Paper - Normal and abnormal development of human embryos

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Nishimura H. Takano K. Tanimura T, and Yasuda M. Normal and abnormal development of human embryos: First report of the analysis of 1,213 intact embryos. (1968) Teratology, 1: 281-290. PubMed 5759548

Online Editor Note  
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This historic 1968 paper by Nishimura and colleagues describes human embryos from the Kyoto Collection.

Nishimura H. Tanimura T. Semba R. Uwabe C. Normal development of early human embryos: Observation of 90 specimens at Carnegie stages 7 to 13. (1974)Teratology 10(1): 1-5. PubMed 4853372

Modern Notes:
Kyoto Collection

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Pages where the terms "Historic" (textbooks, papers, people, recommendations) appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms, interpretations and recommendations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

Normal and Abnormal Development of Human Embryos: First Report of the Analysis of 1,213 Intact Embryos

Hideo Nishimura (1912–1995)
Hideo Nishimura (1912–1995)


This survey of the development of a large number of virtually unselected human embryos from healthy women allowed us to establish more reliable standards of normal development with respect to crown-rump length, body weight, and external form than those usually cited. Remarkable variation was noted with regard to the relation between clinical age and these attributes and thus it is concluded that crown-rump length and body weight are more reliable indicators of the general state of development than clinically established age.

Dead embryos occurred with a significantly greater frequency in women with a history of genital bleeding during pregnancy than in those without. Externally malformed embryos were found with increasing frequency with advancing developmental stage, with the maximum figure of 3.92% at horizons 19–23. Malformations observed included external defects such as exencephaly, cyclopia, myeloschisis, cleft lip, and several limb malformations. It is of considerable interest that the incidence of most of these defects was far higher than that observed in newborn infants.

Literature Cited

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2024, May 25) Embryology Paper - Normal and abnormal development of human embryos. Retrieved from

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