Talk:Neural - Meninges Development

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, May 15) Embryology Neural - Meninges Development. Retrieved from

10 Most Recent Papers

Note - This sub-heading shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term. References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing. Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance. In comparison, references listed on the content page and discussion page (under the publication year sub-headings) do include editorial selection based upon relevance and availability. (More? Pubmed Most Recent)

Meninges Embryology

<pubmed limit=5>Meninges Embryology</pubmed>

Meninges Development

<pubmed limit=5>Meninges Development</pubmed>

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The Tentorium Cerebelli: A Comprehensive Review Including Its Anatomy, Embryology, and Surgical Techniques

Cureus. 2018 Jul 31;10(7):e3079. doi: 10.7759/cureus.3079.

Rai R1, Iwanaga J2, Shokouhi G3, Oskouian RJ4, Tubbs RS5.


The tentorium cerebelli functions as a partition, dispelling the burden of weight from supratentorial structures upon inferior brain matter. Clinicians and neurosurgeons, when assessing pathological findings, should have knowledge regarding the tentorium cerebelli anatomy. This work of literature is a comprehensive review of the tentorium cerebelli, including its anatomy, embryology, and clinical and surgical implications. The evolutionary pattern demonstrates sequential stages to higher mammalian lineage. An understanding of the complexity of the neurovascular structures and the anatomy of the tentorium cerebelli is crucial for surgical procedures by neurosurgeons. KEYWORDS: dural sinus; embryology; incisura; tentorial notch; tentorium cerebelli PMID: 30305987 PMCID: PMC6168052 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.3079

Physiology and molecular biology of barrier mechanisms in the fetal and neonatal brain

J Physiol. 2018 May 17. doi: 10.1113/JP275376. [Epub ahead of print]

Saunders NR1,2, Dziegielewska KM1,2, Møllgård K1,2, Habgood MD1,2.


Properties of the local internal environment of the adult brain are tightly controlled providing a stable milieu essential for its normal function. The mechanisms involved in this complex control are structural, molecular and physiological (influx and efflux transporters) frequently referred to as the "blood-brain barrier". These mechanisms include regulation of ion levels in brain interstitial fluid essential for normal neuronal function, supply of nutrients, removal of metabolic products and prevention of entry or elimination of toxic agents. A key feature is cerebrospinal fluid secretion and turnover. This is much less during development, allowing greater accumulation of permeating molecules. The overall effect of these mechanisms is to tightly control the exchange of molecules into and out of the brain. This review presents experimental evidence currently available on the status of these mechanisms in developing brain. It has been frequently stated for over nearly a century that the blood-brain barrier is not present or at least is functionally deficient in the embryo, fetus and newborn. We suggest the alternative hypothesis that the barrier mechanisms in developing brain are likely to be appropriately matched to each stage of its development. The contributions of different barrier mechanisms, such as changes in constituents of cerebrospinal fluid in relation to specific features of brain development, for example neurogenesis, are only beginning to be studied. The evidence on this previously neglected aspect of brain barrier function is outlined. We also suggest future directions this field could follow with special emphasis on potential applications in a clinical setting. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. KEYWORDS: amino acids; blood vessels; blood-brain barrier; cerebrospinal fluid; choroid plexus; electrolytes; electron microscopy; embryo; endothelium ; epithelium; gene transcripts; immunohistochemistry; ion gradients; meninges; protein; tight junctions; transport PMID: 29774535 DOI: 10.1113/JP275376

Postnatal development of lymphatic vasculature in the brain meninges

Dev Dyn. 2018 Mar 1. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.24624. [Epub ahead of print]

Izen RM1, Yamazaki T1, Nishinaka-Arai Y1,2, Hong YK3, Mukouyama YS1.

Abstract BACKGROUND: Traditionally, the central nervous system (CNS) has been viewed as an immune-privileged environment with no lymphatic vessels. This view was partially overturned by the discovery of lymphatic vessels in the dural membrane that surrounds the brain, in contact with the interior surface of the skull. We here examine the distribution and developmental timing of these lymphatic vessels. RESULTS: Using the Prox1-GFP BAC transgenic reporter and immunostaining with antibodies to lymphatic markers LYVE-1, Prox1, and Podoplanin, we have carried out whole-mount imaging of dural lymphatic vasculature at postnatal stages. We have found that between birth and postnatal day (P) 13, lymphatic vessels extend alongside dural blood vessels from the side of the skull toward the midline. Between P13 and P20, lymphatic vessels along the transverse sinuses reach the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) and extend along the SSS toward the olfactory bulb. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the embryonic developmental timing of lymphatic vessels in other tissues, e.g. skin, dural lymphatic vessel development is dramatically delayed. This study provides useful anatomical data for continuing investigations of the fundamental mechanisms that underlie dural lymphatic vessel development. Developmental Dynamics, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

KEYWORDS: Prox1; dura mater; lymphatic vessels; meningeal lymphatics PMID: 29493038 DOI: 10.1002/dvdy.24624


Intermediate filament protein nestin is expressed in developing meninges

Bratisl Lek Listy. 2014;115(11):718-22.

Yay A, Ozdamar S, Canoz O, Baran M, Tucer B, Sonmez MF.


BACKGROUND: Nestin is a type VI intermediate filament protein known as a marker for progenitor cells that can be mostly found in tissues during the embryonic and fetal periods. In our study, we aimed to determine the expression of nestin in meninges covering the brain tissue at different developmental stages and in the new born. METHODS: In this study 10 human fetuses in different development stages between developmental weeks 9-34 and a newborn brain tissue were used. Fetuses in paraffin section were stained with H+E and nestin immunohistochemical staining protocol was performed. RESULTS: In this study, in the human meninges intense nestin expression was detected as early as in the 9th week of development. Intensity of this expression gradually decreased in later stages of development and nestin expression still persisted in a small population of newborn meningeal cells. CONCLUSION: In the present study, nestin positive cells gradually diminished in the developing and maturing meninges during the fetal period. This probably depends on initiation of a decrease in nestin expression and replacement with other tissue-specific intermediate filaments while the differentiation process continues. These differences can make significant contributions to the investigation and diagnosis of various pathological disorders (Tab. 1, Fig. 3, Ref. 36). PMID 25428542


Hand in glove: brain and skull in development and dysmorphogenesis

Acta Neuropathol. 2013 Apr;125(4):469-89. doi: 10.1007/s00401-013-1104-y. Epub 2013 Mar 23.

Richtsmeier JT, Flaherty K. Source Department of Anthropology, Pennsylvania State University, 409 Carpenter Building, University Park, Pennsylvania, 16802, USA,


The brain originates relatively early in development from differentiated ectoderm that forms a hollow tube and takes on an exceedingly complex shape with development. The skull is made up of individual bony elements that form from neural crest- and mesoderm-derived mesenchyme that unite to provide support and protection for soft tissues and spaces of the head. The meninges provide a protective and permeable membrane between brain and skull. Across evolutionary and developmental time, dynamic changes in brain and skull shape track one another so that their integration is evidenced in two structures that fit soundly regardless of changes in biomechanical and physiologic functions. Evidence for this tight correspondence is also seen in diseases of the craniofacial complex that are often classified as diseases of the skull (e.g., craniosynostosis) or diseases of the brain (e.g., holoprosencephaly) even when both tissues are affected. Our review suggests a model that links brain and skull morphogenesis through coordinated integration of signaling pathways (e.g., FGF, TGFβ, Wnt) via processes that are not currently understood, perhaps involving the meninges. Differences in the earliest signaling of biological structure establish divergent designs that will be enhanced during morphogenesis. Signaling systems that pattern the developing brain are also active in patterning required for growth and assembly of the skull and some members of these signaling families have been indicated as causal for craniofacial diseases. Because cells of early brain and skull are sensitive to similar signaling families, variation in the strength or timing of signals or shifts in patterning boundaries that affect one system (neural or skull) could also affect the other system and appropriate co-adjustments in development would be made. Interactions of these signaling systems and of the tissues that they pattern are fundamental to the consistent but labile functional and structural association of brain and skull conserved over evolutionary time obvious in the study of development and disease.

PMID 23525521

CoupTFI Interacts with Retinoic Acid Signaling during Cortical Development

PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e58219. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058219. Epub 2013 Mar 5.

Harrison-Uy SJ, Siegenthaler JA, Faedo A, Rubenstein JL, Pleasure SJ. Source Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.


We examined the role of the orphan nuclear hormone receptor CoupTFI in mediating cortical development downstream of meningeal retinoic acid signaling. CoupTFI is a regulator of cortical development known to collaborate with retinoic acid (RA) signaling in other systems. To examine the interaction of CoupTFI and cortical RA signaling we utilized Foxc1-mutant mice in which defects in meningeal development lead to alterations in cortical development due to a reduction of RA signaling. By analyzing CoupTFI(-/-);Foxc1(H/L) double mutant mice we provide evidence that CoupTFI is required for RA rescue of the ventricular zone and the neurogenic phenotypes in Foxc1-mutants. We also found that overexpression of CoupTFI in Foxc1-mutants is sufficient to rescue the Foxc1-mutant cortical phenotype in part. These results suggest that CoupTFI collaborates with RA signaling to regulate both cortical ventricular zone progenitor cell behavior and cortical neurogenesis.

PMID 23472160

The cranial dura mater: a review of its history, embryology, and anatomy

Childs Nerv Syst. 2012 Jun;28(6):827-37. doi: 10.1007/s00381-012-1744-6. Epub 2012 Apr 15.

Adeeb N, Mortazavi MM, Tubbs RS, Cohen-Gadol AA. Abstract INTRODUCTION: The dura mater is important to the clinician as a barrier to the internal environment of the brain, and surgically, its anatomy should be well known to the neurosurgeon and clinician who interpret imaging. METHODS: The medical literature was reviewed in regard to the morphology and embryology of specifically, the intracranial dura mater. A historic review of this meningeal layer is also provided. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of the cranial dura mater has a rich history. The embryology is complex, and the surgical anatomy of this layer and its specializations are important to the neurosurgeon.

PMID 22526439

A cascade of morphogenic signaling initiated by the meninges controls corpus callosum formation

Neuron. 2012 Feb 23;73(4):698-712. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2011.11.036.

Choe Y, Siegenthaler JA, Pleasure SJ. Source Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA.


The corpus callosum is the most prominent commissural connection between the cortical hemispheres, and numerous neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with callosal agenesis. By using mice either with meningeal overgrowth or selective loss of meninges, we have identified a cascade of morphogenic signals initiated by the meninges that regulates corpus callosum development. The meninges produce BMP7, an inhibitor of callosal axon outgrowth. This activity is overcome by the induction of expression of Wnt3 by the callosal pathfinding neurons, which antagonize the inhibitory effects of BMP7. Wnt3 expression in the cingulate callosal pathfinding axons is developmentally regulated by another BMP family member, GDF5, which is produced by the adjacent Cajal-Retzius neurons and turns on before outgrowth of the callosal axons. The effects of GDF5 are in turn under the control of a soluble GDF5 inhibitor, Dan, made by the meninges. Thus, the meninges and medial neocortex use a cascade of signals to regulate corpus callosum development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID 22365545

We have got you 'covered': how the meninges control brain development.

Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2011 Jun;21(3):249-55. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2010.12.005. Epub 2011 Jan 20.

Siegenthaler JA, Pleasure SJ. Source Department of Neurology, Programs in Neuroscience and Developmental Biology, Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, United States.


The meninges have traditionally been viewed as specialized membranes surrounding and protecting the adult brain from injury. However, there is increasing evidence that the fetal meninges play important roles during brain development. Through the release of diffusible factors, the meninges influence the proliferative and migratory behaviors of neural progenitors and neurons in the forebrain and hindbrain. Meningeal cells also secrete and organize the pial basement membrane (BM), a critical anchor point for the radially oriented fibers of neuroepithelial stem cells. With its emerging role in brain development, the potential that defects in meningeal development may underlie certain congenital brain abnormalities in humans should be considered. In this review, we will discuss what is known about assembly of the fetal meninges and review the role of meningeal-derived proteins in mouse and human brain development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PMID 21251809

Tissue origins and interactions in the mammalian skull vault

Dev Biol. 2002 Jan 1;241(1):106-16. Jiang X, Iseki S, Maxson RE, Sucov HM, Morriss-Kay GM. Source Institute for Genetic Medicine, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA.


During mammalian evolution, expansion of the cerebral hemispheres was accompanied by expansion of the frontal and parietal bones of the skull vault and deployment of the coronal (fronto-parietal) and sagittal (parietal-parietal) sutures as major growth centres. Using a transgenic mouse with a permanent neural crest cell lineage marker, Wnt1-Cre/R26R, we show that both sutures are formed at a neural crest-mesoderm interface: the frontal bones are neural crest-derived and the parietal bones mesodermal, with a tongue of neural crest between the two parietal bones. By detailed analysis of neural crest migration pathways using X-gal staining, and mesodermal tracing by DiI labelling, we show that the neural crest-mesodermal tissue juxtaposition that later forms the coronal suture is established at E9.5 as the caudal boundary of the frontonasal mesenchyme. As the cerebral hemispheres expand, they extend caudally, passing beneath the neural crest-mesodermal interface within the dermis, carrying with them a layer of neural crest cells that forms their meningeal covering. Exposure of embryos to retinoic acid at E10.0 reduces this meningeal neural crest and inhibits parietal ossification, suggesting that intramembranous ossification of this mesodermal bone requires interaction with neural crest-derived meninges, whereas ossification of the neural crest-derived frontal bone is autonomous. These observations provide new perspectives on skull evolution and on human genetic abnormalities of skull growth and ossification.

PMID 11784098

The meninges in human development

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1986 Sep;45(5):588-608.

O'Rahilly R, Müller F.


The brain and cranial meninges were studied in 61 serially sectioned embryos of stages 8-23. Much earlier stages than those examined by previous authors provided a more comprehensive view of meningeal development. As a result, the possible and probable sources of the cranial and spinal meninges are believed to be: (a) prechordal plate, (b) unsegmented paraxial (parachordal) mesoderm, (c) segmented paraxial (somitic) mesoderm, (d) mesectoderm (neural crest), (e) neurilemmal cells (neural crest), and (f) neural tube. Some of these sources (a, b, d) pertain to the cranial meninges, others (c, d, e) to the spinal coverings. The first of the future dural processes to develop is the tentorium cerebelli, which, at the end of the embryonic period proper, differs considerably in shape and composition from the later fetal and postnatal tentorium. The embryonic dural limiting layer (Duragrenzschicht) probably corresponds to the interface layer of the adult meninges. The appropriate literature was reviewed and summarized.

PMID 3746345