Talk:Myanmar Statistics

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, May 11) Embryology Myanmar Statistics. Retrieved from


Prenatal Heavy Metal Exposure and Adverse Birth Outcomes in Myanmar: A Birth-Cohort Study

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 Nov 3;14(11). pii: E1339. doi: 10.3390/ijerph14111339.

Wai KM1, Mar O2, Kosaka S3, Umemura M4, Watanabe C5.


Arsenic, cadmium and lead are well-known environmental contaminants, and their toxicity at low concentration is the target of scientific concern. In this study, we aimed to identify the potential effects of prenatal heavy metal exposure on the birth outcomes among the Myanmar population. This study is part of a birth-cohort study conducted with 419 pregnant women in the Ayeyarwady Division, Myanmar. Face-to-face interviews were performed using a questionnaire, and maternal spot urine samples were collected at the third trimester. Birth outcomes were evaluated at delivery during the follow up. The median values of adjusted urinary arsenic, cadmium, selenium and lead concentration were 74.2, 0.9, 22.6 and 1.8 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that prenatal cadmium exposure (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.21; p = 0.043), gestational age (adjusted OR = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.72-0.95; p = 0.009) and primigravida mothers (adjusted OR = 4.23; 95% CI: 1.31-13.65; p = 0.016) were the predictors of low birth weight. The present study identified that Myanmar mothers were highly exposed to cadmium. Prenatal maternal cadmium exposure was associated with an occurrence of low birth weight. KEYWORDS: Myanmar; birth outcomes; cadmium; heavy metal; maternal health PMID: 29099808 PMCID: PMC5707978 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14111339