Talk:Placenta - Vascular Beds
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, January 19) Embryology Placenta - Vascular Beds. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Talk:Placenta_-_Vascular_Beds
Downs KM & Rodriguez AM. (2020). The mouse fetal-placental arterial connection: A paradigm involving the primitive streak and visceral endoderm with implications for human development. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Dev Biol , 9, e362. PMID: 31622045 DOI.
The mouse fetal-placental arterial connection: A paradigm involving the primitive streak and visceral endoderm with implications for human development
In Placentalia, the fetus depends upon an organized vascular connection with its mother for survival and development. Yet, this connection was, until recently, obscure. Here, we summarize how two unrelated tissues, the primitive streak, or body axis, and extraembryonic visceral endoderm collaborate to create and organize the fetal-placental arterial connection in the mouse gastrula. The primitive streak reaches into the extraembryonic space, where it marks the site of arterial union and creates a progenitor cell pool. Through contact with the streak, associated visceral endoderm undergoes an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, contributing extraembryonic mesoderm to the placental arterial vasculature, and to the allantois, or pre-umbilical tissue. In addition, visceral endoderm bifurcates into the allantois where, with the primitive streak, it organizes the nascent umbilical artery and promotes allantoic elongation to the chorion, the site of fetal-maternal exchange. Brachyury mediates streak extension and vascular patterning, while Hedgehog is involved in visceral endoderm's conversion to mesoderm. A unique CASPASE-3-positive cell separates streak- and non-streak-associated domains in visceral endoderm. Based on these new insights at the posterior embryonic-extraembryonic interface, we conclude by asking whether so-called primordial germ cells are truly antecedents to the germ line that segregate within the allantois, or whether they are placental progenitor cells. Incorporating these new working hypotheses into mutational analyses in which the placentae are affected will aid understanding a spectrum of disorders, including orphan diseases, which often include abnormalities of the umbilical cord, yolk sac, and hindgut, whose developmental relationship to each other has, until now, been poorly understood. This article is categorized under: Birth Defects > Associated with Preimplantation and Gastrulation Early Embryonic Development > Gastrulation and Neurulation. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. KEYWORDS: Brachyury; Hedgehog; allantoic core domain; allantois; arterial vasculature; caspase-3; embryonic-extraembryonic interface; epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition; fetal-placental connection; gastrula; hypoblast; mesoderm; node; notochord; orphan diseases; placenta; primitive streak; umbilical cord; visceral endoderm; yolk sac PMID: 31622045 DOI: 10.1002/wdev.362
Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are essential for fetal-maternal connection and embryo viability
Inositol 1,4,5‐trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are a family of intracellular Ca2+ release channels located on the ER membrane, which in mammals consist of 3 different subtypes (IP3R1, IP3R2, and IP3R3) encoded by 3 genes, Itpr1, Itpr2, and Itpr3, respectively. Studies utilizing genetic knockout mouse models have demonstrated that IP3Rs are essential for embryonic survival in a redundant manner. Deletion of both IP3R1 and IP3R2 has been shown to cause cardiovascular defects and embryonic lethality. However, it remains unknown which cell types account for the cardiovascular defects in IP3R1 and IP3R2 double knockout (DKO) mice. In this study, we generated conditional IP3R1 and IP3R2 knockout mouse models with both genes deleted in specific cardiovascular cell lineages. Our results revealed that deletion of IP3R1 and IP3R2 in cardiomyocytes by TnT-Cre, in endothelial / hematopoietic cells by Tie2-Cre and Flk1-Cre, or in early precursors of the cardiovascular lineages by Mesp1-Cre, resulted in no phenotypes. This demonstrated that deletion of both IP3R genes in cardiovascular cell lineages cannot account for the cardiovascular defects and embryonic lethality observed in DKO mice. We then revisited and performed more detailed phenotypic analysis in DKO embryos, and found that DKO embryos developed cardiovascular defects including reduced size of aortas, enlarged cardiac chambers, as well as growth retardation at embryonic day (E) 9.5, but in varied degrees of severity. Interestingly, we also observed allantoic-placental defects including reduced sizes of umbilical vessels and reduced depth of placental labyrinth in DKO embryos, which could occur independently from other phenotypes in DKO embryos even without obvious growth retardation. Furthermore, deletion of both IP3R1 and IP3R2 by the epiblast-specific Meox2-Cre, which targets all the fetal tissues and extraembryonic mesoderm but not extraembryonic trophoblast cells, also resulted in embryonic lethality and similar allantoic-placental defects. Taken together, our results demonstrated that IP3R1 and IP3R2 play an essential and redundant role in maintaining the integrity of fetal-maternal connection and embryonic viability.
Inositol 1,4,5‐trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are a family of intracellular Ca2+ release channels located on the ER membrane, which in mammals consist of 3 different subtypes (IP3R1, IP3R2, and IP3R3). IP3R-mediated Ca2+ signaling has been proposed to play an essential role in regulating cardiovascular development, and IP3R1 and IP3R2 double knockout (DKO) mice has been shown to develop cardiovascular defects and embryonic lethality. However, our present study using conditional cell-specific gene deletion strategy revealed that deletion of both genes in cardiomyocytes, endothelial / hematopoietic cells, and early precursors of the cardiovascular lineages in mice could not result in similar lethal phenotypes. By contrast, we observed allantoic-placental defects including reduced sizes of umbilical vessels and reduced depth of placental labyrinth in DKO embryos, which could occur independently from other phenotypes in DKO embryos. We further found that deletion of both IP3R1 and IP3R2 in epiblast also resulted in embryonic lethality and similar allantoic-placental defects. Our results demonstrated that IP3R1 and IP3R2 play an essential and redundant role in maintaining the integrity of fetal-maternal connection and embryonic viability.
The human placental proteome secreted into the maternal and fetal circulations in normal pregnancy based on 4-vessel sampling
Michelsen TM1,2, Henriksen T2, Reinhold D3, Powell TL4, Jansson T1. Author information Abstract We sought to identify proteins secreted by the human placenta into the maternal and fetal circulations. Blood samples from the maternal radial artery and uterine vein and umbilical artery and vein were obtained during cesarean section in 35 healthy women with term pregnancy. Slow off-rate modified aptamer (SOMA) protein-binding technology was used to quantify 1310 known proteins. The uteroplacental and umbilical venoarterial concentration differences were calculated. Thirty-four proteins were significantly secreted by the placenta into the maternal circulation, including placental growth factor, growth/differentiation factor 15, and matrix metalloproteinase 12. There were 341 proteins significantly secreted by the placenta into the fetal circulation. Only 7 proteins were secreted into both the fetal and maternal circulations, suggesting a distinct directionality in placental protein release. We examined changes across gestation in the proteins found to be significantly secreted by the placenta into the maternal circulation using serial blood samples from healthy women. Among the 34 proteins secreted into the maternal circulation, 8 changed significantly across gestation. The identified profiles of secreted placental proteins will allow us to identify novel minimally invasive biomarkers for human placental function across gestation and discover previously unknown proteins secreted by the human placenta that regulate maternal physiology and fetal development.-Michelsen, T. M., Henriksen, T., Reinhold, D., Powell, T. L., Jansson, T. The human placental proteome secreted into the maternal and fetal circulations in normal pregnancy based on 4-vessel sampling. KEYWORDS: placental physiology; pregnancy proteins; proteomics; trophoblast PMID: 30335547 DOI: 10.1096/fj.201801193R
Diversity in human placental microvascular endothelial cells and macrovascular endothelial cells
Cytokine. 2018 Sep 27;111:287-294. doi: 10.1016/j.cyto.2018.09.009. [Epub ahead of print]
Huang X1, Jia L1, Qian Z1, Jia Y1, Chen X2, Xu X1, Chang X2, Liu M3, Wang K4.
Angiogenesis is fundamental to normal placental development, and aberrant angiogenesis contributes substantially to placental pathologies. Placental angiogenesis is a pivotal process that plays a key mechanistic role in the elaboration of the placental villous tree, which is mainly taken by human placental microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs), present in the fetal capillaries of chorionic villi, and macrovascular human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) also play a role in this process. These are the two types of endothelial cells that form the placenta and differ in morphology and function. The placental vasculature represents a distinct territory that is highly specialized in structure and function. To distinguish the differences between HPMECs and HUVECs, we isolated HPMECs by paramagnetic particle separation and HUVECs through trypsinization and validated their characteristics. Then, we examined their response to fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endocrine-gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF), as well as the underlying signaling mechanisms and their transcriptomes. We found that cultured HPMECs and HUVECs took up DiI-Ac-LDL and formed capillary-like tube structures on Matrigel. HPMECs and HUVECs had different expressions of eNOS, PROKR1 and PROKR2, and these characteristics substantiate the endothelial nature of cultured cells. FGF2 and VEGF stimulated the proliferation and migration of HPMECs and HUVECs via activation of PI3K/AKT1 and MEK1/MEK2/ERK1/ERK2. Interestingly, EG-VEGF increased the proliferation and migration of HPMECs via only MEK1/MEK2/ERK1/ERK2 and not PI3K/AKT1. Microarray analysis showed that there were some differentially expressed genes between HPMECs and HUVECs. Gene ontology analysis indicated that the differentially expressed genes were highly related to G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway, angiogenesis, L-lysine transmembrane transport and blood vessel remodeling. These data provided evidence of heterogeneity between microvascular HPMECs and macrovascular HUVECs that most likely reflected significant differences in endothelial cell function in the two different cellular environments. KEYWORDS: Angiogenesis; EG-VEGF; HPMECs; HUVECs PMID: 30269024 DOI: 10.1016/j.cyto.2018.09.009
Is cerebroplacental ratio a marker of impaired fetal growth velocity and adverse pregnancy outcome?
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Jun;216(6):606.e1-606.e10. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2017.02.005. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
Khalil A1, Morales-Rosello J2, Khan N2, Nath M3, Agarwal P2, Bhide A2, Papageorghiou A2, Thilaganathan B2.
BACKGROUND: The cerebroplacental ratio has been proposed as a marker of failure to reach growth potential near term. Low cerebroplacental ratio, regardless of the fetal size, is independently associated with the need for operative delivery for presumed fetal compromise and with neonatal unit admission at term. OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to evaluate whether the cerebroplacental ratio at term is a marker of reduced fetal growth rate. The secondary aim was to investigate the relationship between a low cerebroplacental ratio at term, reduced fetal growth velocity, and adverse pregnancy outcome. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study of singleton pregnancies in a tertiary referral center. The abdominal circumference was measured at 20-24 weeks' gestation and both abdominal circumference and fetal Dopplers recorded at or beyond 35 weeks, within 2 weeks of delivery. Abdominal circumference and birthweight values were converted into Z scores and centiles, respectively, and fetal Doppler parameters into multiples of median, adjusting for gestational age. Abdominal circumference growth velocity was quantified using the difference in the abdominal circumference Z score, comparing the scan at or beyond 35 weeks with the scan at 20-24 weeks. Both univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between low cerebroplacental ratio and the low abdominal circumference growth velocity (in the lowest decile) and to identify and adjust for potential confounders. As a sensitivity analysis, we refitted the model excluding the data on pregnancies with small-for-gestational-age neonates. RESULTS: The study included 7944 pregnancies. Low cerebroplacental ratio multiples of median was significantly associated with both low abdominal circumference growth velocity (adjusted odds ratio, 2.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.71-2.57, P <0.001) and small for gestational age (adjusted odds ratio, 3.60; 95% confidence interval, 3.04-4.25, P < .001). After the exclusion of pregnancies resulting in small-for-gestational-age neonates, a low cerebroplacental ratio multiples of the median remained significantly associated with both low abdominal circumference growth velocity (adjusted odds ratio, 1.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-2.30, P < .001) and birthweight centile (adjusted odds ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.998-0.995, P < .001). The need for operative delivery for fetal compromise was significantly associated with a low cerebroplacental ratio (adjusted odds ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-1.78, P = .006), even after adjusting for both the umbilical artery pulsatility index multiples of the median and middle cerebral artery pulsatility index multiples of median. The results were similar, even after the exclusion of pregnancies resulting in small-for-gestational-age neonates (adjusted odds ratio, 1.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.84, P = .018). Low cerebroplacental ratio multiples of the median remained significantly associated with the risk of operative delivery for presumed fetal compromise (P < .001), even after adjusting for the known antenatal and intrapartum risk factors. These associations persisted, even after the exclusion of small-for-gestational-age births. In appropriate-for-gestational-age-sized fetuses, abdominal circumference growth velocity was significantly lower in those with a low cerebroplacental ratio multiples of the median than in those with normal cerebroplacental ratio multiples of the median (P < .001). CONCLUSION: The cerebroplacental ratio is a marker of impaired fetal growth velocity and adverse pregnancy outcome, even in fetuses whose size is considered appropriate using conventional biometry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. KEYWORDS: abdominal circumference; adverse pregnancy outcome; birthweight; cerebroplacental ratio; fetal growth restriction; growth velocity; impaired; lowest decile; second trimester; small for gestational age; third trimester PMID: 28189607 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajog.2017.02.005 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
The relationship between human placental morphometry and ultrasonic measurements of utero-placental blood flow and fetal growth
Placenta. 2016 Feb;38:41-8. doi: 10.1016/j.placenta.2015.12.003. Epub 2015 Dec 12.
Salavati N1, Sovio U2, Mayo RP3, Charnock-Jones DS4, Smith GC5.
INTRODUCTION: Ultrasonic fetal biometry and arterial Doppler flow velocimetry are widely used to assess the risk of pregnancy complications. There is an extensive literature on the relationship between pregnancy outcomes and the size and shape of the placenta. However, ultrasonic fetal biometry and arterial Doppler flow velocimetry have not previously been studied in relation to postnatal placental morphometry in detail. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of nulliparous women in The Rosie Hospital, Cambridge (UK). We studied a group of 2120 women who had complete data on uterine and umbilical Doppler velocimetry and fetal biometry at 20, 28 and 36 weeks' gestational age, digital images of the placenta available, and delivered a liveborn infant at term. Associations were expressed as the difference in the standard deviation (SD) score of the gestational age adjusted ultrasound measurement (z-score) comparing the lowest and highest decile of the given placental morphometric measurement. RESULTS: The lowest decile of placental surface area was associated with 0.87 SD higher uterine artery Doppler mean pulsatility index (PI) at 20 weeks (95% CI: 0.68 to 1.07, P < 0.001). The lowest decile of placental weight was associated with 0.73 SD higher umbilical artery Doppler PI at 36 weeks (95% CI: 0.54 to 0.93, P < 0.001). The lowest decile of both placental weight and placental area were associated with reduced growth velocity of the fetal abdominal circumference between 20 and 36 weeks (both P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Placental area and weight are associated with uterine and umbilical blood flow, respectively, and both are associated with fetal growth rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. KEYWORDS: Doppler flow velocimetry; Fetal growth; Human; Morphometry; Placenta PMID: 26907381 DOI: 10.1016/j.placenta.2015.12.003