Talk:Neonatal Development

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, July 29) Embryology Neonatal Development. Retrieved from


Sylos-Labini F, La Scaleia V, Cappellini G, Fabiano A, Picone S, Keshishian ES, Zhvansky DS, Paolillo P, Solopova IA, d'Avella A, Ivanenko Y & Lacquaniti F. (2020). Distinct locomotor precursors in newborn babies. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. , 117, 9604-9612. PMID: 32284405 DOI.

Distinct locomotor precursors in newborn babies

It is commonly thought that human locomotor development stems from a single precursor behavior, consisting of alternating flexor–extensor movements, such as kicking or stepping on ground. According to this view, kicking and stepping are identical movement patterns generated by the same neural mechanisms. Here we show that the neuromuscular modules of neonatal kicking and stepping are different, presumably related to different neural mechanisms. Kicking involves an adult-like number of temporal activation patterns, whose association with specific sets of muscles varies across movements. Ground-stepping involves a limited number of activation patterns, each associated with a stable muscle synergy. Since neonatal kicking and ground-stepping seem to anticipate subsequent developmental changes of locomotion in human babies, they might represent distinct locomotor antecedents.


Metrics of early childhood growth in recent epidemiological research: A scoping review

PLoS One. 2018 Mar 20;13(3):e0194565. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0194565. eCollection 2018.

Leung M1, Perumal N1,2, Mesfin E3, Krishna A1, Yang S4, Johnson W5, Bassani DG1,2,6, Roth DE1,6.

Abstract Metrics to quantify child growth vary across studies of the developmental origins of health and disease. We conducted a scoping review of child growth studies in which length/height, weight or body mass index (BMI) was measured at ≥ 2 time points. From a 10% random sample of eligible studies published between Jan 2010-Jun 2016, and all eligible studies from Oct 2015-June 2016, we classified growth metrics based on author-assigned labels (e.g., 'weight gain') and a 'content signature', a numeric code that summarized the metric's conceptual and statistical properties. Heterogeneity was assessed by the number of unique content signatures, and label-to-content concordance. In 122 studies, we found 40 unique metrics of childhood growth. The most common approach to quantifying growth in length, weight or BMI was the calculation of each child's change in z-score. Label-to-content discordance was common due to distinct content signatures carrying the same label, and because of instances in which the same content signature was assigned multiple different labels. In conclusion, the numerous distinct growth metrics and the lack of specificity in the application of metric labels challenge the integration of data and inferences from studies investigating the determinants or consequences of variations in childhood growth. PMID: 29558499 PMCID: PMC5860780 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0194565


Effect of Kidney Function on Drug Kinetics and Dosing in Neonates, Infants, and Children

Clin Pharmacokinet. 2015 Dec;54(12):1183-204. doi: 10.1007/s40262-015-0298-7.

Rodieux F1, Wilbaux M2, van den Anker JN3,4,5, Pfister M2,6.


Neonates, infants, and children differ from adults in many aspects, not just in age, weight, and body composition. Growth, maturation and environmental factors affect drug kinetics, response and dosing in pediatric patients. Almost 80% of drugs have not been studied in children, and dosing of these drugs is derived from adult doses by adjusting for body weight/size. As developmental and maturational changes are complex processes, such simplified methods may result in subtherapeutic effects or adverse events. Kidney function is impaired during the first 2 years of life as a result of normal growth and development. Reduced kidney function during childhood has an impact not only on renal clearance but also on absorption, distribution, metabolism and nonrenal clearance of drugs. 'Omics'-based technologies, such as proteomics and metabolomics, can be leveraged to uncover novel markers for kidney function during normal development, acute kidney injury, and chronic diseases. Pharmacometric modeling and simulation can be applied to simplify the design of pediatric investigations, characterize the effects of kidney function on drug exposure and response, and fine-tune dosing in pediatric patients, especially in those with impaired kidney function. One case study of amikacin dosing in neonates with reduced kidney function is presented. Collaborative efforts between clinicians and scientists in academia, industry, and regulatory agencies are required to evaluate new renal biomarkers, collect and share prospective pharmacokinetic, genetic and clinical data, build integrated pharmacometric models for key drugs, optimize and standardize dosing strategies, develop bedside decision tools, and enhance labels of drugs utilized in neonates, infants, and children.

PMID 26138291

Microvillus inclusion disease

(MVID) A postnatal gastrointestinal tract disease due to the shortening or absence of epithelial cell (enterocytes) apical microvilli. Infants have life-threatening watery diarrhoea and mutations in myosin VB gene (MYO5B). Other forms of congenital diarrhea include congenital secretory chloride diarrhoea, an autosomal recessive form of severe chronic diarrhoea. International Classification of Diseases - XVI Perinatal Period Noninfective neonatal diarrhoea Neonatal diarrhoea NOS Excl.: neonatal diarrhoea NOS in countries where the condition can be presumed to be of infectious origin (A09).
(More? Neonatal Development | Gastrointestinal Tract Development | OMIM 251850 | OMIM MYO5B | PMID 20186687 | PMID 26830108)


Human renal function maturation: a quantitative description using weight and postmenstrual age

Pediatr Nephrol. 2009 Jan;24(1):67-76. Epub 2008 Oct 10.

Rhodin MM, Anderson BJ, Peters AM, Coulthard MG, Wilkins B, Cole M, Chatelut E, Grubb A, Veal GJ, Keir MJ, Holford NH. Source Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Division of Pharmacokinetics and Drug Therapy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.


This study pools published data to describe the increase in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from very premature neonates to young adults. The data comprises measured GFR (using polyfructose, (51)Cr-EDTA, mannitol or iohexol) from eight studies (n = 923) and involved very premature neonates (22 weeks postmenstrual age) to adulthood (31 years). A nonlinear mixed effects approach (NONMEM) was used to examine the influences of size and maturation on renal function. Size was the primary covariate, and GFR was standardized for a body weight of 70 kg using an allometric power model. Postmenstrual age (PMA) was a better descriptor of maturational changes than postnatal age (PNA). A sigmoid hyperbolic model described the nonlinear relationship between GFR maturation and PMA. Assuming an allometric coefficient of 3/4, the fully mature (adult) GFR is predicted to be 121.2 mL/min per 70 kg [95% confidence interval (CI) 117-125]. Half of the adult value is reached at 47.7 post-menstrual weeks (95%CI 45.1-50.5), with a Hill coefficient of 3.40 (95%CI 3.03-3.80). At 1-year postnatal age, the GFR is predicted to be 90% of the adult GFR. Glomerular filtration rate can be predicted with a consistent relationship from early prematurity to adulthood. We propose that this offers a clinically useful definition of renal function in children and young adults that is independent of the predictable changes associated with age and size.

PMID 18846389 <pubmed>18846389</pubmed>


NHMRC - NHMRC Infectious Diseases School Exclusion recommendations This table has been revoked, and no longer represents the advice of NHMRC. It is included here only for historical reference purposes.



  • Innate immunity of the newborn: basic mechanisms and clinical correlates. Levy O. Nat Rev Immunol. 2007 May;7(5):379-90. Review. PMID: 17457344
  • T cell recognition and immunity in the fetus and mother. Koch CA, Platt JL. Cell Immunol. 2007 Jul;248(1):12-7. Epub 2007 Oct 24. Review. PMID: 17920574
  • Control of the immunological environment of the uterus. Robertson SA. Rev Reprod. 2000 Sep;5(3):164-74. Review. PMID: 11006166
  • Repeated ethanol exposure during late gestation alters the maturation and innate immune status of the ovine fetal lung. Sozo F, O'Day L, Maritz G, Kenna K, Stacy V, Brew N, Walker D, Bocking A, Brien J, Harding R. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2009 Mar;296(3):L510-8. Epub 2008 Dec 26. PMID: 19112099
  • Hyper innate responses in neonates lead to increased morbidity and mortality after infection. Zhao J, Kim KD, Yang X, Auh S, Fu YX, Tang H. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 May 27;105(21):7528-33. Epub 2008 May 19. PMID: 18490660
  • Neonatal innate immunity to infectious agents. Maródi L. Infect Immun. 2006 Apr;74(4):1999-2006. Review. No abstract available. PMID: 16552028
  • Passive immunity to vaccinia in newborns. I. Placental transmission of antibodies. KEMPE CH. Yale J Biol Med. 1952 Feb;24(4):328-33. No abstract available. PMID: 14914000


Melamine is commonly used to manufacture strong and durable laminates, plastics, adhesives, and flame-resistant textiles. It also has been deliberately added to food and animal feed, sometimes in high amounts, to boost the appearance of protein content based on nitrogen analysis.