Difference between revisions of "Book - A Text-book of Embryology"

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[[File:Heisler_1907.jpg|thumb|400px|title page]]
 
A TEXT-BOOK  
 
A TEXT-BOOK  
  
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{{Historic Disclaimer}}
 
{{Historic Disclaimer}}
  
==PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION ==
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==Preface to the Third Edition ==
  
  
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==PREFACE==
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==Preface==
  
 
The facts of embryology having acquired in recent years such great interest in connection with the teaching and with the proper comprehension of human anatomy, it is of first importance to the student of medicine that a concise and yet sufficiently full text-book upon the subject be available. It was with the aim of presenting such a book that this volume was written, the author, in his experience as a teacher of anatomy, having been impressed with the fact that students were seriously handicapj>ed in their study of the subject of embryology by the lack of a text-book full enough to be intelligible, and yet without that minuteness of detail which characterizes the larger treatises, and which so often serves only to confuse and discourage the beginner.  
 
The facts of embryology having acquired in recent years such great interest in connection with the teaching and with the proper comprehension of human anatomy, it is of first importance to the student of medicine that a concise and yet sufficiently full text-book upon the subject be available. It was with the aim of presenting such a book that this volume was written, the author, in his experience as a teacher of anatomy, having been impressed with the fact that students were seriously handicapj>ed in their study of the subject of embryology by the lack of a text-book full enough to be intelligible, and yet without that minuteness of detail which characterizes the larger treatises, and which so often serves only to confuse and discourage the beginner.  
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==CONTENTS==
+
==Contents==
  
  
 
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_1|CHAPTER I.]]
 
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_1|CHAPTER I.]]
  
The Male and Female Sexual Elements ; Maturation ; Ovulation; Menstruation; Fertilization 17
+
The Male and Female Sexual Elements ; Maturation ; Ovulation; Menstruation; Fertilization
 
+
# The Spermatozoon  
The Spermatozoon 20
+
# The Ovum  
 
+
# The Hen's egg  
The Ovum 24
+
# Oogenesis  
 
+
# Maturation of the Ovum  
The Hen's egg 27
+
# Ovulation
 
+
# Menstruation
Oogenesis 29
+
# The Relation of Menstruation to Ovulation and Conception  
 
+
# Fertilization
Maturation of the Ovum 32
+
# Artificial Fertilization
 
 
Ovulation 80
 
 
 
Menstruation 38
 
 
 
The Relation of Menstruation to Ovulation and Conception . . 40
 
 
 
Fertilization 41
 
 
 
Artificial Fertilization 44
 
  
  
 
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_2|CHAPTER II]]
 
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_2|CHAPTER II]]
  
The Segmentation of the Ovum and Formation of the Blastodermic Vesicle 45
+
The Segmentation of the Ovum and Formation of the Blastodermic Vesicle
 
+
# Segmentation
Segmentation 45
+
# The Stage of the Blastula  
 
 
The Stage of the Blastula 49
 
  
  
 
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_3|CHAPTER III.]]
 
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_3|CHAPTER III.]]
  
The Germ-layers and the Primitive Streak 52
+
The Germ-layers and the Primitive Streak
 
+
# The Two-layered Stage of the Blastodermic Vesicle
The Two-layered Stage of the Blastodermic Vesicle . . 52
+
# The Embryonal Area
 
+
# The Primitive Streak
The Embryonal Area 58
+
# The Development of the Mesoderm
 
+
# The Derivatives of the Germ-lavers
The Primitive Streak 59
 
 
 
The Development of the Mesoderm 62
 
 
 
The Derivatives of the Germ-lavers 67
 
  
  
 
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_4|CHAPTER IV.]]
 
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_4|CHAPTER IV.]]
  
The Beginning Differentiation of the Embryo; the Neural Canal ; The Chorda Dorsalis ; the Mesoblastic Somites m
+
The Beginning Differentiation of the Embryo; the Neural Canal ; The Chorda Dorsalis ; the Mesoblastic Somites
 
+
# The Neural or Medullary Canal
The Neural or Medullary Canal 7()
+
# The Notoohord or Chorda Dorsalis
 
+
# The Neurenteric Canal
The Notoohord or Chorda Dorsalis 7.'>
+
# The Somites or Primitive Segments
 
 
The Neurenteric Canal 74
 
 
 
The Somites or Primitive Segments 75
 
 
   
 
   
  
 
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_5|CHAPTER V.]]
 
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_5|CHAPTER V.]]
  
The Formation of the Body-wall, of the Intestinal Canal, and of the Fetal Membranes 79
+
The Formation of the Body-wall, of the Intestinal Canal, and of the Fetal Membranes
 
+
# The Formation op the Body-wall and of the Intestinal Canal op the Embryo
The Formation op the Body-wall and of the Intestinal Canal op the Embryo 79
+
# The Amnion
 
+
# The Yolk-sac
The Amnion 82
+
# The Allantois
 
+
# The Chorion
The Yolk-sac 87
 
 
 
The Allantois 89
 
 
 
The Chorion 92
 
  
  
 
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_6|CHAPTER VI.]]
 
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_6|CHAPTER VI.]]
 
   
 
   
The Decidual and the Embedding of the Ovum; the  
+
The Decidual and the Embedding of the Ovum; the Placenta; the Umbilical Cord  
 
+
# The Decidua and the Embedding of the Ovum  
Placenta; the Umbilical Cord 95
+
# The Placenta
 
+
# The Umbilical Cord
The Decidua and the Embedding of the Ovum 95
+
# Relations of the Fetal Membranes at Birth
 
 
The Placenta 98
 
 
 
The Umbilical Cord 102
 
 
 
Relations of the Fetal Membranes at Birth 104
 
  
  
 
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_7|CHAPTER VII.]]
 
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_7|CHAPTER VII.]]
  
The Further Development of the External Form of the Body 105
+
The Further Development of the External Form of the Body
 
+
# The Stage of the Ovum
The Stage of the Ovum 106
+
# The Stage of the Embryo
 
+
# The Visceral Arches and Clefts
The Stage of the Embryo 107
+
# The Stage of the Fetus
 
 
The Visceral Arches and Clefts Ill
 
 
 
The Stage of the Fetus 118
 
  
  
 
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_8|CHAPTER VIII.]]
 
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_8|CHAPTER VIII.]]
  
The Development of the Connective Tissues of the Body, and of the Lymphatic System 124
+
The Development of the Connective Tissues of the Body, and of the Lymphatic System
 
+
# The Connective Tissues
The Connective Tissues 124
+
# The Development of the Lymphatic System
 
 
The Development of the Lymphatic System 127
 
  
  
 
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_9|CHAPTER IX.]]
 
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_9|CHAPTER IX.]]
  
The Development of the Face and the Mouth Cavity .... 130
+
The Development of the Face and the Mouth Cavity
 
+
# The Evolution of the Face
The Evolution of the Face 130
+
# The Mouth
 
+
# The Teeth
The Mouth 134
+
# The Salivary Glands
 
+
# The Tongue
The Teeth 137
+
# The Nose
 
 
The Salivary Glands 143
 
 
 
The Tongue 143
 
 
 
The Nose 145
 
  
  
 
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_10|CHAPTER X.]]
 
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_10|CHAPTER X.]]
  
The Development of the Vascular System 147
+
The Development of the Vascular System
 
 
The Vitelline Circulation and the Origin of the Blood 147
 
 
 
  
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HEART 152
+
# The Vitelline Circulation and the Origin of the Blood
 
+
# The Development of the Heart
The Metamorphosis of the Single into the Double Heart .... 156
+
# The Metamorphosis of the Single into the Double Heart
 
+
# The Valves of the Heart
The Valves of the Heart 161
+
# The Allantok- and the Placental Circulation
 
+
# The Fetal Arterial System
The Allantok- and the Placental Circulation 163
+
# The Fetal Venous System
 
+
# The Formation of the Pericardium, the Pleura and the Diaphragm  
The Fetal Arterial System 165
+
# The Portal Circulation
 
+
# The Final Stage of the Fetal Vascular System  
The Fetal Venous System 169
 
 
 
The Formation of the Pericardium, the Pleur^ and the  
 
 
 
Diaphragm 174
 
 
 
The Portal Circulation 177
 
 
 
The Final Stage of the Fetal Vascular System . . . 181
 
  
  
 
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_11|CHAPTER XI.]]
 
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_11|CHAPTER XI.]]
  
The Development of the Digestive System 185
+
The Development of the Digestive System
 
+
# The Mouth
The Mouth 192
+
# The Pharynx
 
+
# The Tongue
The Pharynx 193
+
# The Tonsil  
 
+
# The Anus  
The Tongue 194
+
# The Differentiation of the Alimentary Canal into Separate Regions
 
+
# Increase in Length and Further Subdivision
The Tonsil 194
+
# Alteration in the Relative Position of Parts, and Further Development
 
+
# Histological Alterations
The Anus 195
+
# Meckel's Diverticulum
 
+
# The Development of the Liver
The Differentiation of the Alimentary Canal into Separate Regions 197
+
# The Gall-bladder
 
+
# The Ligaments of the Liver  
Increase in Length and Further Subdivision 201
+
# The Development of the Pancreas  
 
+
# The Development of the Spleen
Alteration in the Relative Position of Parts, and Further Development 202
+
# The Evoution of the Peritoneum
 
 
Histological Alterations 205
 
 
 
Meckel's Diverticulum 207
 
 
 
The Development of the Liver 207
 
 
 
The Gall-bladder 209
 
 
 
The Ligaments of the Liver 209
 
 
 
The Development of the Pancreas 211
 
 
 
The Development of the Spleen . . 212
 
 
 
The Evoution of the Peritoneum 214
 
  
  

Revision as of 11:44, 29 October 2012

title page

A TEXT-BOOK

OF


EMBRYOLOGY


FOR STUDENTS OF MEDICINE


BY

John Clement Heisler, M.D.

(1907)

Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
Mark Hill.jpg
Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

Preface to the Third Edition

The great activity along the lines of embrvological research during the past half-dozen years has brought forth much literature and some new facts. In some cases existing views have thereby been modified or set aside; in others, they have been more firmly established. In presenting the third edition of this book the effort has been made so to revise the text as to harmonize it with the results of recent researches. To this end, certain of the sections have been practically rewritten, while others have been slightly altered, and still others have been merely somewhat amplified. Where changes have been made the authorities therefor have usually been cited. The revised portions of the book include the sections dealing with the ovum, the spermatozoon, the blastodermic vesicle, the amnion, the vascular system, the pancreas, the spleen, the larynx, the thymus, the thyroid, the parathyroid, the adrenal, the kidney, the spinal cord, the vitreous, the musculature, and the vertebral column.

J. C. H.

3829 Walnut St., Philadelphia, March, 1907.


Preface

The facts of embryology having acquired in recent years such great interest in connection with the teaching and with the proper comprehension of human anatomy, it is of first importance to the student of medicine that a concise and yet sufficiently full text-book upon the subject be available. It was with the aim of presenting such a book that this volume was written, the author, in his experience as a teacher of anatomy, having been impressed with the fact that students were seriously handicapj>ed in their study of the subject of embryology by the lack of a text-book full enough to be intelligible, and yet without that minuteness of detail which characterizes the larger treatises, and which so often serves only to confuse and discourage the beginner.

In the arrangement of the subject-matter of the book, it has been the aim not only to present a connected story of human development, but also to make each chapter as nearly as possible complete in itself, for the sake of convenience of reference. It is for this reason that some repetitions occur in the text. The frequent allusions to certain facts of comparative embryology are rendered necessary by the very nature of the subject, but it has been the writer's aim to make these allusions as simple and as easily intelligible as possible.

In the selection of the illustrations, great care has been exercised to employ those of the greatest teaching value, and to arrange them, with reference to any one chapter, as nearly as possible in proper chronological sequence. Due acknowledgement is made in each case for every illustration borrowed from other works.

With few exceptions, no attempt has been made to cite authorities in the text, and the author would here express his obligations to the writings of His, O. Hertwig, Kolliker, Schultze, Bonnet, Balfour, Marshall, Piersol, Minot, Tourneux, and many others.

J. C. H.

3829 Walnut St., Philadelphia,


Contents

CHAPTER I.

The Male and Female Sexual Elements ; Maturation ; Ovulation; Menstruation; Fertilization

  1. The Spermatozoon
  2. The Ovum
  3. The Hen's egg
  4. Oogenesis
  5. Maturation of the Ovum
  6. Ovulation
  7. Menstruation
  8. The Relation of Menstruation to Ovulation and Conception
  9. Fertilization
  10. Artificial Fertilization


CHAPTER II

The Segmentation of the Ovum and Formation of the Blastodermic Vesicle

  1. Segmentation
  2. The Stage of the Blastula


CHAPTER III.

The Germ-layers and the Primitive Streak

  1. The Two-layered Stage of the Blastodermic Vesicle
  2. The Embryonal Area
  3. The Primitive Streak
  4. The Development of the Mesoderm
  5. The Derivatives of the Germ-lavers


CHAPTER IV.

The Beginning Differentiation of the Embryo; the Neural Canal ; The Chorda Dorsalis ; the Mesoblastic Somites

  1. The Neural or Medullary Canal
  2. The Notoohord or Chorda Dorsalis
  3. The Neurenteric Canal
  4. The Somites or Primitive Segments


CHAPTER V.

The Formation of the Body-wall, of the Intestinal Canal, and of the Fetal Membranes

  1. The Formation op the Body-wall and of the Intestinal Canal op the Embryo
  2. The Amnion
  3. The Yolk-sac
  4. The Allantois
  5. The Chorion


CHAPTER VI.

The Decidual and the Embedding of the Ovum; the Placenta; the Umbilical Cord

  1. The Decidua and the Embedding of the Ovum
  2. The Placenta
  3. The Umbilical Cord
  4. Relations of the Fetal Membranes at Birth


CHAPTER VII.

The Further Development of the External Form of the Body

  1. The Stage of the Ovum
  2. The Stage of the Embryo
  3. The Visceral Arches and Clefts
  4. The Stage of the Fetus


CHAPTER VIII.

The Development of the Connective Tissues of the Body, and of the Lymphatic System

  1. The Connective Tissues
  2. The Development of the Lymphatic System


CHAPTER IX.

The Development of the Face and the Mouth Cavity

  1. The Evolution of the Face
  2. The Mouth
  3. The Teeth
  4. The Salivary Glands
  5. The Tongue
  6. The Nose


CHAPTER X.

The Development of the Vascular System

  1. The Vitelline Circulation and the Origin of the Blood
  2. The Development of the Heart
  3. The Metamorphosis of the Single into the Double Heart
  4. The Valves of the Heart
  5. The Allantok- and the Placental Circulation
  6. The Fetal Arterial System
  7. The Fetal Venous System
  8. The Formation of the Pericardium, the Pleura and the Diaphragm
  9. The Portal Circulation
  10. The Final Stage of the Fetal Vascular System


CHAPTER XI.

The Development of the Digestive System

  1. The Mouth
  2. The Pharynx
  3. The Tongue
  4. The Tonsil
  5. The Anus
  6. The Differentiation of the Alimentary Canal into Separate Regions
  7. Increase in Length and Further Subdivision
  8. Alteration in the Relative Position of Parts, and Further Development
  9. Histological Alterations
  10. Meckel's Diverticulum
  11. The Development of the Liver
  12. The Gall-bladder
  13. The Ligaments of the Liver
  14. The Development of the Pancreas
  15. The Development of the Spleen
  16. The Evoution of the Peritoneum


CHAPTER XII.

The Development of the Respiratory System 222

The Thyroid, the Parathyroid, and the Thymus Bodies . . 226


CHAPTER XIII.

The Development of the Genito-urlnary System 232

The Development of the Kidney and the L'reter . . . 232

The Mesonepliros or Wolffian Body 234

The Metanephros or Permanent Kidney 237

The Suprarenal Bodies 241

The Development of the Internal Generative Organs . 243

The Indifferent Type 243

The Male Type 24')

The Female Type 249

The Bladder and the Prostate Gland 25')

The External Organs of (t feneration 2'>s

The Female External Genitals 25l>

The Male External Genitals . 2t)l

Summary 2<>4


CHAPTER XIV.

The Development of the Skin and its Appendages 268

The Skin 2G8

The Appendages of the Skin 270

The Nails 270

The Hair 271

The Sebaceous and Sweat Glands 273

The Mammary Gland 274


CHAPTER XV.

The Development of the Nervous System 278

The Development of the Spinal Cord 281

The Development of the Brain 286

The Fifth Brain-vesicle 289

The Hind-brain Vesicle 292

The Mid-brain Vesicle 294

The Inter-brain Vesicle 296

The Fore-brain Vesicle 302

The Development of the Peripheral Nervous System . 316

The Development of the Sympathetic System 324

The Carotid Body, the Coccygeal Body, and the Organs of Zuckei^

kandl * 325


CHAPTER XVI.

The Development of the Sense Organs 32(}

The Deveix)pment op the Eye 326

The Retina and Optic Nerve 328

The Crystalline I-«ns 336

The Vitreous Body 338

The Middle and Outer Tunics of the Eye 339

The Eyelids and the Lacrimal Apparatus 343

The Development of the Organ of Hearing 345

The Internal Ear 346

The Middle and External Ear 355

The Development of the Nope 358



CHAPTER XVII.

The Development of the Muscular System 363

The Striated or Voluntary Muscle 363

The Muscles of the Trunk Proper 363

The Metamorphosis of the Muscle-plate 366

The Branchial Muscles 369

The Muscles of the Extremities 370

The Involuntary or Unstriated Muscular Tissue .... 371

The Cardiac Muscle 371

The Development of the Skeleton and of the Limbs .... 372

The Axial Skeleton 373

The Development of the Trunk 373

The Stage of the Chorda 373

The Membranous Stage 374

The Cartilaginous Stage 377

The Osseous Stage 379

The Development of the Ribs and Steraum 382

The Development of the Head Skeleton 384

The Membranous Cranium liSo

The Cartilaginous Cranium 38()

The Osseoufi Stage 389

The Appendicular Skeleton 402

The Pectoral and Pelvic (iirdles 403

The Bones of the Extremities 404

The Development of the Limbs 405

The Position of the Limbs . 407

Tabulated Chronology of Development 409

Index 417



Heisler JC. A text-book of embryology for students of medicine. 3rd Edn. (1907) W.B. Saunders Co. London.

Heisler 1907: 1 Male and Female Sexual Elements - Fertilization | 2 Ovum Segmentation - Blastodermic Vesicle | 3 Germ-layers - Primitive Streak | 4 Embryo Differentiation - Neural Canal - Somites | 5 Body-wall - Intestinal Canal - Fetal Membranes | 6 Decidual Ovum Embedding - Placenta - Umbilical Cord | 7 External Body Form | 8 Connective Tissues - Lymphatic System | 9 Face and Mouth | 10 Vascular System | 11 Digestive System | 12 Respiratory System | 13 Genito-urinary System | 14 Skin and Appendages | 15 Nervous System | 16 Sense Organs | 17 Muscular System | 18 Skeleton and Limbs

Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
Mark Hill.jpg
Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

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