File:Molecular endocrine pancreas cells 01.jpg

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Molecular Development of Endocrine Pancreas Cells

Model placing gastrin cells in the transcriptional hierarchy of endocrine cells in the pancreas.

Four main endocrine adult cell types:
  1. alpha cells secreting glucagon
  2. beta cells secreting insulin
  3. delta cells secreting somatostatin
  4. PP cells secreting pancreatic polypeptide.
Pancreatic G cells
  • similar to alpha cells in that it is dependent on Arx.
  • similar to epsilon cells in that both gastrin and ghrelin are frequently co-expressed with glucagon in the embryonic pancreas.
Links: Endocrine ancreas | Pax | Molecular Development

Factor Information
  • Pdx1 - Pancreas/Duodenum Homeobox Protein 1 OMIM 600733
    • transcription (transactivator) factor binds the TAAT element in the promoter region of target genes, mainly those involved in pancreas development.
  • Ngn3 - Neurogenin3 OMIM 604882
    • basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor involved in the determination of neural precursor cells in the neuroectoderm.
  • NeuroD1 - Neurogenic Differentiation 1 OMIM 601724
    • a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein that acts as a transcription factors involved in determining cell type during development.
  • Arx - Aristaless-Related Homeobox, X-Linked OMIM 300382
    • homeobox protein that belongs to the Aristaless-related subset of the paired (Prd) class of homeodomain proteins.
  • Pax4 - Paired Box Gene 4 OMIM 167413
    • transcription factor containing a paired box domain.
  • Pax6 Paired Box Gene 6 OMIM 607108
    • transcription factor containing a paired box domain.
  • Nkx2.2 - NK2 Homeobox 2 OMIM 604612
    • homeobox (Hox) containing transcription factor contain a 60-amino acid evolutionarily conserved DNA-binding homeodomain.
  • Nkx6.1 - NK2 Homeobox 6.1 OMIM 602563
    • homeobox (Hox) containing transcription factor contain a 60-amino acid evolutionarily conserved DNA-binding homeodomain.
    • required for beta cells development and is completely conserved between rat, mouse, and human.
Human PAX Family  
Table - Human Pax Family
Approved Name Previous
Synonyms Chromosome
PAX1 paired box 1 20p11.22
PAX2 paired box 2 10q24.31
PAX3 paired box 3 WS1 HUP2 2q36.1
PAX4 paired box 4 MODY9 7q32.1
PAX5 paired box 5 BSAP 9p13.2
PAX6 paired box 6 AN2 "D11S812E, AN, WAGR" 11p13
PAX7 paired box 7 Hup1 1p36.13
PAX8 paired box 8 2q14.1
PAX9 paired box 9 14q13.3
    Links: Developmental Signals - Pax | OMIM Pax1 | HGNC | Bmp Family | Fgf Family | Pax Family | Sox Family | Tbx Family


Suissa Y, Magenheim J, Stolovich-Rain M, Hija A, Collombat P, Mansouri A, Sussel L, Sosa-Pineda B, McCracken K, Wells JM, Heller RS, Dor Y & Glaser B. (2013). Gastrin: a distinct fate of neurogenin3 positive progenitor cells in the embryonic pancreas. PLoS ONE , 8, e70397. PMID: 23940571 DOI.


© 2013 Suissa et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2024, April 20) Embryology Molecular endocrine pancreas cells 01.jpg. Retrieved from

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© Dr Mark Hill 2024, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G

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current07:41, 31 August 2014Thumbnail for version as of 07:41, 31 August 2014800 × 804 (71 KB)Z8600021 (talk | contribs)endocrine cells in the pancreas. Journal.pone.0070397.g007.jpg Category:PancreasCategory:EndocrineCategory:Molecular