Adipose Tissue Development

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Introduction

Brown adipose tissue

Draft Page- notice removed when completed.

Connective tissues in the body have a mesoderm origin, while in the head neural crest also contributes to these tissues.

This topic is also covered in musculoskeletal (tendon), integumentary (Integumentary Development) and endocrine development (Adipose Tissue).

Blood is a liquid connective tissue (More? blood).


  • Loose and dense connective tissue
  • Reticular connective tissue
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Mesenchymal connective tissue


Connective Tissue: adipose | tendon | integumentary

Some Recent Findings

  • A mesodermal fate map for adipose tissue[1] "The embryonic origin of distinct fat depots and the role for ontogeny in specifying the functional differences among adipocyte lineages between and within depots is unclear. Using a Cre/Lox-based strategy to track the fate of major mesodermal subcompartments in mice we present evidence that fewer than 50% of interscapular brown adipocytes are derived from progenitors of the central dermomyotome. Furthermore, we demonstrate that depot-specific adipocyte lineages spatially diverge as early as gastrulation and that perigonadal adipocytes arise from separate mesodermal subcompartments in males and females. Last, we show adipocyte precursors (APs) of distinct lineages within the same depot exhibit indistinguishable responses to a high fat diet, indicating ontogenetic differences between APs do not necessarily correspond to functional differences in this context. Altogether, these findings shed light on adipose tissue patterning and suggest the behavior of adipocyte lineage cells is not strictly determined by developmental history."
  • The fat controller: adipocyte development[2] "Obesity is a condition characterized by excess adipose tissue that results from positive energy balance and is the most common metabolic disorder in the industrialized world. ... Adipocytes are not created from other adipocytes, but they arise from precursor cells. In the last two decades, scientists have discovered the function of many proteins that influence the ability of precursor cells to become adipocytes. If the expansion of the adipose tissue is the problem, it seems logical that adipocyte development inhibitors could be a viable anti-obesity therapeutic. However, factors that block adipocyte development and limit adipocyte expansion also impair metabolic health. This notion may be counterintuitive, but several lines of evidence support the idea that blocking adipocyte development is unhealthy. For this reason it is clear that we need a better understanding of adipocyte development."
  • Brown adipose tissue: function and physiological significance[3] "The function of brown adipose tissue is to transfer energy from food into heat; physiologically, both the heat produced and the resulting decrease in metabolic efficiency can be of significance. ... The development of brown adipose tissue with its characteristic protein, uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1), was probably determinative for the evolutionary success of mammals, as its thermogenesis enhances neonatal survival and allows for active life even in cold surroundings."
More recent papers  
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Search term: Adipose Embryology

Marta Pokrywczynska, Arkadiusz Jundzill, Marta Rasmus, Jan Adamowicz, Daria Balcerczyk, Monika Buhl, Karolina Warda, Lukasz Buchholz, Maciej Gagat, Dariusz Grzanka, Tomasz Drewa Understanding the role of mesenchymal stem cells in urinary bladder regeneration-a preclinical study on a porcine model. Stem Cell Res Ther: 2018, 9(1);328 PubMed 30486856

Helena Debiazi Zomer, Kelly Cs Roballo, Thais Borges Lessa, Fabiana Fernandes Bressan, Natália Nardeli Gonçalves, Flávio Vieira Meirelles, Andrea Gonçalves Trentin, Carlos Eduardo Ambrósio Distinct features of rabbit and human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells: implications for biotechnology and translational research. Stem Cells Cloning: 2018, 11;43-54 PubMed 30425533

Atanas G Baltadjiev, Stefka V Vladeva, Dimitar B Bahariev Anthropological Characteristic of the Distribution of Adipose Tissue in Bulgarian Females with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Folia Med (Plovdiv): 2018, 60(3);411-416 PubMed 30355839

Kevin Gerard Byrnes, Kieran McDermott, John Calvin Coffey Development of mesenteric tissues. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol.: 2018; PubMed 30347243

Ya-Ping Song, Yuan-Hua Chen, Lan Gao, Peng Wang, Xi-Lu Wang, Biao Luo, Jian Li, De-Xiang Xu Differential effects of high-fat diets before pregnancy and/or during pregnancy on fetal growth development. Life Sci.: 2018; PubMed 30300654


Search term: Brown Adipose

Tânia Vieira Madureira, Ivone Pinheiro, Fernanda Malhão, L Filipe C Castro, Eduardo Rocha, Ralph Urbatzka Silencing of PPARαBb mRNA in brown trout primary hepatocytes: effects on molecular and morphological targets under the influence of an estrogen and a PPARα agonist. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, Biochem. Mol. Biol.: 2018; PubMed 30528668

Xiang Ren, Ni-Na Wang, Hui Qi, Yuan-Yuan Qiu, Cheng-Hong Zhang, Emily Brown, Hui Kong, Li Kong Up-Regulation Thioredoxin Inhibits Advanced Glycation End Products-Induced Neurodegeneration. Cell. Physiol. Biochem.: 2018, 50(5);1673-1686 PubMed 30384364

F M Alsaadi, B N Madison, R S Brown, P V Hodson, V S Langlois Morphological and molecular effects of two diluted bitumens on developing fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Aquat. Toxicol.: 2018, 204;107-116 PubMed 30243048

Oscar A Brown, Martina Canatelli-Mallat, Gloria M Console, Gisela Camihort, Georgina Luna, Eduardo Spinedi, Rodolfo G Goya IGF-1 Gene Therapy as a Potentially Useful Therapy for Spontaneous Prolactinomas in Senile Rats. Curr Gene Ther: 2018; PubMed 30198429

Jelena Krstic, Isabel Reinisch, Michael Schupp, Tim J Schulz, Andreas Prokesch p53 Functions in Adipose Tissue Metabolism and Homeostasis. Int J Mol Sci: 2018, 19(9); PubMed 30181511

Development Overview

Adipose Tissue Timeline
Anatomical Region Specific Location Start
(weeks)
CRL (mm) Complete
(weeks)
CRL (mm)
Head Buccal pad 14 100 17 153
Cheek 14.5 103 17 150
Chin 14.5 103 17 150
Ocular pad 15 113 19.5 170
Neck Neck 15 113 19.5 170
Thorax Anterior wall 16 135 19.5 170
Posterior wall 15 113 20.5 190
Mammary 14.5 106 17.5 156
Abdomen Abdominal wall 14.5 106 20.5 190
Perirenal 15 113 20.5 190
Upper limb Shoulder 15 113 23.5 216
Forearm 16 131 20.5 190
Arm 16 131 20.5 190
Hand 16 131 l9.5 172
Lower limb Gluteal 16 131 20.5 190
Thigh 16.5 141 22.5 212
Leg 16 131 22.5 212
Foot 16 131 19.5 170
Table Notes - weeks are fertilization age (FA), not GA, both male and female data are combined.

Table Data source[4]   Links: adipose | Second Trimester


  • hand - begins in the subcutis of the palm and then progresses proximally to the wrist and distally into the fingers.
  • week 23 - thickened layer of subcutaneous fat covers the extremities of the limbs, as for newborn.

Mesoderm Development

Mesoderm cartoon 01.jpg Cells migrate through the primitive streak to form mesodermal layer. Extraembryonic mesoderm lies adjacent to the trilaminar embryo totally enclosing the amnion, yolk sac and forming the connecting stalk.
Mesoderm cartoon 02.jpg Paraxial mesoderm accumulates under the neural plate with thinner mesoderm laterally. This forms 2 thickened streaks running the length of the embryonic disc along the rostrocaudal axis. In humans, during the 3rd week, this mesoderm begins to segment. The neural plate folds to form a neural groove and folds.
Mesoderm cartoon 03.jpg Segmentation of the paraxial mesoderm into somites continues caudally at 1 somite/90minutes and a cavity (intraembryonic coelom) forms in the lateral plate mesoderm separating somatic and splanchnic mesoderm.

Note intraembryonic coelomic cavity communicates with extraembryonic coelom through portals (holes) initially on lateral margin of embryonic disc.

Mesoderm cartoon 04.jpg Somites continue to form. The neural groove fuses dorsally to form a tube at the level of the 4th somite and "zips up cranially and caudally and the neural crest migrates into the mesoderm.


Molecular Development

Adipocyte differentiation regulation 01.jpg

Adipocyte differentiation regulation.[2]


Notch1 signaling in adipocyte progenitor cells regulates the adipogenesis process including proliferation and differentiation of the adipocyte progenitor cells.[5]


Links: NOTCH

White Adipose

White adipose 01.jpg White adipose 02.jpg

Brown Adipose

Brown adipose tissue
  • Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT) arises from progenitor cells that also give rise to skeletal muscle,
  • Brown adipocytes have numerous small lipid droplets rather than a single large one as in white adipocytes
  • Elevated numbers of mitochondria
    • mitochondrial expression of the nuclear gene UCP1, the uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation responsible for non-shivering thermogenesis.

BAT distribution in the newborn infant:[6]

  1. Interscapular - mass lies in a thin diamond-shaped sheet between the shoulder blades, separated from the subcutaneous WAT by a discontinuous fibrous layer. When replete with fat it has a yellowish-brown colour; depleted it is much darker. It has a fine lobular structure.
  2. Neck muscles and blood vessels - many smaller masses with the main mass following the course of the internal jugular vein and common carotid artery.
  3. Axilla - large deposits as extensions from the neck tissue that pass under the clavicles.
  4. Great vessels - entering the thoracic inlet extending as fine fingers that spread out from the midline with each intercostal artery. Similar deposits lie among the internal mammary vessels. Many discrete, moderately large masses lie in the mediastinum between the oesophagus and the trachea.
  5. Abdomen - discrete masses accompany the aorta and lie in relation to many structures on the posterior abdominal wall such as the pancreas, autonomic ganglia and chromaffin tissue. The largest abdominal mass envelops the [[renal}} and adrenals.

Somite - Dermatome

The dermis and hypodermis layers of the skin.

Somatic Mesoderm

The body wall connective tissue.

Splanchnic Mesoderm

The lamina propria and submucosa layers of the gastrointestinal tract wall.

References

  1. Sebo ZL, Jeffery E, Holtrup B & Rodeheffer MS. (2018). A mesodermal fate map for adipose tissue. Development , , . PMID: 30045918 DOI.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Stephens JM. (2012). The fat controller: adipocyte development. PLoS Biol. , 10, e1001436. PMID: 23209380 DOI.
  3. Cannon B & Nedergaard J. (2004). Brown adipose tissue: function and physiological significance. Physiol. Rev. , 84, 277-359. PMID: 14715917 DOI.
  4. Poissonnet CM, LaVelle M & Burdi AR. (1988). Growth and development of adipose tissue. J. Pediatr. , 113, 1-9. PMID: 3290412
  5. Shan T, Liu J, Wu W, Xu Z & Wang Y. (2017). Roles of Notch Signaling in Adipocyte Progenitor Cells and Mature Adipocytes. J. Cell. Physiol. , 232, 1258-1261. PMID: 27869309 DOI.
  6. Aherne W & Hull D. (1966). Brown adipose tissue and heat production in the newborn infant. J Pathol Bacteriol , 91, 223-34. PMID: 5941392 DOI.


Reviews

Tews D & Wabitsch M. (2011). Renaissance of brown adipose tissue. Horm Res Paediatr , 75, 231-9. PMID: 21372557 DOI.

Schulz TJ & Tseng YH. (2009). Emerging role of bone morphogenetic proteins in adipogenesis and energy metabolism. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. , 20, 523-31. PMID: 19896888 DOI.

Forhead AJ & Fowden AL. (2009). The hungry fetus? Role of leptin as a nutritional signal before birth. J. Physiol. (Lond.) , 587, 1145-52. PMID: 19188249 DOI.

Billon N, Monteiro MC & Dani C. (2008). Developmental origin of adipocytes: new insights into a pending question. Biol. Cell , 100, 563-75. PMID: 18793119 DOI.

Cannon B & Nedergaard J. (2004). Brown adipose tissue: function and physiological significance. Physiol. Rev. , 84, 277-359. PMID: 14715917 DOI.

Articles

Billon N, Kolde R, Reimand J, Monteiro MC, Kull M, Peterson H, Tretyakov K, Adler P, Wdziekonski B, Vilo J & Dani C. (2010). Comprehensive transcriptome analysis of mouse embryonic stem cell adipogenesis unravels new processes of adipocyte development. Genome Biol. , 11, R80. PMID: 20678241 DOI.

Billon N, Iannarelli P, Monteiro MC, Glavieux-Pardanaud C, Richardson WD, Kessaris N, Dani C & Dupin E. (2007). The generation of adipocytes by the neural crest. Development , 134, 2283-92. PMID: 17507398 DOI.

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, December 15) Embryology Adipose Tissue Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Adipose_Tissue_Development

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© Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G