Talk:Salivary Gland Development

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, November 30) Embryology Salivary Gland Development. Retrieved from



Runx1 mediates the development of the granular convoluted tubules in the submandibular glands

PLoS One. 2017 Sep 6;12(9):e0184395. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0184395. eCollection 2017.

Ono Minagi H1, Sarper SE2, Kurosaka H2, Kuremoto KI3, Taniuchi I4, Sakai T1, Yamashiro T2. Author information Abstract The mouse granular convoluted tubules (GCTs), which are only located in the submandibular gland (SMG) are known to develop and maintain their structure in an androgen-dependent manner. We previously demonstrated that the GCTs are involuted by the epithelial deletion of core binding factor β (CBFβ), a transcription factor that physically interacts with any of the Runt-related transcription factor (RUNX) proteins (RUNX1, 2 and 3). This result clearly demonstrates that the Runx /Cbfb signaling pathway is indispensable in the development of the GCTs. However, it is not clear which of the RUNX proteins plays useful role in the development of the GCTs by activating the Runx /Cbfb signaling pathway. Past studies have revealed that the Runx /Cbfb signaling pathway plays important roles in various aspects of development and homeostatic events. Moreover, the Runx genes have different temporospatial requirements depending on the biological situation. In the present study, the GCTs of the SMG showed a remarkable phenotype of, which phenocopied the epithelial deletion of Cbfb, in epithelial-specific Runx1 conditional knock-out (cKO) mice. The results indicate that Runx1 works as a partner of Cbfb during the development of the GCTs. We also discovered that the depletion of Runx1 resulted in the reduced secretion of saliva in male mice. Consistent with this finding, one of the water channels, Aquaporin-5 (AQP5) was mislocalized in the cytoplasm of the Runx1 mutants, suggesting a novel role of Runx1 in the membrane trafficking of AQP5. In summary, the present findings demonstrated that RUNX1 is essential for the development of the GCTs. Furthermore, RUNX1 could also be involved in the membrane trafficking of the AQP5 protein of the acinar cells in the SMG in order to allow for the proper secretion of saliva.

PMID: 28877240 PMCID: PMC5587342 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0184395

Endothelial cell regulation of salivary gland epithelial patterning

Development. 2017 Jan 15;144(2):211-220. doi: 10.1242/dev.142497.

Kwon HR1,2, Nelson DA1, DeSantis KA1,2, Morrissey JM1, Larsen M3.


Perfusion-independent regulation of epithelial pattern formation by the vasculature during organ development and regeneration is of considerable interest for application in restoring organ function. During murine submandibular salivary gland development, the vasculature co-develops with the epithelium during branching morphogenesis; however, it is not known whether the vasculature has instructive effects on the epithelium. Using pharmacological inhibitors and siRNA knockdown in embryonic organ explants, we determined that VEGFR2-dependent signaling is required for salivary gland epithelial patterning. To test directly for a requirement for endothelial cells in instructive epithelial patterning, we developed a novel ex vivo cell fractionation/reconstitution assay. Immuno-depletion of CD31+ endothelial cells in this assay confirmed a requirement for endothelial cells in epithelial patterning of the gland. Depletion of endothelial cells or inhibition of VEGFR2 signaling in organ explants caused an aberrant increase in cells expressing the ductal proteins K19 and K7, with a reduction in Kit+ progenitor cells in the endbuds of reconstituted glands. Addition of exogenous endothelial cells to reconstituted glands restored epithelial patterning, as did supplementation with the endothelial cell-regulated mesenchymal factors IGFBP2 and IGFBP3. Our results demonstrate that endothelial cells promote expansion of Kit+ progenitor cells and suppress premature ductal differentiation in early developing embryonic submandibular salivary gland buds. KEYWORDS: Ductal differentiation; Endothelial cell; Endothelial cells; Epithelial patterning; Mouse; Progenitor cell; Salivary gland development

PMID: 28096213 PMCID: PMC5394760 DOI: 10.1242/dev.142497

Fgf10 and Sox9 are essential for the establishment of distal progenitor cells during mouse salivary gland development

Development. 2017 Jun 15;144(12):2294-2305. doi: 10.1242/dev.146019. Epub 2017 May 15.

Chatzeli L1, Gaete M1,2, Tucker AS3.


Salivary glands are formed by branching morphogenesis with epithelial progenitors forming a network of ducts and acini (secretory cells). During this process, epithelial progenitors specialise into distal (tips of the gland) and proximal (the stalk region) identities that produce the acini and higher order ducts, respectively. Little is known about the factors that regulate progenitor expansion and specialisation in the different parts of the gland. Here, we show that Sox9 is involved in establishing the identity of the distal compartment before the initiation of branching morphogenesis. Sox9 is expressed throughout the gland at the initiation stage before becoming restricted to the distal epithelium from the bud stage and throughout branching morphogenesis. Deletion of Sox9 in the epithelium results in loss of the distal epithelial progenitors, a reduction in proliferation and a subsequent failure in branching. We demonstrate that Sox9 is positively regulated by mesenchymal Fgf10, a process that requires active Erk signalling. These results provide new insights into the factors required for the expansion of salivary gland epithelial progenitors, which can be useful for organ regeneration therapy. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

KEYWORDS: Branching morphogenesis; Epithelial progenitors; Fgf signalling; Salivary glands; Sox9 PMID: 28506998 PMCID: PMC5482990 DOI: 10.1242/dev.146019


Anatomy and histology of rodent and human major salivary glands: -overview of the Japan salivary gland society-sponsored workshop

Acta Histochem Cytochem. 2012 Oct 31;45(5):241-50. doi: 10.1267/ahc.12013. Epub 2012 Sep 22.

Amano O1, Mizobe K, Bando Y, Sakiyama K. Author information


MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS OF BOTH HUMANS AND RODENTS CONSIST OF THREE PAIRS OF MACROSCOPIC GLANDS: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638-1686), Thomas Wharton (1614-1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655-1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands.The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands. KEYWORDS: human, immunohistochemistry, mouse, rat, salivary glands

PMID 23209333