesis. It is simply thought to satisfy in some measure student interest in them and to make them easily available. Discussions of many of them are not available in brief form in any English text, although they concern matters about which students of zoology should be informed, for they are chiefly problems of normal development.


The embryology of the present day is experimental embryology. Its aim is to secure an insight into the real nature of those steps by which a single-celled egg becomes a completed adult. An understanding of development in its true sense is its goal. Many aids to experiment used only by chemists or physicists in years gone by are now every-day tools of the embryologists, for descriptive embryology alone is inadequate to give a complete understanding of development. Yet experimental embryology runs the danger of considering only processes and those out of relation to structures. It is in structures that functions are inherent, for one cannot understand the workings of a machine with which he is unfamiliar. Morphology in its descriptive phases is therefore basic to a proper attempt to work out functional relations. Our admiration for the attempts to secure an intelligent conception of the mystery which underlies the pageant of development must not allow us to disregard the importance of a foundation of knowledge of descriptive embryology. Perhaps the errors which may be avoided by the study of descriptive embryology in its comparative phases may serve to recompense the student for the time lost from experimental embryology.


Undoubtedly numerous errors are to be found in this volume. Much that is discussed has been the subject of life-long study by many investigators and has concerned material collected from all over the world. To understand all adequately so that each may be mentioned correctly and weighted properly in a brief outline, is a task hardly to be accomplished, and many inconsistencies of treatment must be apparent to the reader. It must be borne in mind, however, that not an extended treatise but an outline of principles is the intent of the book, and the intent places many limitations upon what can be undertaken.


Acknowledgments are due for assistance in almost every section. The material treated in a work of this kind is by no means new, and it would be impossible to present any one phase of it without finding parallel treatment in some source of information available to students of embryology of this day. There is no claim to originality in the book, not even in the treatment of many chapters. The book will have served its purpose, however, if it appears to have sufficient pedagogical background and if it presents in sufficiently compact form these principles, many of which I think are not briefly summarized elsewhere in the English language, and which are needed to give students a basis for work in special embryology,-either medicalor experimental.


Korschelt and Heider’s “Lehrbuch der vergleiehenden Entwicklungs— geschichte” is a great treasure house of embryological learning to which constant reference has been made. In many places (particularly in Chapters VII and VIII, Part One) even their arrangement has been so much the best that only minor departures from it are to be found here. In others an entirely different organization of the same material is here adopted. But the debt to Korschelt and Heider is a very great one. I appreciate very mucl_1-the gracious verbal permission to use their material freely which was given me by both Doctors Korschelt and Heider. .”_


Drawings to illustrate ,the text are from many sources and not many are new. The writer is not impressed with the desirability of replacing pictures made by investigators on specialforms with new ones when the former are well known and of proven value. The drawings in every case are accompanied by a legend giving the name of the investigators to whom indebtedness is due.


Permission has been granted by the following publishers to make use of the figures indicated either as modified, or in the case of numbers 1, 2, 3, 135, 136, 142, 153, 1-81 of the figures themselves. By Henry Holt & Co. permission has been given to use from Loey’s “Biology and Its Makers,” our figures 1, 2, and 3; to use from Kellicott’s “General Embryology” our figure 5; from Kellicott’s “Chordate Development” our figures 135, 136, 142, 144, and 181; and from Lillie’s “Embryology of the Chick” our figures 151, 152. By P. Blakiston’s Son & Co., Inc., permission has been given to use from Folsom’s “Entomology with Special Reference to Its Ecological Aspects,” 3rd edition, our figures 117, 161, and 162; and from Patten’s “Embryology of the Pig,” figure 7. The Oxford University Press has permitted the use from Jenkinson’s “Vertebrate Embryology” of our figures 81 and 173. The Princeton University Press has granted permission to use from Conklin’s “ Heredity and Environment” our figures 7 and 8. The U. S. Bureau of fisheries has given permission to use from Herrick’s “American Lobster” figures 113, and 1973.. And William Wood & Co. have permitted the modification of figures from Bailey and Miller’s “Textbook of Embryology” represented in figures 140 and 141. Macmillan & Co., Ltd., has sold us permission to make use of our figures 103, 109, 110 from McBride’s “Textbook of Embryology, Vol. I, Invertebrate Embryology,” and of our figures 167, 168, and 170 from Graham Kerr’s “Textbook of Embryology, Vol. II, Vertebrate Embryology.” The graciousness of the various publishing companies in thus facilitating our work is deeply appreciated.


Especial acknowledgment for help in many ways including aid with the materials used and the reading of parts of the text is due to 1ny wife, Mrs. Mildred Hoge Richards. My colleagues of the Department of Zoology of the University of Oklahoma, Doctor A. O. Weese and Doctor A. I. Ortenburger have assisted with advice and have read portions of the text. Professor J. F. Paxton of the Department of Greek has aided me with questions of terminology. And finally my assistants Mrs. Celeste Whaley Taft and Miss Kara J. Fullerton have given the most painstaking attention to a multitude of details. To all of these I am deeply grateful.

A. R.

Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
Mark Hill.jpg
Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

1931 Richards: Part One General Embryology 1 Historical Development of Embryology | 2 The Germ-Cell Cycle | 3 Egg and Cleavage Types | 4 Holoblastic Types of Cleavage | 5 Meroblastic Types of Cleavage | 6 Types of Blastulae | 7 Endoderm Formation | 8 Mesoderm Formation | 9 Types of Invertebrate Larvae | 10 Formation of the Mammalian Embryo | 11 Egg and Embryonic Membranes | Part Two Embryological Problems 1 The Origin And Development Of Germ Cells | 2 Germ-Layer Theory | 3 The Recapitulation Theory | 4 Asexual Reproduction | 5 Parthenogenesis | 6 Paedogenesis And Neoteny | 7 Polyembryony | 8 The Determination Problem | 9 Ecological Control Of Invertebrate Larval Types


Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, September 17) Embryology Book - Outline of Comparative Embryology. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Book_-_Outline_of_Comparative_Embryology

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