Abnormal Development - Tuberculosis
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The gram-positive bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes the disease Tuberculosis (TB) usually initially infecting the lungs. The infection can cross the placenta to infect the fetus infecting many different systems (liver, bones, kidneys, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, skin, lymph nodes).
More than two billion people, one third of the world's total population, are infected with TB bacilli, an airborne infectious disease that is preventable and curable. The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine was first used in 1921 as a vaccine for tuberculosis disease and also used in some countries to prevent childhood tuberculous meningitis and miliary disease.
Congenital tuberculosis cases are rare with a relatively high mortality rate.
Postnatal infant infection can occur as a result of inhalation of bacilli at or soon after birth, ingestion of infected breast milk, or contamination of traumatized skin or mucous membranes.
|Bacterial Links: Syphilis | Gonorrhea | Tuberculosis | Listeria | TORCH Infections | Environmental | Category:Bacteria|
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Norman Nausch, Daniel Antwi-Berko, Yusif Mubarik, Kabiru Mohammed Abass, Wellington Owusu, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Linda Batsa Debrah, Alexander Yaw Debrah, Marc Jacobsen, Richard O Phillips Analysis of Mycobacterium ulcerans-specific T-cell cytokines for diagnosis of Buruli ulcer disease and as potential indicator for disease progression. PLoS Negl Trop Dis: 2017, 11(2);e0005415 PubMed 28241036
M R O'Donnell, N Padayatchi, J Z Metcalfe Elucidating the role of clofazimine for the treatment of tuberculosis. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis.: 2016, 20(12);52-57 PubMed 28240574
E Nuermberger Evolving strategies for dose optimization of linezolid for treatment of tuberculosis. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis.: 2016, 20(12);48-51 PubMed 28240573
T R Sterling Fluoroquinolones for the treatment and prevention of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis.: 2016, 20(12);42-47 PubMed 28240572
S Murray, C Mendel, M Spigelman TB Alliance regimen development for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis.: 2016, 20(12);38-41 PubMed 28240571
Global Tuberculosis (new cases 2007)
Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB2) is a highly drug-resistant strain subset of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) that have significantly worse outcomes, has now been reported in more than 50 countries. (WHO data)
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is defined as resistance to the two most powerful first-line anti-TB drugs (isoniazid and rifampicin).
Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB2) is defined as MDR-TB plus resistance to the most powerful second-line anti-TB drugs (any fluoroquinolone and any of the three injectable drugs: amikacin, capreomycin and kanamycin).
BCG vaccination is not recommended for general use in the Australian population.
BCG is recommended for:
- Aboriginal neonates in areas of high incidence of TB (e.g. Northern Territory, Far North Queensland, northern areas of Western Australia and South Australia).
- neonates and children 5 years and under who will be travelling or living in countries or areas with a high prevalence of TB for extended periods.
- neonates born to parents with leprosy or a family history of leprosy.
In addition to these recommendations BCG may be considered in the following:
- Children over 5 years who will be travelling or living in countries or areas with a high prevalence of TB for extended periods.
- Health care workers (HCWs) who may be at high risk of exposure to drug resistant cases.
(Text Source: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Volume 30 Number 1, March 2006 - The BCG vaccine: information and recommendations for use in Australia)
- Wansheng Peng, Juan Yang, Enmei Liu Analysis of 170 cases of congenital TB reported in the literature between 1946 and 2009. Pediatr. Pulmonol.: 2011, 46(12);1215-24 PubMed 21626715
- Stefan H E Kaufmann Fact and fiction in tuberculosis vaccine research: 10 years later. Lancet Infect Dis: 2011, 11(8);633-40 PubMed 21798463
- H-C Lin, H-C Lin, S-F Chen Increased risk of low birthweight and small for gestational age infants among women with tuberculosis. BJOG: 2010, 117(5);585-90 PubMed 20156210
S Borrell, S Gagneux Strain diversity, epistasis and the evolution of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Clin. Microbiol. Infect.: 2011, 17(6);815-20 PubMed 21682802
Erdal Peker, Erol Bozdoğan, Murat Doğan A rare tuberculosis form: congenital tuberculosis. Tuberk Toraks: 2010, 58(1);93-6 PubMed 20517736
Z Neyaz, A Gadodia, S Gamanagatti, M Sarthi Imaging findings of congenital tuberculosis in three infants. Singapore Med J: 2008, 49(2);e42-6 PubMed 18301825
Liana Consuelo Santana Vilarinho Congenital tuberculosis: a case report. Braz J Infect Dis: 2006, 10(5);368-70 PubMed 17293929
Albert Chen, Shin-Lin Shih Congenital tuberculosis in two infants. AJR Am J Roentgenol: 2004, 182(1);253-6 PubMed 14684547
Jody Stähelin-Massik, Thierry Carrel, Andrea Duppenthaler, Georg Zeilinger, Hanspeter E Gnehm Congenital tuberculosis in a premature infant. Swiss Med Wkly: 2002, 132(41-42);598-602 PubMed 12571760
Search NCBI Bookshelf: Medical Microbiology - Tuberculosis Search
Search PubMed: Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
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- CDC (USA) CDC (USA) - Tuberculosis | CDC (USA) - Tuberculosis Vaccine
- NHMRC (Australia) NHMRC (Australia) - BCG vaccine
- WHO WHO - tuberculosis | WHO Report 2007 - Global tuberculosis control - epidemiology, strategy, financing)
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Abnormal Development - Tuberculosis. Retrieved February 28, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Tuberculosis
- © Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G