Chicken Stages - Witschi

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Introduction

Shown below is the 1956 Witschi chicken staging[1], an earlier alternative staging to Hamburger Hamilton Stages[2] of chicken development. There was also an earlier historic 1900 Normentafeln zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Wirbeltiere - Gallus domesticus. [3]

Chicken Links: Introduction | Chicken stages | Hamburger Hamilton Stages | Witschi Stages | Placodes | Category:Chicken
Historic Chicken Embryology  
1883 History of the Chick | 1900 Chicken Embryo Development Plates | 1904 X-Ray Effects | 1910 Somites | 1920 Chick Early Embryology | 1933 Neural | 1939 Sternum | 1948 Limb | Movie 1961 | Historic Papers
Witschi Standard Stages
Hamburger Hamilton Stages
Age
Identification of Stages
Before Laying
3,4 Early cleavage 3.5-4.5 hr2 Shell membrane of egg formed in isthmus of oviduct
5,6 During cleavage Germ wall formed from marginal periblast
7 Late cleavage 4.5-24.0 hr2 Shell of egg formed in uterus
After Laying
8,9 1 Preprimitive streak (embryonic shield)
10 2 6-7 hr Initial primitive streak, 0.3-0.5 mm long
11 3 12-13 hr Intermediate primitive streak
12 4 18-19 hr Definitive primitive streak, ±1.88 mm long
13a 5 19-22 hr Head process (notochord)
13b 6 23-25 hr Head fold
14a 7 23-26 hr 1 somite; neural folds
14b 7 to 8- ca. 23-26 hr 1-3 somites; coelom
14c 8 26-29 hr 4 somites; blood islands
15a 9 29-33 hr 7 somites; primary optic vesicles
15b 9+ to 10- ca. 33 hr 8-9 somites; anterior amniotic fold
15c 10 33-38 hr 10 somites; 3 primary brain vesicles
16a 11 40-45 hr 13 somites; 5 neuromeres of hindbrain
16b 12 45-49 hr 16 somites; telencephalon
16c 13 48-52 hr 19 somites; atrioventricular canal
17a 13+ to 14- ca. 50-52 hr 20-21 somites; tail bud
17b 14 50-53 hr 22 somites; trunk flexure; visceral arches I and II, clefts 1 and 2
17c 14+ to 15- ca. 50-54 hr 23 somites; premandibular head cavities
17d 15 50-55 hr 24-27 somites; visceral arch III, cleft 3
18 16 51-56 hr 26-28 somites; wing bud; posterior amniotic fold
19 17 52-64 hr 29-32 somites; leg bud; epiphysis
20 18 3 da 30-36 somites extending beyond level of leg bud; allantois
21 19 3.0-3.5 da 37- 40 somites extending into tail; maxillary process
22 20 3.0-3.5 da 40-43 somites; rotation completed; eye pigment
23 21 3.5 da 43-44 somites; visceral arch IV, cleft 4
24 22 3.5-4.0 da Somites extend to tip of tail
25 23 4 da Dorsal contour from hindbrain to tail is a curved line
26 24 4.5 da Toe plate
27 25 4.5-5.0 da Elbow and knee joints
28 26 5 da 1st 3 toes
29 27 5.0-5.5 da Beak
30 28 5.5-6.0 da 3 digits, 4 toes
31 29 6.0-6.5 da Rudiment of 5th toe
32 30 6.5-7.0 da Feather germs; scleral papillae; egg tooth
33a 31 7.0-7.5 da Web between 1st and 2nd digits
33b 32 7.5 da Anterior tip of mandible has reached beak
34a 33 7.5-8.0 da Web on radial margin of wing and 1st digit
34b 34 8 da Nictitating membrane
34c 35 8.5-9.0 da Phalanges in toes
34d 36 10 da Length of 3rd toe from tip to middle of metatarsal joint = 5.4±0.3mm; length of beak from anterior angle of nostril to tip of bill = 2.5mm; primordium of comb; labial groove; uropygial gland
34e 37 11 da Length of 3rd toe = 7.4±0.3mm; length of beak = 3.0 mm
34f 38 12 da Length of 3rd toe = 8.4±0.3 mm; length of beak = 3.1 mm
35a 39 13 da Length of 3rd toe = 9.8±0.3 mm; length of beak = 3.5 mm
35b 40 14 da Length of beak = 4.0 mm; length of 3rd toe = 12.7±0.5 mm
35c 41 15 da Length of beak from anterior angle of nostril to tip of upper bill = 4.5 mm; length of 3rd toe = 14.9±0.8 mm
35d 42 16 da Length of beak = 4.8 mm; length of 3rd toe = 16.7±0.8 mm
35e 43 17 da Length of beak = 5.0 mm; length of 3rd toe = 18.6±0.8 mm
35f 44 18 da Length of beak = 5.7 mm; length of 3rd toe = 20.4±0.8 mm
36a 45 19-20 da Yolk sac half enclosed in body cavity; chorio-allantoic membrane contains less blood and is "sticky" in living embryo
36b 46 20-21 da Newly-hatched chick

Table modified from Biology Data Book (1964).[4]

References

  1. Witschi E. Development of Vertebrates. (1956) Saunders, Philadelphia.
  2. Hamburger V. and Hamilton HL. A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo. (1951) J Morphol. 88(1): 49-92. PMID 24539719 PDF
  3. Keibel F. and Abraham K. Normal Plates of the Development of the Chicken Embryo (Gallus domesticus). (1900) Vol. 2 in series by Keibel F. Normal plates of the development of vertebrates (Normentafeln zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Wirbelthiere) Fisher, Jena., Germany.
  4. Altman PL. and Dittmer DS. Biology Data Book. (1964) Amrl-Tr-64-100. PMID: 14243645



Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, January 23) Embryology Chicken Stages - Witschi. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Chicken_Stages_-_Witschi

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© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G