Birth - Caesarean Delivery
The term "caesarean" comes from the historic description of Julius Ceasar's birth, though probably ficticious as his mother Aurelia survived his birth. The procedure involves surgically cutting skin, abdominal wall and uterus to allow abdominal delivery.
The rate of caesarean delivery compared to normal vaginal birth is variable between countries (12-25%, 20% of all births in Australia) and increasing, particularly in older women. There are a number of different explanations as to why this is occuring, including maternal or fetal complications of either development or delivery.
Importantly this is a maternal surgical procedure which requires time for recovery and there are several studies that have looked also into the effects of caesarean delivery on potential future normal vaginal births.
Please note the UK/Australian "Caesarean" versus USA "Cesarean" spelling differences. Clinically, cesarean section may also be abbreviated to c-section or C/S.
Video Webcast: Hartford Hospital Cesarean Childbirth (September 23rd, 2005)
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Gillian A Ryan, Sarah M Nicholson, John J Morrison Vaginal birth after caesarean section: Current status and where to from here? Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.: 2018, 224;52-57 PubMed 29547806
Baltica Cabieses, Macarena Chepo, Marcela Oyarte, Niina Markkula, Patricia Bustos, Víctor Pedrero, Iris Delgado [Health inequality gap in inmigrant versus local children in Chile]. [Brechas de desigualdad en salud en niños migrantes versus locales en Chile.] Rev Chil Pediatr: 2017, 88(6);707-716 PubMed 29546918
Carolina Ribeiro, Rosa Quinta, Ana Raposo, Ana Valentim, José Albuquerque, Manuela Grazina CYP2D6 Pharmacogenetics Testing and Post-Cesarean Section Pain Scores-a Preliminary Study. Pain Med: 2018; PubMed 29546421
Tonya L Ward, Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello, Tim Heisel, Gabriel Al-Ghalith, Dan Knights, Cheryl A Gale Development of the Human Mycobiome over the First Month of Life and across Body Sites. mSystems: 2017, 3(3); PubMed 29546248
Fatimah Alnafisah, Shaimaa K Dawa, Sherif Alalfy Skin Endometriosis at the Caesarean Section Scar: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. Cureus: 2018, 10(1);e2063 PubMed 29545986
USA Caesarean Rate by Gestational Age
Latest 2013 data
Trial of Labor
Trial of Labor (TOL) or trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) is a term used in relation to the offer for a normal vaginal delivery after a previous cesarean delivery. The resulting birth is described as vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC), in recent years this option has been decreasing while the general caesarian rate increases.
(increased likelihood of successful VBAC)
- Maternal age <40 years
- Prior vaginal delivery (particularly prior successful VBAC)
- Favorable cervical factors
- Presence of spontaneous labor
- Nonrecurrent indication that was present for prior cesarean delivery
(decreased likelihood of successful VBAC)
- Increased number of prior cesarean deliveries
- Gestational age >40 weeks
- Birth weight >4,000 g
- Induction or augmentation of labor
There is no standard clinical classification system for caesarean delivery, with at least 27 classifications identified. Recent studies of data from several countries suggests that the 10 group classification system (Robson Classification), or a modification of this system, may be the current best applied system.
The Robson's classification (10 group classification) is based on several simple obstetrical parameters; parity, previous CS, gestational age, onset of labour, fetal presentation and the number of foetuses. The classification categories are totally inclusive and also mutually exclusive.
- Links: WHO Robson Classification
- Stark M, Mynbaev O, Vassilevski Y & Rozenberg P. (2016). Could Revision of the Embryology Influence Our Cesarean Delivery Technique: Towards an Optimized Cesarean Delivery for Universal Use. AJP Rep , 6, e352-e354. PMID: 28078171 DOI.
- Naji O, Wynants L, Smith A, Abdallah Y, Saso S, Stalder C, Van Huffel S, Ghaem-Maghami S, Van Calster B, Timmerman D & Bourne T. (2013). Does the presence of a Caesarean section scar affect implantation site and early pregnancy outcome in women attending an early pregnancy assessment unit?. Hum. Reprod. , 28, 1489-96. PMID: 23585560 DOI.
- Cunningham FG, Bangdiwala SI, Brown SS, Dean TM, Frederiksen M, Rowland Hogue CJ, King T, Spencer Lukacz E, McCullough LB, Nicholson W, Petit NF, Probstfield JL, Viguera AC, Wong CA & Zimmet SC. (2010). NIH consensus development conference draft statement on vaginal birth after cesarean: new insights. NIH Consens State Sci Statements , 27, 1-42. PMID: 20228855
- Betrán AP, Gulmezoglu AM, Robson M, Merialdi M, Souza JP, Wojdyla D, Widmer M, Carroli G, Torloni MR, Langer A, Narváez A, Velasco A, Faúndes A, Acosta A, Valladares E, Romero M, Zavaleta N, Reynoso S & Bataglia V. (2009). WHO global survey on maternal and perinatal health in Latin America: classifying caesarean sections. Reprod Health , 6, 18. PMID: 19874598 DOI.
- Lumbiganon P, Laopaiboon M, Gülmezoglu AM, Souza JP, Taneepanichskul S, Ruyan P, Attygalle DE, Shrestha N, Mori R, Nguyen DH, Hoang TB, Rathavy T, Chuyun K, Cheang K, Festin M, Udomprasertgul V, Germar MJ, Yanqiu G, Roy M, Carroli G, Ba-Thike K, Filatova E & Villar J. (2010). Method of delivery and pregnancy outcomes in Asia: the WHO global survey on maternal and perinatal health 2007-08. Lancet , 375, 490-9. PMID: 20071021 DOI.
- Howell S, Johnston T & Macleod SL. (2009). Trends and determinants of caesarean sections births in Queensland, 1997-2006. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol , 49, 606-11. PMID: 20070708 DOI.
- Clark EA & Silver RM. (2011). Long-term maternal morbidity associated with repeat cesarean delivery. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. , 205, S2-10. PMID: 22114995 DOI.
- Martin JA, Hamilton BE, Osterman MJK, et al. Births: Final data for 2013. National vital statistics reports; vol 64 no 1. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2015. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr64/nvsr64_01.pdf
- Betrán AP, Vindevoghel N, Souza JP, Gülmezoglu AM & Torloni MR. (2014). A systematic review of the Robson classification for caesarean section: what works, doesn't work and how to improve it. PLoS ONE , 9, e97769. PMID: 24892928 DOI.
- Torloni MR, Betran AP, Souza JP, Widmer M, Allen T, Gulmezoglu M & Merialdi M. (2011). Classifications for cesarean section: a systematic review. PLoS ONE , 6, e14566. PMID: 21283801 DOI.
- Robson MS. (2001). Can we reduce the caesarean section rate?. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol , 15, 179-94. PMID: 11359322 DOI.
Caesarean Section NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 13 National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK). London: RCOG Press; 2004 Apr. ISBN-10: 1-904752-02-0 Bookshelf
- Journal of American Medical Association JAMA Patient Page: Cesarean Delivery (USA) - one page Caesarean delivery information sheet (PDF)
- electronic Med J Aust Caesarean section: a matter of choice? by de Costa, C.M. MJA 1999; 170: 572-573
Milne J, Gafni A, Lu D, Wood S, Sauve R & Ross S. (2009). Developing and pre-testing a decision board to facilitate informed choice about delivery approach in uncomplicated pregnancy. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth , 9, 50. PMID: 19874628 DOI.
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, March 19) Embryology Birth - Caesarean Delivery. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Birth_-_Caesarean_Delivery
- © Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G