Paper - Factors leading to the development of a joint between the manubrium and the mesosternum

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Ashley GT. Factors leading to the development of a joint between the manubrium and the mesosternum. (1955) Thorax (1955), 10, 153-156.

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This historic 1955 paper by Ashley describes the development of a joint between the manubrium and the mesosternum.

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Factors leading to the Development of a Joint between the Manubrium and the Mesosternum


G. T. Ashley

The sternum, though present in some form in the vast majority of vertebrates and always more or less constant in its position, is, nevertheless, a bone which varies greatly both in its form and in its function. For example, it may be broad and flat and devoid of joints, as in the tortoise; or it may be long and narrow and composed of many segments, as in the cat.

Ashley1955 fig01.jpg

Fig. 1. Photomicrographs (natural size) of stained sections of foetal sterna showing (A, B, C, D) the presence of a fibrous band (arrowed) across the sternum at the level of the second costal, cartilages, and (E, F) the absence of such a band. Foetal age is indicated in each case.

Ashley1955 fig02.jpg

Fig. 2. Paramedian sagital section of a 28 mm human embryo to show the relation of the heart and pericardium to the overlying mesosternum.

Ashley1955 fig03.jpg

Fig.3. Examples of hylobatean-type human sterna showing the manubrio-sternal joint (free A,B: synostosed C,D) at the narrowest part of the sternum, in each case opposite the third costal cartilages.

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2024, May 21) Embryology Paper - Factors leading to the development of a joint between the manubrium and the mesosternum. Retrieved from

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© Dr Mark Hill 2024, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G