Talk:Postnatal - Growth Charts

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, December 2) Embryology Postnatal - Growth Charts. Retrieved from

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Postnatal Growth Charts

<pubmed limit=5>Postnatal Growth Charts</pubmed>

Growth Charts

<pubmed limit=5>Growth Charts</pubmed>


Pubertal Height Velocity and Associations with Prepubertal and Adult Heights in Cystic Fibrosis

J Pediatr. 2013 Mar 24. pii: S0022-3476(13)00192-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.02.026. [Epub ahead of print]

Zhang Z, Lindstrom MJ, Lai HJ. Source Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI.


OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that pubertal peak height velocity (PHV) in cystic fibrosis (CF) has improved and is influenced by prepubertal growth and genetic potential. STUDY DESIGN: PHV from 1862 children born in 1984-87 and documented in the 1986-2008 US CF Foundation Registry was determined by statistical modeling and classified into normal, delayed (2-SD > average age), attenuated (magnitude <5th percentile), or both delayed and attenuated (D&A). Genetic potential for height was estimated by parental stature. RESULTS: PHV averaged 8.4 cm/year at age 14.0 years in boys and 7.0 cm/year at age 12.1 years in girls, ∼6-month delay and ∼15% reduction compared with healthy children. PHV was normal in 60%, delayed in 9%, attenuated in 21%, and D&A in 5%. Patients with delayed PHV reached similar adult height percentile (boys: 34th, girls: 46th) to those with normal PHV (boys: 33rd, girls: 34th); both were significantly taller than the attenuated (boys: 11th, girls: 19th) and D&A PHV subgroups (boys: 8th, girls: 14th). Pancreatic-sufficient patients had taller prepubertal and adult heights but similar PHV compared with pancreatic-insufficient or meconium ileus patients. Adjusting for genetic potential reduced adult height percentiles more in boys (from 25th to 16th) than girls (from 28th to 24th). Height at age 7 years, PHV age and magnitude, and parental stature significantly predicted adult height. CONCLUSIONS: Pubertal PHV has improved in children with CF born after mid-1980s compared with older cohorts but remains below normal. Suboptimal prepubertal and pubertal growth led to adult height below genetic potential in CF. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID 23535012

Evaluating Canadian children: WHO, NHANES or what?

J Paediatr Child Health. 2013 Mar 19. doi: 10.1111/jpc.12152. [Epub ahead of print]

Yasin A, Filler G. Source Department of Paediatrics, Division of Paediatric Nephrology, Children's Hospital, London Health Science Centre, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.


AIM: The 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) growth charts have been widely adopted by Canadian dieticians for growth monitoring of Canadian children rather than the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) reference data. It has been unclear as to which is the most appropriate. METHODS: We calculated height and weight z-scores of 3086 consecutive patients (1530 female, 49.6%) aged 0-5 years, attending outpatient clinics at a single tertiary care centre using reference data of the latest NHANES survey and the 2006 WHO growth charts. To address age dependency, data were stratified into age groups. Gender dependency was also investigated. RESULTS: Using NHANES III reference intervals, medians of both height z-score (+0.24) and weight z-score (+0.32) were significantly non-zero. The WHO growth charts yielded medians of height z-score (-0.15) and weight z-score (+0.36) respectively, also significantly non-zero. When comparing both reference populations for the entire cohort, Canadian children had significantly different height z-scores whereas weight z-scores did not differ. Age classification revealed a significant age dependency with NHANES III charts yielding higher weight z-scores for up to 8 months and lower z-scores from 8 to 26 months. No significant differences were observed for older than 26 months. Throughout, height z-scores were significantly higher with NHANES III charts across all age groups, with a degree of overestimation higher in younger boys than older ones. CONCLUSION: Our results reveal substantial differences between both reference populations and thus interpretation needs to be done with caution, especially when labelling results as abnormal. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

PMID 23510240


A chart to predict adult height from a child's current height

Ann Hum Biol. 2011 Jul 18. [Epub ahead of print]

Cole TJ, Wright CM. Source UCL Institute of Child Health, University College London , London , UK.


Background: A child's adult height is commonly predicted using their target height, based on mid-parent height. However, if no growth disorder is suspected, the child's current height is a far better predictor of their adult height. Aim: To develop a chart to predict a child's adult height from their current height, adjusting for regression to the mean. Subjects and methods: Data from the First Zurich Longitudinal Growth Study provided correlations between child height and adult height by age and sex, for use in a regression model predicting adult height centile from child height centile. The model was validated using data from the British 1946 and 1958 birth cohorts. Results: The chart is illustrated superimposed on the British 1990 boys height chart. The predicted height has a standard error of 4-5 cm for ages from 4 years to puberty in both sexes. The regression adjustment partially compensates for biased predictions in early and late developers in puberty. A simplified version of the chart for restricted age ranges is also shown, as used on the UK-WHO 0-4 years growth charts. Conclusion: The height prediction chart should be of value for parents, and indirectly professionals, to predict adult height in their children.

PMID 21767107

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Postnatal growth of preterm born children ≤750g at birth

Early Hum Dev. 2011 Jul;87(7):495-507. Epub 2011 May 6.

Claas MJ, de Vries LS, Koopman C, Uniken Venema MM, Eijsermans MJ, Bruinse HW, Stuart AA. Source Department of Obstetrics, University Medical Centre, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Abstract BACKGROUND: Extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants are at risk of impaired postnatal growth. Impaired postnatal growth has been reported to be associated with delayed cognitive and motor development.

AIMS: To describe postnatal growth patterns of appropriate and small for gestational age (AGA and SGA) ELBW children in relation to their cognitive and motor outcome at age 5.5.

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study.

SUBJECTS: One hundred one children with a BW≤750g, born between 1996 and 2005 in the University Hospital Utrecht, The Netherlands.

OUTCOME MEASURES: Height (Ht), weight (Wt), occipital-frontal circumference (OFC) at birth, 15months and 2years corrected age and 3.5 and 5.5years. Cognitive and motor outcome at 5.5years of age, classified as normal (Z-score ≥-1), mildly delayed (-2≤Z-score <-1) or severely delayed (Z-score <-2). AGA (Ht, Wt or OFC at birth ≥-2 SDS) infants were compared with SGA (Ht, Wt or OFC at birth <-2 SDS) infants.

RESULTS: Between birth and 5.5years catch-up growth in Ht, weight for height (Wt/Ht), Wt and OFC was seen in 72.2%, 55.2%, 28.6% and 68.9% respectively of the SGA infants. For AGA infants we found substantial catch-down growth in Ht (15.4%) and Wt (33.8%). Cognitive and motor outcome was normal in 76.2% and 41.6% of the 101 children. A significantly higher percentage of normal cognitive outcome was found in AGA infants with Wt growth remaining at ≥-2 SDS compared to AGA infants with catch-down growth (83% vs 63%). Next, SGA infants who caught-up in OFC had a higher prevalence of normal cognitive outcome compared to SGA infants who did not catch-up in OFC. Furthermore, a higher percentage of severely delayed motor outcome was found in SGA infants without catch-up growth in Wt compared to SGA infants who caught-up in Wt (61.5% vs 32.2%).

CONCLUSIONS: Catch-up growth in Ht, Wt/Ht and OFC occurred in the majority of the SGA infants with a BW≤750g, but was less common in Wt. AGA children who remained their Wt at ≥-2 SDS have a better cognitive and motor developmental outcome at 5.5years of age. Catch-up growth in OFC was associated with a better cognitive outcome at 5.5years of age.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PMID: 21550187

Body mass index and weight-for-length ratio references for infants born at 33-42 weeks gestation: A new tool for anthropometric assessment

Clin Nutr. 2011 Apr 25. [Epub ahead of print]

Davidson S, Natan D, Novikov I, Sokolover N, Erlich A, Shamir R. Source Department of Neonatology, Helen Schneider Hospital for Women, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49 100, Israel; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.


BACKGROUND & AIMS: The risk of childhood obesity, an increasingly prevalent problem worldwide, might be predictable by early body mass index measurements. This study sought to develop body mass index and weight-for-length ratio references for infants born at 33-42 weeks gestation and to validate these data against the growth curves of the World Health Organization Multicenter Growth Reference Study.

METHODS: Data were collected from the Neonatal Registry of Rabin Medical Center for all healthy singleton babies born live at 33-42 weeks gestation. Crude and smoothed reference tables and graphs for body mass index and weight-for-length ratio by gestational age were created for males and females, separately.

RESULTS: Birth weight, length, and body mass index percentiles for full-term neonates were similar to the World Health Organization study, reinforcing the generalizability of our reference charts for infants born at 33-42 weeks. Cutoff values for small for date (<5th, <10th percentile) and large for date (>85th, >95th percentile) infants differed across gestational ages in both pre-term and full-term infants.

CONCLUSIONS: As body proportionality indexes provide an assessment of body mass and fatness relative to length, we suggest that BMI and Wt/L ratio percentiles be added to weight and length growth curves as a routine intrauterine growth assessment at birth.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

PMID: 21524833

Designing the new UK-WHO growth charts to enhance assessment of growth around birth

Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2011 Mar 11. [Epub ahead of print]

Cole TJ, Wright CM, Williams AF; ; RCPCH Growth Chart Expert Group. Source 1MRC Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health, UCL Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, UK.


The decision to adopt the new WHO standard in the UK necessitated substantial changes to the neonatal section of the chart, including separation of the preterm UK birth weight reference from the WHO standard. The evidence-based design process has led to several novel features that could be generally applied in other chart designs, and revealed uncertainties leading to inconsistencies in charting. Failing to plot the birth weight of term infants at age 0 can lead to spurious centile crossing in the early weeks of life, particularly among infants at the extreme of gestation. Users will need training to use the charts, but this should improve overall understanding and the use of charts.

PMID: 21398325

Growth charts for children with Ellis-van Creveld syndrome

Eur J Pediatr. 2011 Feb;170(2):207-11. Epub 2010 Sep 10. Verbeek S, Eilers PH, Lawrence K, Hennekam RC, Versteegh FG. Source Department of Pediatrics, Groene Hart Ziekenhuis, PO Box 1098, Gouda, The Netherlands.


Ellis-van Creveld (EvC) syndrome is a congenital malformation syndrome with marked growth retardation. In this study, specific growth charts for EvC patients were derived to allow better follow-up of growth and earlier detection of growth patterns unusual for EvC. With the use of 235 observations of 101 EvC patients (49 males, 52 females), growth charts for males and females from 0 to 20 years of age were derived. Longitudinal and cross-sectional data were collected from an earlier review of growth data in EvC, a database of EvC patients, and from recent literature. To model the growth charts, the GAMLSS package for the R statistical program was used. Height of EvC patients was compared to healthy children using Dutch growth charts. Data are presented both on a scale for age and on a scale for the square root of age. Compared to healthy Dutch children, mean height standard deviation score values for male and female EvC patients were -3.1 and -3.0, respectively. The present growth charts should be useful in the follow-up of EvC patients. Most importantly, early detection of growth hormone deficiency, known to occur in EvC, will be facilitated.

PMID: 20830486

Growth standards of infants with Prader-Willi syndrome

Pediatrics. 2011 Apr;127(4):687-95. Epub 2011 Mar 14.

Butler MG, Sturich J, Lee J, Myers SE, Whitman BY, Gold JA, Kimonis V, Scheimann A, Terrazas N, Driscoll DJ. Source Department of Psychiatry, Kansas University Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd, MS 4015, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA. Abstract OBJECTIVE: To generate and report standardized growth curves for weight, length, head circumference, weight/length, and BMI for non-growth hormone-treated white infants (boys and girls) with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) between 0 and 36 months of age. The goal was to monitor growth and compare data with other infants with PWS.

METHODS: Anthropometric measures (N = 758) were obtained according to standard methods and analyzed from 186 non-growth hormone-treated white infants (108 boys and 78 girls) with PWS between 0 and 36 months of age. Standardized growth curves were developed and the 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentiles were calculated by using the LMS (refers to λ, μ, and σ) smoothing procedure method for weight, length, head circumference, weight/length, and BMI along with the normative 50th percentile using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention national growth data from 2003. The data were plotted for comparison purposes.

RESULTS: Five separate standardized growth curves (weight, length, head circumference, weight/length, and BMI) representing 7 percentile ranges were developed from 186 non-growth hormone-treated white male and female infants with PWS aged 0 to 36 months, and the normative 50th percentile was plotted on each standardized infant growth curve.

CONCLUSIONS: We encourage the use of these growth standards when examining infants with PWS and evaluating growth for comparison purposes, monitoring for growth patterns, nutritional assessment, and recording responses to growth hormone therapy, commonly used in infants and children with PWS.

PMID: 21402637

Designing new UK-WHO growth charts: implications for health staff use and understanding of charts and growth monitoring

Matern Child Nutr. 2011 Feb 17. doi: 10.1111/j.1740-8709.2010.00296.x. [Epub ahead of print]

Wright CM, Sachs M, Short J, Sharp L, Cameron K, Moy RJ. Source School of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK Science and Research Department, Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, London, UK Harlow Printing, South Shields, UK Institute of Child Health, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.


New pre-school UK charts have been produced incorporating the new World Health Organization growth standards based on healthy breastfed infants. This paper describes the process by which the charts and evidence-based instructions were designed and evaluated, and what it revealed about professional understanding of charts and growth monitoring. A multidisciplinary expert group drew on existing literature, new data analyses and parent focus groups as well as two series of chart-plotting workshops for health staff. The first series explored possible design features and general chart understanding. The second evaluated an advanced prototype with instructions, using plotting and interpretation of three separate scenarios on the old charts, compared with the new charts. The first plotting workshops (46 participants) allowed decisions to be made about the exact chart format, but it also revealed widespread confusion about use of adjustment for gestation and the plotting of birthweight. In the second series (78 participants), high levels of plotting inaccuracy were identified on both chart formats, with 64% of respondents making at least one major mistake. Significant neonatal weight loss was poorly recognized. While most participants recognized abnormal and normal growth patterns, 13-20% did not. Many respondents had never received any formal training in chart use. Growth charts are complex clinical tools that are, at present, poorly understood and inconsistently used. The importance of clear guidelines and formal training has now been recognized and translated into supporting educational materials (free to download at

© 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

PMID: 21332642

Genetics of head circumference in infancy: A longitudinal study of Japanese twins

Am J Hum Biol. 2011 May 31. doi: 10.1002/ajhb.21190. [Epub ahead of print]

Silventoinen K, Karvonen M, Sugimoto M, Kaprio J, Dunkel L, Yokoyama Y. Source Population Research Unit, Department of Social Research, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.


OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have shown strong genetic influence to head circumference (HC), but still little is known on the development of genetic etiology of HC in infancy, especially in non-Caucasian populations. Thus, we decided to analyze the genetics of HC growth in Japanese infants. METHODS: Longitudinal measures of HC were available from birth to 13 months of age in 206 monozygotic and 156 dizygotic complete twin pairs. Genetic modeling for twin data was used. RESULTS: We found only little evidence for sex-specific differences in the genetics of HC and thus analyzed boys and girls together. After 5 months of age the heritability of HC was high, but before that age also a substantial common environmental component was present. Not only strong genetic persistence for HC was found but also a new genetic variation emerged. New environmental variation shared by co-twins affecting HC was found until 3 months of age, and this effect was further transmitted until 1 year of age. CONCLUSIONS: HC and its growth are strongly genetically regulated. Largely, the same genetic factors affect the variation of HC at different ages, and new genetic variation emerged during the first year of life. Knowledge on the genetic component in the variation of HC may help to design tools for defining abnormal growth of HC in population-based screenings for related disorders. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

PMID: 21630369


New intrauterine growth curves based on United States data

Pediatrics. 2010 Feb;125(2):e214-24. Epub 2010 Jan 25.

Olsen IE, Groveman SA, Lawson ML, Clark RH, Zemel BS. Source RD, LDN, c/o Louise Lawson, PhD, Kennesaw State, Department of Math and Stats, Box 1204, building 12, 1000 Chastain Rd, Kennesaw, GA 30144-5591, USA.


OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to create and validate new intrauterine weight, length, and head circumference growth curves using a contemporary, large, racially diverse US sample and compare with the Lubchenco curves.

METHODS: Data on 391 681 infants (Pediatrix Medical Group) aged 22 to 42 weeks at birth from 248 hospitals within 33 US states (1998-2006) for birth weight, length, head circumference, estimated gestational age, gender, and race were used. Separate subsamples were used to create and validate curves. Smoothed percentile curves (3rd to 97th) were created by the Lambda Mu Sigma (LMS) method. The validation sample was used to confirm representativeness of the curves. The new curves were compared with the Lubchenco curves.

RESULTS: Final sample included 257 855 singleton infants (57.2% male) who survived to discharge. Gender-specific weight-, length-, and head circumference-for-age curves were created (n = 130 111) and successfully validated (n = 127 744). Small-for-gestational age and large-for-gestational age classifications using the Lubchenco curves differed significantly from the new curves for each gestational age (all P < .0001). The Lubchenco curves underestimated the percentage of infants who were small-for-gestational-age except for younger girls (< or =36 weeks), for whom it was more likely to be overestimated; underestimated percentage of infants (< or =36 weeks) who were large-for-gestational-age; and overestimated percentage of infants (>36 weeks) who were large-for-gestational-age.

CONCLUSIONS: The Lubchenco curves may not represent the current US population. The new intrauterine growth curves created and validated in this study, based on a contemporary, large, racially diverse US sample, provide clinicians with an updated tool for growth assessment in US NICUs. Research into the ability of the new definitions of small-for-gestational-age and large-for-gestational-age to identify high-risk infants in terms of short-term and long-term health outcomes is needed.

PMID: 20100760

Use of World Health Organization and CDC growth charts for children aged 0-59 months in the United States

MMWR Recomm Rep. 2010 Sep 10;59(RR-9):1-15.

Grummer-Strawn LM, Reinold C, Krebs NF; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Source Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, USA. Erratum in MMWR Recomm Rep. 2010 Sep 17;59(36):1184.


In April 2006, the World Health Organization (WHO) released new international growth charts for children aged 0-59 months. Similar to the 2000 CDC growth charts, these charts describe weight for age, length (or stature) for age, weight for length (or stature), and body mass index for age. Whereas the WHO charts are growth standards, describing the growth of healthy children in optimal conditions, the CDC charts are a growth reference, describing how certain children grew in a particular place and time. However, in practice, clinicians use growth charts as standards rather than references. In 2006, CDC, the National Institutes of Health, and the American Academy of Pediatrics convened an expert panel to review scientific evidence and discuss the potential use of the new WHO growth charts in clinical settings in the United States. On the basis of input from this expert panel, CDC recommends that clinicians in the United States use the 2006 WHO international growth charts, rather than the CDC growth charts, for children aged <24 months (available at The CDC growth charts should continue to be used for the assessment of growth in persons aged 2--19 years. The recommendation to use the 2006 WHO international growth charts for children aged <24 months is based on several considerations, including the recognition that breastfeeding is the recommended standard for infant feeding. In the WHO charts, the healthy breastfed infant is intended to be the standard against which all other infants are compared; 100% of the reference population of infants were breastfed for 12 months and were predominantly breastfed for at least 4 months. When using the WHO growth charts to screen for possible abnormal or unhealthy growth, use of the 2.3rd and 97.7th percentiles (or ±2 standard deviations) are recommended, rather than the 5th and 95th percentiles. Clinicians should be aware that fewer U.S. children will be identified as underweight using the WHO charts, slower growth among breastfed infants during ages 3-18 months is normal, and gaining weight more rapidly than is indicated on the WHO charts might signal early signs of overweight.

PMID: 20829749

Specialized Pediatric Growth Charts For Electronic Health Record Systems: the example of Down syndrome

AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2010 Nov 13;2010:687-91.

Rosenbloom ST, McGregor TL, Chen Q, An AQ, Hsu S, Dupont WD. Source Departments of Biomedical Informatics.


Electronic health record (EHR) systems serving pediatric populations typically incorporate growth charts to help healthcare providers monitor children's growth. Currently, easily implementable growth charts are not available for subpopulations having growth that differs from the population as a whole, such as children with Down syndrome. This manuscript describes an approach for generating subpopulation-specific growth charts meeting requirements for implementation into EHR systems, using as an example weights for children with Down syndrome. Gender-specific growth curves were generated from 2358 weight values obtained from 331 patients with Down syndrome from July 2001 until March 2005. The project generated printable curves and computable data tables formatted according to growth chart standards set forth by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to facilitate implementation into EHR systems. This approach will help developers implementing growth charts and provides actual data tables for monitoring growth in children with Down syndrome.

PMID: 21347066

Postnatal growth of preterm infants: which reference charts?

Minerva Pediatr. 2010 Jun;62(3 Suppl 1):71-4.

Bertino E, Gilli G, Occhi L, Giuliani F, Di Nicola P, Spada E, Fabris C. Source SCDUNeonatologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Pediatriche, Università degli Studi di Torino, Italy.


Preterm Infants' survival has greatly increased in the last few decades thanks to the improvement in obstetrical and neonatal care. These neonates constitute the large majority of the population in neonatal intensive care units. The correct evaluation of postnatal growth of these babies is nowadays of primary concern, although the definition of their optimal postnatal growth pattern is still controversial. Concerns have also been raised about the strategies to monitor their growth,specifically in relation to the charts used. At present the available charts in clinical practice are fetal growth charts, neonatal anthropometric charts and postnatal growth charts for term infants. None of these, for different reasons, is suitable to correctly evaluate preterm infant growth. An international multicentric project has recently started a study aiming at building a prescriptive standard for the evaluation of postnatal growth of preterm infants and it will be available in the next years. At present, while an international longitudinal standard for evaluating preterm infant postnatal growth is lacking, in Italy the best compromise in clinical practice is likely to be as follows: new Italian INeS (Italian Neonatal Study) charts up to term; International longitudinal charts WHO 2006 or CDC 2002 from term to two years; finally, the Italian Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes (SIEDP) 2006 growth charts could be suitable for monitoring the growth of these infants from two years up to 20 years of age.

PMID: 21089723


New height, weight and head circumference charts for British children with Williams syndrome

Arch Dis Child. 2007 Jul;92(7):598-601. Epub 2007 Feb 14. Martin ND, Smith WR, Cole TJ, Preece MA. Source East Kent Hospitals NHS Trust, Canterbury, Kent, UK.


AIM: To produce a growth reference for British children with Williams syndrome.

METHODS: The children and adults recruited into the study were all affiliated to the Williams Syndrome Foundation, a parent support group founded in 1979. They have all been shown to have a deletion of chromosome 7q11.23. One growth nurse (WRS) prospectively measured the weight, height and head circumference of individuals from 19 regions in Great Britain including Scotland, England and Wales. 169 children and adults were measured on up to four occasions between 2001 and 2004 (275 measurements). In addition, retrospective data were obtained from the hospital notes of 67 of these individuals (586 measurements). Centile curves were constructed using Cole's LMS method.

RESULTS: The centile charts differ from charts previously derived in the USA and Germany and provide more appropriate standards for the British population.

CONCLUSIONS: We propose that these charts be adopted for routine clinical practice as abnormalities in growth are an important feature of this syndrome.

PMID: 17301110