From Embryology

Lab 4 Online Assessment

  1. The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?
  2. Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.
  3. Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching. (Add to project page and your individual assessment page)

Lab 1 Attendance

--Z3291317 12:55, 28 July 2011 (EST)

--Mark Hill 09:58, 3 August 2011 (EST) Where are your Lab 1 assessment answers? Need to added before Lab 2.

Lab 1 Assessment

1. Identify the origin of In Vitro Fertilization and the 2010 nobel prize winner associated with this technique.

In 1973, the first pregnancy conducted by IVF on a human oocyte was done at Monash University, but it had only lasted a few days and thus a baby wasn't delivered. However, it was in 1977 in which Steptoe and Edwards were able to carry out a IVF process which would bring about the world first IVF baby to be born, Louise Brown from the UK.

It was due to this success that RG Edwards had been awarded a 2010 Nobel Prize in the field of Physiology or Medicine. It was awarded for his role “for the development of in vitro fertilisation”

2. Identify a recent paper on fertilisation and describe its key findings.

Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2011 Apr;28(2):156-9.

Effects of abnormal structure of sperm chromatin on the outcome of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer

[Article in Chinese] GU LJ, CHEN ZW, LU WH, XU JF, LI M, CHEN ZJ.

Center for Reproductive Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430030 P. R. China.

This study was designed to see the effects of an abnormality in sperm chromatin structure in the degree of success when In-Vitro fertilization and Embryo Transfer is conducted. The study showed that DNA fragmentation and Chromatin packaging defect in the sperm does not have a correlation with fertilization rate. However, it did show that these two problems in sperm are more prevalent in pregnancies that have failed compared to those which have achieved clinical pregnancy.

3. Identify 2 congenital anomalies.

  • Dandy-Walker Syndrome
  • Anencephaly

--Z3291317 18:55, 3 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 2 Attendance

--Z3291317 11:50, 4 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 2 Assessment

1. Identify the ZP protein that spermatozoa binds and how is this changed (altered) after fertilisation.

Enzyme ZP3 which found in the Zona Pellucida acts as a the primary receptor to which spermatozoa bind to during fertilisation [1]. When the spermatozoa fuses into the oocyte (causing fertilisation), there is a cortical reaction which alters the ZP3 in the Zona Pellucida. During this cortical reaction, the released cortical granules from the spermatozoa remove ZP3’s carbohydrate which results in ZP3’s structure to change, thus preventing polyspermy from occurring[2].

2.Identify a review and a research article related to your group topic.

Disease proposed for the group project:Tetralogy of Fallot

Review Article:

Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2009 Jan 13;4:2.

Tetralogy of Fallot.

Bailliard F, Anderson RH.

North Carolina Children's Heart Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Link: [3]

Description: This paper gives an overview about the disease, how it happens, and clinical manifestations.

Research Article:

J Med Genet. 2010 May;47(5):321-31. Epub 2009 Nov 30.

Comprehensive genotype-phenotype analysis in 230 patients with tetralogy of Fallot.

Rauch R, Hofbeck M, Zweier C, Koch A, Zink S, Trautmann U, Hoyer J, Kaulitz R, Singer H, Rauch A.

Institute of Medical Genetics, Schorenstrasse 16, CH-8603 Zurich-Schwerzenbach, Switzerland.

Link: [4]

Description: A study was done to see the prevalent phenotype for Tetralogy of fallot, and it was found that the 22q11.2 deletion was the most common type in Tetralogy of Fallot

  1. <pubmed>21042299</pubmed>
  3. <pubmed>19144126</pubmed>
  4. <pubmed>19948535</pubmed>

--Z3291317 16:45, 7 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 3 Attendance

--Z3291317 12:36, 11 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 3 Assessment

1. What is the maternal dietary requirement for late neural development?

The maternal dietary requirement for late neural development is Iodine. The recommended amount of idodine that should be taken by a pregnant women in 220 mcg/d. Not having enough Iodine in a woman's diet during pregnancy would leak to an impairment in late neural development, thus precipitate conditions such as Cretinism in the new born child. Cretinism occurs in a child when there is Moderate to Severe cases of Iodine Defficiency in the mother.


2. Upload a picture relating to you group project.

Normal fetal blood flow and Tetralogy of Fallot.jpg

Normal fetal blood flow and Tetralogy of Fallot

--Z3291317 11:34, 17 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 4 Attendance

--Z3291317 12:56, 18 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 4 Assessment

1. The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?

The allantois is an embryonic structure in which it is found in the connecting stalk of the embryo and its origin is from the endoderm of the trilaminar embryo. Furthermore, the allantois is continuous with the hindgut structure of the early forming Gastrointestinal tract.


2. Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.

  • Ductus venosus – this shunt connects the portal and umbilical veins to the inferior vena cava
  • Ductus arteriosus - this vascular shunt is situated between the left pulmonary artery and the descending aorta
  • Foramen ovale – the ovale shunt is found between the right and left artium


3. Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching

In the group project, I will be researching the following sub-sections on the wiki page for Tetralogy of Fallot: History, Epidemiology and Signs and Symptoms

--Z3291317 15:06, 24 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 5 Attendance

--Z3291317 12:49, 25 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 5 Assessment

1. Which side (L/R) is most common for diaphragmatic hernia and why?

Diaphragmatic herniation most commonly occurs on the left side of the diaphragm. It is thus considered as a posterolateral defect of the diaphragm and it is clinically referred to as the Foramen of Bochdalek. This defect occurs on the left side of the diaphragm at around 85-90% of the time. The prevalence on the left side may be due to the earlier closing up of the right pleuroperitoneal opening. The herniation may cause the lungs to compress as some of the visceral organs may pass into the thorax.


From the textbook: Moore & Persaud: The Developing Human , 8th ed.

--Z3291317 23:44, 30 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 6 Attendance

--Z3291317 12:53, 1 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 6 Assessment

1. What week of development do the palatal shelves fuse?

During the early embryonic period, the palatal shelves grow in size, elevate in position at their site and then they will fuse. This fusion will occur in Week 9 of the human embryo. During this fusion, the secondary palates fuse with each other as well as fusing with the primary palate.


2. What early animal model helped elucidate the neural crest origin and migration of neural crest cells?

In the !980s there was neural crest migration studies conducted by LeDouarin by conducting transplational research on quail/chick chimeras. This type of research allowed her to determine the transplanted neural crest cells’ migration path and its eventual final destination in the chick host.

Furthermore, there were Chicken studies used to label the neural crest cells to produce Dil-labelled Neural crest cells. This allowed movement of Neural Crest cells which have been tagged to be seen under the microscope.


3. What abnormality results from neural crest not migrating into the cardiac outflow tract?

Tetralogy of Fallot may result due to abnormal neural crest migration to the cardiac outflow tract.

It is known that neural crest cells do contribute to the development of cardiac neural ganglia, supporting sinuses, arterial valves and the coronary arteries. Thus failure for neural crest cells to contribute to the development of the outflow tract of the heart results in conditions such as

  • Persistent truncus arteriosis
  • Outflow Tract elongation
  • Outflow Tract mispositioning
  • Cushion hypoplasia


Lab 7 Attendance

--Z3291317 12:41, 15 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 7 Assessment

1. Are satellite cells (a) necessary for muscle hypertrophy and (b) generally involved in hypertrophy?

a) They are not necessary for muscle hypertrophy to occur, but b) they are generally involved in hypertrophy as their cell number counts increase significantly during hypertrophy.

2. Why does chronic low frequency stimulation cause a fast to slow fibre type shift?

When CLFS is used, a low level stimulation is used on fast fibres which mock patterns of electrical discharge that is sent to slow-twitch muscles via slow motoneurons. Thus when the fast fibre experiences CLFS, its adaptive response is to do a fast to slow fibre type shift as the stimulation it is receiving is that of what a slow fibre will receive. The way of shift follows the ‘next neighbour’ rule in which the types of shifts that occur happens in the following fibre sequence: IIb, IIx ,IIa, I. However during these shifts, hybrid types of muscle fibres can also result.

Peer Review for Trisomy 21


As there is some history in the introduction but nowhere else in the paper, there should be a bit more history to Trisomy 21 portrayed in the introduction. Although the introduction does portray some interesting facts, it felt that the flow was disconnected and that effort should be made to make the introduction flow better and that the information presented connects with each other. The image found in the introduction is not referenced in accordance to the referencing requirements for any uploaded image (e.g. copyright clearance statement is not provided). The image could have been reduced in size or put in a thumb so it can be presented better so that the picture doesn’t overly into the next section.’ Links at the bottom of the introduction is a good idea, but it seems too overcrowded with links at the start of the page, and thus it should have been at the bottom of the page in the external links section.

Some Recent Findings:

The information presented in this section is appropriate, however it should be moved to the end of the page before the glossary section as it will fit well when the reader reads this information once they understand the disease. Image is referenced well. Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome) Karyotypes: This section provides relevant information about the karyotypes found in trisomy 21 patients. However an image which portrays normal male and female Karyotype images should be posted so people with amateur understanding of genetics could understand the problem between the two situations.

Associated Congenital Abnormalities:

The abnormalities found in this section have many words that don’t have links to their meanings, nor are they found in the glossary section below. The image on the right in the thumb should have a caption below it to describe what is being shown. Also, when it was being referenced, there is no image url source.

Heart Defects:

Good choice of providing links to pages that provide more information of the cardiac problems. Hwoever, none of the information presented in this section is referenced, possibly making the information being presented not credible. Explanations on how each defect should be described.

Limb Defects:

Only listed the Defects, if how these defects arise could be described it would be better. No evidence of copyright clearance on the hand image used.


This section which contains epidemiology should be included at the start of the page as it introduces the reader into the world of the disease being discussed on the page. Also image of John Langdon Down is not properly referenced and it should be included at the start of the page where the introduction is.


The information presented is very well done as it provides extensive information within an easy to read table. Links to the components of the tests is well done aswell The novel screening strategies section could have been expanded upon slightly as it should have described how those novel strategies actually work in detecting the trisomy. The ‘detection using tandem single nucleotide polymorphisms has a diagram which is well referenced. However the information contained within this subsection is too detailed and alot of technical jargon is used which can throw the reader off from reading. Even though there is terms underneath the paragraph, no attempt is made to try to simplify that section so it can be more reader friendly. The screening by country subsection does not contain enough information to be put under its own subsection.

Meiosis I and II:

This subheading should not have existed, instead the information found here should have been written down in the ‘recent findings’ section as it is more relevant there and it doesn’t require its own subheading all the way at the bottom of the page.


This section shouldn’t even exist, instead the terms described here should be shifted to the glossary section.

Trisomy 21 growth charts:

The Paragraph found in this section is one direct text over 4 sentences. Effort should be made to summarise the paper’s findings instead of quoting 4 lines from the paper. However the diagrams are relevant to the information trying to be presented and they are properly referenced.


I like how everything is referenced and after that it is put into subsections so the readers could decide what type of reference they could use in their inquiry. Also, this section should come after the ‘Terms’ subheading as references should be the last feature of the page

External Links:

This section is well done as it guides readers for further information in regards to trisomy 21.

--Z3291317 20:25, 21 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 8 Attendance

--Z3291317 12:04, 22 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 8 Assessment - Peer Reviews

Peer Review for Group 1

  • Punctuation mistake in the introduction where it says ‘the infant, aged 2’. Remove the comma and the sentence will sound better
  • The section in the introduction talking about Xp and Xq doesn’t make sense to first time readers as there is no clarification on what they are. Also in this section Turner syndrome must be spelt with a capital letter
  • Positioning of the Karyotype image is a bit odd. Please decide which section it will clearly fall under. Also it seems to lack the copyright clearance for its use on the page
  • Punctuate this sentence properly: ‘’ The remaining third have structural abnormalities of the X chromosomes, and two thirds are mosaics. Whereby, the maternal X is retained in two-thirds of women and the paternal X in the remainder.’’
  • Information in the second paragraph under Epidemiology seems to me a bit irrelevant to be placed under Epidemiology. Please reconsider this information’s positioning
  • Bar graph seems to be not referenced properly.
  • Having the words linking to the glossary in the etiology section is great. Try to do this throughout your page.
  • The figure in Aetiology on the right side seems to be too large for a thumb and too large for it to have text around it. It would look better of you could make it stand alone in the centre of the page without it being in a thumb.
  • The diagram with the oocyte 22 and sperm 23 equaling to 45 seems to be falling into the Clinical Manifestations section. Please fix this.
  • In the clinical manifestations section, it would be great if the dot points could be explained of how these features arise in your syndrome.
  • The images of the Prenatal Diagnosis table should be explained somehow(on the page itself that is). Readers will not understand what to look for in these images
  • Treatment section is sound and direct. Enjoyed reading it.
  • I like the section about the current research. It gives the readers a feel on the current standing of the research in turners syndrome.
  • After reading the Reference section I realized the references that are used more than once are not being grouped together. Please fix this up as it will look bad on your behalf.
  • Other than that good page, well done.

--Z3291317 23:38, 28 September 2011 (EST)

Peer Review for Group 2

  • I don’t think it would be necessary to start the intro with clarifying what congenital diseases are. It would be better if it starts with, ‘Di George Syndrome is a …’ sentence.
  • In the intro, fix this sentence as it needs punctuation, ‘As there is currently no treatment education is vital to the wellbeing of those affected, directly or indirectly by this condition’
  • Nice picture of Angelo, and also the history is presented well as it makes easy to read and follow.
  • Information presented in the epidemiology section is interesting but not organised properly so it flows. Please fix this up.
  • Etiology has some technical jargon that is not explained or put in the glossary. Please do so
  • Thumb picture of the area where 22q deletion occurred doesn’t show when viewing the page.
  • The first line of the Pathogenesis section is, I believe, not necessary as the section just before it just mentioned that fact.
  • Punctuation needed for ‘ ‘‘TBX1’’ is expressed in early development in the pharyngeal arches, pouches and otic vesicle; and in late development, in the vertebral column and tooth bud’
  • Pathogenesis/physiology easy to read and has good drawn diagram
  • The diagnostics section has good information of how the tool works, what it detects and an image refering to the tool. However Amniocentesis section has no image and yet has a column for it. Please fix this if there is no image for it. Also the Ultrasound section should include what DiGeorge patients would have on Ultrasound scans.
  • It is good that the clinical Manifestations section is presented in that way in the table as it explains the abnormalities really well.
  • The four images in the Tetralogy of Fallot section may make the reader seem that one of these problems may occur, whilst all four problems are present in the TOF heart.
  • The treatment section has information in regards to symptoms. This be under another subheading altogether and not under the treatment section
  • Current and Future Research section provides the reader with a good image of the current status of this disease in regards to research.
  • References are not properly formatted as repetition in the referencing could be seen. Please fix this.
  • Please balance the text to image ratio as the page is text heavy and can be hard to read unless it is complemented with more images.
  • Other than that good page.

--Z3291317 23:38, 28 September 2011 (EST)

Peer Review for Group 3

  • The first paragraph of the introduction could be inversed so it can actually start with what Klienfelters syndrome.
  • Introduction seems a bit long, making it a bit briefer will capture the audience’s attention better.
  • Within the history section the dates should be in bold so that it is easier to follow the information in this section. However, the history does give a good background to the syndrome.
  • Table with major advancements is well done
  • Epidemiology includes alot of information that doesn’t relate to epidemiological studies, and rather talk about clinical manifestations of people with the syndrome. Maybe put this type of information under another title.
  • Figure 4 in the aetiology section should be explained more so that readers could understand what they are looking at.
  • The genetics section under the aetiology is interesting, but is it necessary for it to be there, or how does that info link to Klienfelters Syndrome?
  • Genetic pathogenesis is explained well. I think the two diagrams should go after the non-disjunction paragraph as it will make the page look better. Also you could talk about how this problem produces the problems for the patients throughout their life.
  • Good use of table and dot points in the signs ans symptoms page. It will look good if you have a picture for all categories as you already have 2.
  • In the diagnosis section, a little effort should be made to explain how karyotyping occurs as it will make that part better. Other than that the section is good
  • I like the ‘other similar defects’ section as it allows the reader to compare and contrast klienfelters with other diseases
  • Current research presents a picture to the reader about the current research area for klienfelters.
  • Referencing MUST be fixed up as there is repetitive referencing seen in the list.

--Z3291317 23:38, 28 September 2011 (EST)

Peer Review for Group 4

  • Introduction is informative but not catchy. You need the reader to feel eager to read on the rest of the page.
  • I like the way the history has a portrait and how there is a blue box around the quote. Maybe In the timeline you should bold the dates so it looks better on the page.
  • Information found in the epidemiology is great, and the use of tables is very good. Just wanted to let yous know that whenever I read HD I always remember High Definition, a little distraction to my reading. Just wanted to make that point.
  • Information in the HTT & normal functions section seems a bit disjointed and doesn’t seem to flow well.
  • The HTT and Huntington’s disease section showed be reformatted so it is one nice flowing informative paragraph.
  • Image found in the molecular mechanisms and pathogenesis section doesn’t show. Please fix it or remove the thumb altogether. However included information in this section is informative
  • In clinical manifestations, it would be really good if you could describe how the clinical manifestations are brought about at a neurological level.
  • It’s not necessary to have a large subheading for’ Video of Huntington's disease patient’
  • Diagnostics has lots of info so formatting it so it’s spread out will be good.
  • The image of Amniocentesis seems not to have the copyright clearance for it to be modified. Please fix it.
  • Table in the treatments section is cool and massive, try to make it a bit smaller?
  • I believe if the tetrabenzine information should come first then the massive medications table it would make the treatments part look and flow better.
  • Current and future research section has information that very informative and portrays a good view on the current research arena for HD. However I don’t understand the relevance of having the brain scans in this section. Maybe have another section as a glossary which you could use for all other miscellaneous pictures.
  • Some parts of the referencing include multiple referencing, just fix that up it will make it much better
  • Overall, page is really well constructed, put a lot of work in and I’m impressed. Good word to picture ratio thus makes the page to be wanted to be read. Good work people of group 4.

--Z3291317 23:38, 28 September 2011 (EST)

Peer Review for Group 5

  • Introduction has good information, but it needs to be more catchy for readers to want to read onto the page.
  • the first line of the history section seems not to be so greatly relevant to the history section. Also in the table there’s a 30 year gap at the start of the table. No important things happened during this time?
  • I don’t think the information for ‘Screening/Population testing’ is necessary to be put under the epidemiology section, rather under diagnostics.
  • Explanation about the genetic location of the mutation should be given. Also information found under aetiology should be re-formatted so it is easier to read.
  • The development of disease section has good information. Would it be possibly to accompany these sections with images.
  • Some parts under signs and symptoms are not referenced properly as it is lacking the referencing. Also possibly include some more pics/graphs/audio/movies in this section to accompany the text.
  • Diagnosis section must be expanded upon. It has potential as concepts are there but more info could be included.
  • Nice use of a table in the treatments section
  • the paragraph starting with: ‘’ Autism is a disorder whose etiology is not…’’ should be placed to flow with the first sentence in the recent research section. It will make the paragraph flow better.
  • acronym for ‘’ Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI-R)’’ seems bit odd, what does the R stand for?
  • if possible add an article from 2011 in the recent research section to make it though you are showing the reader the most cutting edge research in this field.
  • Glossary must be expanded upon, many words have not yet been included.
  • In the referencing section the referencing is done well. I did notice a repetition in the referencing in reference number 37 and 38. Please fix up.
  • More images are needed on the page to get the image and text ration right, especially towards the middle of the page.
  • other than that good page people.

--Z3291317 08:46, 29 September 2011 (EST)

Peer Review for Group 7

  • More of an attempt should be made to expand on the intro and make it more catchy for readers
  • The history section was interesting, but try to include more time points for the syndrome as it seems to take some leaps of time. Also it needs to be referenced.
  • Epidemiology seems to be too brief. Please expand on this section to give the true epidemiology of this condition around the world. Use of charts would be good
  • Aetiology seems ok.
  • There seems to be 4 random dot points found in the pathogenesis section. Please fix this up as it disrupts the flow of the section
  • Pathophysiology section has decent information. However, I think the genotype-phenotype correlations section which has some statistics should be included in the epidemiology section
  • I don’t understand why you placed the animal models section under Pathogenesis. I understand it contributes a little ti it but it seems not relevant to the total pathogenesis section.
  • Sigsn and symptoms contains good info. However, the table seems hard to read, maybe leave the table outlines so people can identify the regions of the table. Also the referencing found in the table shouldn’t be there but rather include in the referencing list.
  • The flow diagram in the diagnosis section should be rather in a thumb on the right rather than a full blown picture in the page. Well that’s my opinion, up to you if you want to fix it.
  • Some of the diagnostic tests could be explained how it works to help diagnose Angelmans syndrome
  • I think it would be better to merge the differential diagnosis information and the related diseases section. It would make it look better.
  • Some of the info under treatment and management section seems to be not referenced using the referencing system inbuilt into the wiki page. Please fix it as it would make it look better.
  • Have an introduction to the table found in the genetic counseling section.
  • There is repetitive referencing seen in the reference list. Please fix this according to what is expected when one article is used many times.
  • Page has lots of words, thus a bit more of pictures is needed to balance the text to picture ratio.

--Z3291317 23:38, 28 September 2011 (EST)

Peer Review for Group 8

  • Nice picture of Friedrich which is found in a good introduction to the disease.
  • Timeline seems short, try to expand on it as there is a massive time gap from 1907 to 1988
  • I like the way you separated your info under epidemiology into sections which makes it easier to read. Also isn’t there any graph you may be able to show in this section?
  • Hand drawn image of the chromosome needs to be referenced properly in accordance to student author referencing as outlined in editing basics.
  • Information in the inheritance section under aetiology has no referencing to it, please insert it if its missing.
  • In the pathogenesis a link to the word Neuropathology should be made so it can show the reader where it is.
  • Under Neuropathology the image of the spinal cord cross section should have a description added to it so it can explain to readers the importance of this image.
  • In the middle of the section under Dorsal Root Ganglia, a definition of a Schwann cell was given. You can remove this and instead added it to the glossary as this sentence disrupts the flow of the paragraph.
  • First paragraph under spinocerebellar tract has to references to the information.
  • Under each section for the neuropathology, you give a description, then the abnormality found in the ataxia. If you put little subheadings such as ‘description’ and ‘abnormality in F.ataxia’ it will organize your page much better.
  • in the symptoms section, put a hyperlink to the word ‘diagnosis’ as it will direct the reader to that section on the page.
  • Bullet points should be used for the info in the table under the symptoms section
  • Under complications, I don’t think reactive oxygen species needs capital letters.
  • table used under the Diagnostic tools section is well constructed and informative, well done.
  • current research section could be improved by providing dates and descriptions of each bullet point. It will provide the reader a good image on the type of current research that is occurring for this ataxia.
  • referencing is good, well done.
  • External links section is good, maybe expand It a little bit more as it would look better.
  • Glossary is well done, and I like the way you highlighted words in your page that have their definitions in the glossary.

--Z3291317 23:38, 28 September 2011 (EST)

Peer Review for Group 9

  • Introduction gives a well rounded view of the syndrome
  • Maybe in the history of the syndrome you can find images of the 2 historic people for the syndrome, i.e. one for william and one for beuren.
  • In the timeline, isn’t there any important contributions made between ’93 and ’06. Other than that it was well made.
  • In the table found in the genetics part of the page, Elastin row and GTF2I row has no referencing to the information presented. Please add them.
  • I think the treatment under epidemiology should have its own title as it only refers to epidemiology slightly
  • The phenotype of Williams syndrome has no referencing in this section. Also i don’t think you need a table to sort this information as it is, rather have them under little subheadings
  • The other problems subheading under cardiac conditions has no info, either put some in or remove it later.
  • Under the endocrine section, the thyroid part hasd no referencing please include it.
  • Some information in the table found in the ‘other abnormalities section lacks some referencing aswell.
  • In the structural differences of the brain section, the top 2 paragraphs lack referencing.
  • The Cognitive, Behavioural and Neurological Phenotype section was interesting to read.
  • The information under Specialised Facilities and Supportive Associations seems a bit unnecessary for this style of assignment. Rather have links to these organisations rather than having them explained on the page.
  • More current literature in regards to the syndrome could also be presented to give the reader a sense of direction in which way the research is heading
  • Glossary must be updated and expanded, many words are used that are not explained
  • Referencing is done very well
  • Need to balance picture to words ratio as it is heavy on the word side. I understand its hard to obtain, thus maybe drawing them would be better alternative.

--Z3291317 23:38, 28 September 2011 (EST)

Peer Review for Group 10

  • The introduction was well written, however the picture in it is not referenced as instructed. Please fix that then your intro is perfect.
  • In the history section, the first sentence is oddly placed, even though it’s informative, please put that somewhere where it will flow in the paragraph.
  • The history is verbose, please re write so it’s easier to follow.
  • Epidemiology needs to be reevaluated as some sentences are not constructed properly
  • Etiology has sound information but the paragraphs are not structured so it flows. It also seems repetitive.
  • The picture in the etiology can have its caption better structured
  • Pathogenesis should include some component of genetics to explain how the abnormalities bring about the pathogenesis in the genetics level.
  • Explanation of how the signs and symptoms comes along from the dystrophy should be explained
  • The image of the spine is not completely referenced as url of the image and the page must also be given
  • Information under ‘respiratory problems’ and smooth muscle needs some reviewed as it includes words there that shouldn’t be present
  • The diagnosis section could be expanded upon so it includes more information on the details of how it is detected, and images should complement the tools to diagnose the condition.
  • An introduction to the table should be given. Having the table there by itself doesn’t look good.
  • Further explanation should be made on the type of physical activity that would be made for therapy
  • Glossary should be expanded
  • There is repetitive referencing; it should be reformatted to fit in the way multiple references is made.
  • You need much more pics as without the pics the page looks word heavy.

--Z3291317 23:38, 28 September 2011 (EST)

Peer Review for Group 11

  • The introduction is nowhere near interesting. Very short and needs to be expanded severely.
  • History section provides interesting information in regards to ancient history, however there should be more contemporary history that shoul be explained in this section as it would make it better.
  • Timeline is well constructed, well done.
  • Information found in the diagnosis should be placed further down under aetiology and pathogenesis as it would make the flow of the page much better. However the information it has is well written
  • Aswell the information in ‘Syndromes and Anomalies associated with cleft’ should be placed under etiology and pathogenesis. Information is informative and good use of pics with the text
  • No work under development, either include information or totally remove it.
  • First part of aetiology is not referenced at all. Please include references to support the information being presented.
  • Image in the developmental staging section should have a caption to tell the reader what they are observing. Also it should be placed in a better position as it seems to overlap into the next section
  • Under the types of cleft lips section, the list of the types of lips should be placed under the bottom paragraph as explaining the different types before listing the types is better to do.
  • Fix the referencing for the image with the types of cleft palates.
  • Under pathophysiology there is text which seems to be comments to the editors. Remove them when your completing your assignment
  • The two paragraphs under the tables in pathophysiology seem to have no referencing. Please include it.
  • This sentence doesnt make sense; ‘’ However, the y are known as contributors to process of prominences fusion’’
  • Possibly include some images under genetic configuration.
  • First half of the information under Neuroembryology and functional anatomy of craniofacial clefts should be placed under background information at the start of the page. It would make the page look better.
  • Current research must be expanded upon as its too short
  • Glossary must be expanded upon, needs to be updated
  • Referencing is not referenced properly as their is repetition in your referencing. Please fix.

--Z3291317 23:38, 28 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 9 Attendance

--Z3291317 13:01, 29 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 9 Assessment

none was posted :)

Lab 10 Attendance

--Z3291317 11:12, 6 October 2011 (EST)

Lab 10 Assessment

1.Besides fetal alcohol syndrome, identify another environmental teratogen that can lead to hearing loss.

  • Cytomegalovirus is another environmental teratogen which can lead to hearing loss in infants which contract this virus.

Reference: - -

2.Identify 3 factors that contribute to poor neonatal drainage of the middle ear.

The factors which contribute poor neonatal drainage of the middle ear include:

  • The eustachian tube of an neonatal is shorter (17-18mm) and narrower compared to the adult tube.
  • the eustachian tube in an infant runs almost horizontal (i.e. it is at a 10 degree angle)
  • in the neonatal the eustachian tube is only opened by one muscle (tensor palati) whilst the adult has 2 (tensor palati and levator palati)

Reference: - -

3.Identify 1 genetic abnormality that affects hearing development and link to the OMIM record.

Treacher Collins Syndrome 3 (TCS3) is a disorder of craniofacial development. It occurs due to a genetic abnormality in 6p21.1 that has been reported to cause bilateral conductive hearing loss. [OMIM - Treacher Collins Syndrome 3]

--Z3291317 18:38, 8 October 2011 (EST)

Lab 11 Attendance

--Z3291317 12:04, 13 October 2011 (EST)

Lab 11 Assessment

1.Name the components that give rise to the interatrial septum and the passages that connect the right and left atria.

The components that give rise to the septum are septum primum and septum secundum. Initially, the passage that connect the right and left atria is the foramen primum but later in development, the passages foramen ovale and foramen secundum give rise to the passage that connects the first and second atria.


2. Identify the cardiac defects that arise through abnormal development of the outflow tract

Cardiac defects that give rise to abnormal development of the outflow tract include Transposition of the Great Vessels, Tetralogy of Fallot, Pulmonary Atresia & Pulmonary Stenosis, Aortic Stenosis, Ventricular Septal Defect, Interrupted Aortic Arch, Double Outlet Right Ventricle, Common Arterial Trunk.


--Z3291317 15:28, 15 October 2011 (EST)

Lab 12 Attendance

--Z3291317 12:01, 20 October 2011 (EST)

Lab 12 Assessment

1. 1.Give examples of 3 systems that continue to develop postnatally.

Three systems that continue to develop posnatally include Respiratory, Cardiovascular and Nervous/Neural systems.




2.Identify the abnormalities detected by the Guthrie Test and link to one abnormality listed in OMIM.

  • Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency
  • Homocystinuria
  • Biotinidase Deficiency
  • Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies
  • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
  • Phenylketonuria
  • Congenital Toxoplasmosis
  • Cystic Fibrosis [OMIM Link]
  • Galactosemia
  • Congenital Hypothyroidism
  • Maple Syrup Urine Disease



- The national neonatal screening programme for congenital toxoplasmosis in Denmark: results from the initial four years, 1999-2002. Schmidt DR, Hogh B, Andersen O, Fuchs J, Fledelius H, Petersen E. Arch Dis Child. 2006 Aug;91(8):661-5. PMID: 16861484]

--Z3291317 23:22, 23 October 2011 (EST)